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Nelson Mandela


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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela  as a South African Anti-apartheid revolutionary, Politician and Philanthropist

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Nelson Mandela

  1. 1. Nelson Mandela
  3. 3. INDEX  Introduction  Early life  Political Activity  Anti-aparthied Activitics  Arrest and Rivonia Trail  Imprisanment  Release  Negotiations  President of South Africa  Retirement  Awards and Honors  Acknowledgement  Bibliography
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid, revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. he served as President of the African National Congress(ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. He was Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He spent 27 years in prison Robben Island for opposing apartheid, the policy by which the races were separated and whites were give power over the BLACKS in South Africa. received more than 250 honors including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom. He is known as Madiba, or as Tata; he is often described as the "Father of the Nation“
  5. 5. Early life  Mandela was born in a small village in the southeastern region of South Africa called the Transkei in 18 july, 1918  His father was chief of the village and a member of the royal family of the Thembu, which spoke the Xhosa language.  Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was ‘Nelson’  Mandela attended The Fort Hare University and The University of Witwatersrand where he studied Bachelar of Arts and Law in Johnceburg.  Later he started working as an articale clerk in Johnceburg.
  6. 6. Political Activity  Mandela begin actively participate in politics from 1952.  He led prominently in the ANC's (Afrikaner-dominated National Party) 1952 Defiance Campaign.  In 1955,he led ”Congress of the People”, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental basis of the anti-apartheid cause  Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason.  Mandela starts a law firm & provide free or low-cost help to many black people.
  7. 7. Anti-aparthied Activities o In 1961, Mandela became leader of the ANC's armed wing, Umkhonto We Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also abbreviated MK), which he co-founded. o He coordinatly protested campaigns against military and government targets. o Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and arranged for paramilitary training of the group. o Later, mostly in the 1980s, MK waged a Guerrilla war against the apartheid regime in which many civilians became casualties. o Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle against apartheid, also violated human rights and stop these activities
  8. 8. Arrest & Rivonia trial  On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort.  On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison.  Police arrested prominent ANC leader on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, north of Johannesburg.  Charged by the chief prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar with the capital crimes of sabotage (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were equivalent to treason.  The Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with the banning of the ANC
  9. 9. Imprisonment  Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison.  While in jail, his reputation grew and he became widely known as the most significant black leader in South Africa  Prisoners were segregated by race ,to blacks they only allow one visitor and one letter every six months.  In prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. Robben Island
  10. 10. Imprisonment (cont.)  In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, along with other senior ANC leader  The first meeting between Mandela and the national Party government came in November 1985 when Kobie Coetsee met Mandela in Yolks Hospital in Cape Town where Mandela was recovering from prostate surgery  Throughout Mandela's imprisonment, local and international pressure mounted on the South African government to release him, under the resounding slogan ”Free Nelson Mandela!”  De Klerk announced Mandela's release in February 1990.
  11. 11. Release  On 2 February 1990, State President Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organizations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison.  Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990.  On the day of his release, Mandela made a speech to the nation  He declared his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority.  He also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections.
  12. 12. Negotiations  In 1990,Mandela elected as President of the organization.  Mandela's leadership through the negotiations, as well as his relationship with President F.W. de Klerk, was recognized when they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.  The assassination of ANC leader Chris Hani in April 1993.  While some riots did follow the assassination, the negotiators were comes into action, and soon agreed that democratic elections should take place on 27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's assassination.
  13. 13. President of South Africa  South Africa's first multi-racial elections were held on 27 April 1994.  ANC won 62% of the votes in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first black President.  Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili.  One of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba shirts", even on formal
  14. 14. Retirement  He decided not to stand for a second term and retired in 1999.  He joins & started many social and human rights organizations: 1. Make Poverty History movement. 2. South Africa's most successful charitable sports gathering:”The Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament” 3. Mandela is a vocal supporter of SOS Children's Villages, the world's largest organization dedicated to raising orphaned and abandoned children
  15. 15. Awards & Honours  The Presidential Medal of Freedom from George W. Bush in 1993.  In 2001, he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen.  In 1990, he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India And also received the last ever Lenin Peace Prize from Russia  The Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II. Mandela has received more than two hundred and fifty awards over four decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize.
  16. 16. Acknowledgement I am really thankful to our respected professor Jhumur Ghosh for allowing me to make a presentation on Nelson Mandela. Without her help and support I may not able to complete the presentation. I’m also thankful to all my friends specially Subhasis Ray and Sayan Gupta for their enormous support that energize me for making this presentation.
  17. 17. Bibliography   .  Long Walk to Freedom (Mandela's autobiography)  
  18. 18. Thank you.