Ontology and the Lexicon.week.5

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Ontology and the Lexicon.week.5

  1. 1. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Ontology and the Lexicon Week 5: Ontological Categories and Word Class [1] Shu-Kai Hsieh Lab of Ontologies, Language Processing and e-Humanities GIL, National Taiwan University March 19, 2014 Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  2. 2. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege ..1 Ontological Categories and Word Classes ..2 Nouns Nouns and Things Nouns and Countability Nouns in Cross-cultural Context ..3 Lab session: Protege Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  3. 3. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege OntoLex for Computational Linguistics Theoretical considerations have had great influence on important choices and decisions made in the introduction and development of certain resources (such as lexicons, ontologies), of certain procedures (such as morphological, syntactic and semantic parser and generator), and of certain representations (such as word, sentence and discourse meaning). Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  4. 4. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege OntoLex for (Cognitive) Lexical Semantics To develop a cognitive linguistic account of ..1 lexical concept: the linguistic knowledge that word encode. ..2 cognitive model: the conceptual system, i.e., the non-linguistic knowledge that words facilitate access to. → This provides a level of non-linguistic knowledge which is specialized for being accessed via lexical concepts. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  5. 5. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege ..1 Ontological Categories and Word Classes ..2 Nouns Nouns and Things Nouns and Countability Nouns in Cross-cultural Context ..3 Lab session: Protege Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  6. 6. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Ontological Categories and Word Classes Given the understanding of different movitations, our first step is to look at the Ontological Categories and Word Classes from linguistic views. • Why linguists believe that word classes (nouns, verbs) are best defined by their morphosyntactic properties? (e.g., position in the sentence, what suffixes they can take, etc) £ because descriptive semantics is insufficient. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  7. 7. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Ontological Categories and Word Classes Given the understanding of different movitations, our first step is to look at the Ontological Categories and Word Classes from linguistic views. • Why linguists believe that word classes (nouns, verbs) are best defined by their morphosyntactic properties? (e.g., position in the sentence, what suffixes they can take, etc) £ because descriptive semantics is insufficient. • ontological categories (=semantic types) can be used to provide alternatives to look at differences between words/word classes. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  8. 8. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Ontological Categories and Word Classes Murphy [1]: • Ontology is a theory of what general categories there are and how they are structured with relation to one another. • How (ontological) categories that affect linguistic structure and behavior. any difference here? Jeremy is optimistic and Jeremy is an optimist Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  9. 9. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Not an easy task: Lexical Complexity Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  10. 10. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Not an easy task: Ontological Complexity Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  11. 11. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Word Classes are not Universal!!! • Mandarin Chinese and Yurok (spoken in North America) have no adjectives at all. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  12. 12. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Word Classes are not Universal!!! • Mandarin Chinese and Yurok (spoken in North America) have no adjectives at all. • Adjective category in Swahili and Hausa (both spoken in Africa) is a closed class. (Dixon 1982, McCawley 1992) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  13. 13. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Word Classes are not Universal!!! • Mandarin Chinese and Yurok (spoken in North America) have no adjectives at all. • Adjective category in Swahili and Hausa (both spoken in Africa) is a closed class. (Dixon 1982, McCawley 1992) • PROPERTIES are then described by nouns or verbs. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  14. 14. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Word Classes are not Universal!!! Example • ”She is intelligent” → ”She is with intelligence” (in Hausa). • ”She is tall” → ”She talls” (a stative verb meaning ’tall’ is used in Chinese) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  15. 15. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Ontological Categories and Lexical Semantics In the following three weeks, we will focus on how ontological categories have implications for lexical semantics based on [1]’s description. THING, SITUATION and PROPERTY £ Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  16. 16. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Exercise from Murphy ([1]:142) Compare the following pairs of sentences, and think about whether you are more or less likely to use one of the pair, or whether you would find one more polite than the other. Are the (i) sentences exact paraphrases of the (ii) sentences? Example (a) (i). Lisa is Swedish. (ii). Lisa is a Swede. (b) (i). Nan is blonde. (ii). Nan is a blonde. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  17. 17. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things ..1 Ontological Categories and Word Classes ..2 Nouns Nouns and Things Nouns and Countability Nouns in Cross-cultural Context ..3 Lab session: Protege Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  18. 18. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Asking differently • “What is a X”? (philosophical/biological question) • “How is our knowledge of X organized”? (psychological question) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  19. 19. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Asking differently • “What is a X”? (philosophical/biological question) • “How is our knowledge of X organized”? (psychological question) • “What does X mean”? (linguistic question, supposedly) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  20. 20. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Less Thinking about Nouns and Things • What do you care about pigeon ? • linguists could say that pigeon means PIGEON, and then not investigate PIGEON any further. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  21. 21. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Less Thinking about Nouns and Things • What do you care about pigeon ? • linguists could say that pigeon means PIGEON, and then not investigate PIGEON any further. • since the contents of the concept PIGEON are conceptual, rather than linguistic, in nature. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  22. 22. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Less Thinking about Nouns and Things • What do you care about pigeon ? • linguists could say that pigeon means PIGEON, and then not investigate PIGEON any further. • since the contents of the concept PIGEON are conceptual, rather than linguistic, in nature. • The self-contained property of nouns makes them less a priority to many linguistic semanticists because their effects on the meaning of the sentence as a whole are more limited than those of verbs. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  23. 23. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Less Thinking about Nouns and Things • So they forgo deep discussions of the senses of nouns. • But most modern theories of linguistic semantics also assume that meaning involves an interface between the linguistic and conceptual realms in the mind. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  24. 24. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Things Less Thinking about Nouns and Things • So they forgo deep discussions of the senses of nouns. • But most modern theories of linguistic semantics also assume that meaning involves an interface between the linguistic and conceptual realms in the mind. • Two proposals: Wierzbicka (Natural Semantic Metalanguage Theory) and Pustejovsky (QUALIA in The Generative Lexicon) Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  25. 25. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Countability ..1 Ontological Categories and Word Classes ..2 Nouns Nouns and Things Nouns and Countability Nouns in Cross-cultural Context ..3 Lab session: Protege Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  26. 26. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Countability Nouns and Countability • How have been linguists doing? • e.g. (Jackendoff, 1991) see handout. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  27. 27. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns and Countability Exercise Determine whether or not the following are bounded and whether or not they have internal structure, in order to see which (if any) of the categories in (Jackendoff 1991) they belong to. Example • lemonade • forest • furniture • scissors Are there any problems in determining the status of these? Do you think that these words’ meanings fit properly into the categories in (Jackendoff 1991)? If not, why not? Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  28. 28. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Nouns in Cross-cultural Context Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  29. 29. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege ..1 Ontological Categories and Word Classes ..2 Nouns Nouns and Things Nouns and Countability Nouns in Cross-cultural Context ..3 Lab session: Protege Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  30. 30. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Ontologies and the Lexicon Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  31. 31. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Designing Ontology using Protege Editor • A free, open source ontology editor and knowledge-base framework • Suitable for developing Semantic Web applications. • (Read the slides of M. Tschunggnall). Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  32. 32. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege Homework • Use Cwikin system to annotate lexical meanings with a top-level noun (from noun hierarchy distributed in class. • Classifying nouns in Chinese. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh
  33. 33. ..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Ontological Categories and Word Classes . . . . . . Nouns Lab session: Protege M Lynne Murphy. Lexical meaning. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 2010. Ontology and the Lexicon Shu-Kai Hsieh

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