information system

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these documents contains two chapters of information system
1.TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS AND
2.INTRANETS AND EXTRANETS

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information system

  1. 1. INFORMATION SYSTEM PRESENTED BY : SHUJAT HUSSAIN ROLL NO:1014156-025 2/11/2014 1
  2. 2. • TELECOMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS 2/11/2014 2
  3. 3. TELECOMMUNICATIONS MEDIUM Any material substance that carries an electronic signal and serves as an interface between a sending device and a receiving device. 2/11/2014 3
  4. 4. TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROTOCOL A set of rules that governs the exchange of information over a communications medium 2/11/2014 4
  5. 5. SYNCHRONOUS VS ASYNCHROMUS COMMUNICATIONS  instantaneously, when it is sent IS synchronous1.  the receiver gets the message after some delay—sometimes hours or days after the message is sent. 2/11/2014 5
  6. 6. TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY  enables business people to communicate with coworkers and clients from remote location. 2/11/2014 6
  7. 7. TRANSMISSION CHANNEL  SIMPLEX CHANNEL  one direction.  HALF-DUPLEX CHANNEL  not simultaneously.  FULL-DUPLEX CHANNEL  in both directions at the same time, so a full-duplex. 2/11/2014 7
  8. 8.  CHANNEL BANDWIDTH • The rate at which data is exchanged (bps).  BROADBAND COMMUNICATIONS • A telecommunications system in which a very high rate of data exchange is possible. 2/11/2014 8
  9. 9. GUIDED TRANSMISSION MEDIA TYPES  Twisted-Pair Wire • Twisted-pair wire contains two or more twisted pairs of wire, • usually copper . • Because the twisted-pair wires are insulated, they can be placed close • together and. 2/11/2014 9
  10. 10. COAXIAL CABLE • also shows a typical coaxial cable, • similar to that used in cable television Installations. • When used for data transmission, • coaxial cable falls in the middle of the guided • transmission media in terms of cost and performance. • The cable itself is more expensive than • twisted-pair wires. 2/11/2014 10
  11. 11. FIBER-OPTIC CABLE • consisting of many extremely thin strands of glass or plastic bound together • in a sheathing • transmits signals with light beams. • These high-intensity light beams are generated by lasers • These fibers have a thin coating, called cladding, which effectively works • like a mirror, preventing the light from leaking out of the fiber. 2/11/2014 11
  12. 12. WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS OPTIONS Wireless communications coupled with the Internet is revolutionizing how and where we gather and share information, collaborate in teams, listen to music or watch video, and stay in touch with our families and coworkers while on the road 2/11/2014 12
  13. 13. SHORT RANGE WIRELESS OPTIONS  Near Field Communication (NFC) • A very short-range wireless connectivity • technology designed for cell • phones and credit cards.  Bluetooth • A wireless communications specification • that describes how cell • phones, computers, faxes, personal • digital assistants, printers, and • other electronic devices can be • interconnected over distances of • 10–30 feet at a rate of about 2 Mbps 2/11/2014 13
  14. 14. CONT…. ultra wideband (UWB) • A wireless communications technology • that transmits large • amounts of digital data over short • distances of up to 30 feet using a infrared transmission • A wireless communications technology • that operates at a frequency • of 300 GHz and above. 2/11/2014 14
  15. 15. MEDIUM RANGE WIRELESS • Wi-Fi is a wireless telecommunications technology brand owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance, • which consists of about 300 technology companies including AT&T, Dell • Microsoft, Nokia, . The alliance exists to improve the ability of wireless local area • network products. 2/11/2014 15
  16. 16. WIDE AREA WIRELESS NETWORK OPTIONS  Microwave Transmission • Microwave is a high-frequency (300 MHz–300 GHz) signal sent through the air.  Satellite Transmission • Communications satellites are relay • stations that receive signals from • one Earth station and rebroadcast • them to another. 2/11/2014 16
  17. 17. CONT…  3G Wireless Communications • The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) established • .a single standard for cellular networks in 1999. • speeds in the range of 2–4 Mbs.  4G Wireless Communications • 4G stands for fourth-generation broadband mobile wireless • enhanced multimedia, smooth streaming video, • also provide increased data transmission rates in the 20–40 Mbps range. 2/11/2014 17
  18. 18. DIGITAL VS ANALOG DATA  digital signal • A signal that represents bits.  analog signal • A variable signal continuous in both • time and amplitude so that any • small fluctuations in the signal are • meaningful. 2/11/2014 18
  19. 19. NETWORKS AND DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING  computer network • The communications media, • devices, and software needed to • connect two or more computer • systems or devices.  personal area network (PAN) • A network that supports the • interconnection of information • technology within a range of 33 feet • or so. 2/11/2014 19
  20. 20. CONT..  local area network (LAN) • A network that connects computer • systems and devices within a small • area, such as an office, home, or • several floors in a building.  wide area network (WAN) • A telecommunications network that • ties together large geographic • regions. 2/11/2014 20
  21. 21. PROCESSING 1. centralized processing 2. decentralized processing 3. distributed processing 2/11/2014 21
  22. 22. CLIENT/SERVER • An architecture in which multiple • computer platforms are dedicated • to special functions such as • database management, printing, • communications, and program • execution. 2/11/2014 22
  23. 23. TELECOMMUNICATIONS HARDWARE  MODEM • A telecommunications hardware • device that converts (modulates • and demodulates) communications • signals ].  MULTIPLEXER • A device that combines data from • multiple data sources into a single • output signal that carries multiple/ 2/11/2014 23
  24. 24. SECURING DATA TRANSMISSION  encryption • The process of converting an original • message into a form that can • only be understood by the intended • receiver.  Wired equivalent privacy (WEP) • An early attempt at securing wireless • communications based on • encryption using a 64- or 128-bit key • that is not difficult for hackers to • crack. 2/11/2014 24
  25. 25. VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN) • virtual private network (VPN) • A private network that uses a public • network (usually the Internet) to • connect multiple remote locations. 2/11/2014 25
  26. 26. DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) • A telecommunications service that • delivers high-speed Internet access • to homes and small businesses over • the existing phone lines of the local • telephone network. 2/11/2014 26
  27. 27. VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VOIP) • A collection of technologies and • communications protocols that • enables your voice to be converted • into packets of data that can be sent • over a data network such as the • Internet, a WAN or LAN. 2/11/2014 27
  28. 28. TELECOMMUTING • A work arrangement whereby • employees work away from the • office using personal computers • and networks to communicate via • e-mail with other workers and to • pick up and deliver results 2/11/2014 28
  29. 29. INTERNET INTRANET AND EXTRANET 2/11/2014 29
  30. 30. INTERNET • A collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information. 2/11/2014 30
  31. 31. USE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE INTERNET  ARPANET • A project started by the U.S. Department • of Defense (DoD) in 1969 as • both an experiment in reliable networking • and a means to link DoD • and military research contractors, • including many universities doing • military-funded research. 2/11/2014 31
  32. 32. INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) • A communication standard that • enables traffic to be routed from one • network to another as needed. 2/11/2014 32
  33. 33. HOW THE INTERNET WORKS  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) • The widely used Transport-layer • protocol that most Internet applications • use with IP.  backbone • One of the Internet’s high-speed, • long-distance communications • links.  Uniform Resource Locator (URL) • An assigned address on the Internet • for each computer. 2/11/2014 33
  34. 34. ISP • Internet service provider (ISP) • Any company that provides Internet • access to people or organizations 2/11/2014 34
  35. 35. THE WORLD WIDE WEB  World Wide Web • A collection of tens of millions of • server computers that work together • as one in an Internet service using hyperlink • Highlighted text or graphics in a Web • document that, Web browser • Web client software such as Internet • Explorer, Firefox, and Safari used to • view Web pages. 2/11/2014 35
  36. 36. INTERNET LANGUAGES  Hypertext Markup Language  (HTML) • The standard page description • language for Web pages.  HTML tags • Codes that let the Web browser • know how to format text—as a • heading, as a list, or as body • text—and whether images, sound, • and other elements should be • inserted. 2/11/2014 36
  37. 37. CONT…  Extensible Markup Language  (XML) • The markup language for Web • documents containing structured • information, including words, • pictures, and other elements.  Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) • A file or portion of an HTML file that • defines the visual appearance of • content in a Web page. 2/11/2014 37
  38. 38. WEB PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES • Java • An object-oriented programming • language from Sun Microsystems • based on C++ that allows small programs • (applets) to be embedded • within an HTML document 2/11/2014 38
  39. 39. WEB SERVICES • Web services • Standards and tools that streamline • and simplify communication among • Web sites for business and personal • purposes. 2/11/2014 39
  40. 40. SEARCH ENGINES AND WEB RESEARCH • search engine • A valuable tool that enables you to • find information on the Web by specifying • words that are key to a topic of • interest, known as keywords. 2/11/2014 40
  41. 41. FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP) • A protocol that describes a file • transfer process between a host and • a remote computer and allows • users to copy files from one computer • to another. 2/11/2014 41
  42. 42. WEB LOG (BLOG) • A Web site that people can create • and use to write about their observations, • experiences, and feelings • on a wide range of topics. 2/11/2014 42
  43. 43. INTRANETS AND EXTRANETS • Intranet • extranet 2/11/2014 43
  44. 44.  virtual private network (VPN) • A secure connection between two • points on the Internet.  tunneling • The process by which VPNs transfer • information by encapsulating traffic • in IP packets over the Internet 2/11/2014 44
  45. 45. •The End….. 2/11/2014 45

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