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SENSORY ASSESSMENT
-SHUCHI JOSHI
-
SENSORY EXAMINATION
SENSORY INTEGRATION
• Sensory integration is the ability of the brain to
organize, interpret, and use sensory information....
PATTERN OF SENSORY IMPAIRMENT
• A seminal feature of the examination involves
determining the pattern (specific boundaries...
2. Peripheral nerve injuries generally present
sensory impairments that parallel the distribution
of the involved nerve an...
3. Other patterns of sensory loss may be associated
with specific pathology.
• For example, with peripheral neuropathy (e....
SPINAL CORD TRACTS
• The three major tracts of the spinothalamic
system
• are the
• (1) anterior (ventral) spinothalamic tract, which
carries...
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
• The most complex processing of sensory
information occurs in the somatosensory
cortex, which is div...
PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
• Arousal
• Attention
• Orientation
• Cognition
• Memory
• Hearing
• Visual acuity
CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY
SYSTEM• Superficial Sensation
• Exteroceptors are responsible for the superficial sensations. Th...
SCREENING
TESTING ENVIRONMENT
• The sensory examination should be
administered in a quiet, well-lighted area.
• Depending on the num...
EQUIPMENTS
• To perform a sensory examination the following
equipment and materials are used:
1. Pain. A large-headed safe...
3. Light touch. A camel-hair brush, a piece of cotton, or a tissue.
4. Vibration. Tuning fork and earphones (if available,...
• 7. Recognition of texture. Samples of fabrics
of various texture such as cotton, wool,
burlap, or silk (approximately 4 ...
PATIENT PREPARATION
• A full explanation of the purpose of the testing
should be provided.
• The patient also should be in...
• During the examination, the patient should be
in a comfortable, relaxed position. Preferably,
the tests should be perfor...
SUPERFICIAL SENSATIONS
PAIN PERCEPTION
• indicates function of protective sensation.
• To test pain awareness, the sharp a...
• To maintain a uniform pressure with each
successive application of stimuli, the pin
should be held firmly and the finger...
TEMPERATURE AWARENESS
• This test determines the ability to distinguish between warm and cool
stimuli.
• Two test tubes wi...
TOUCH Awareness
• This test determines perception of tactile touch input.
• A camel-hair brush, piece of cotton (ball or s...
PRESSURE PERCEPTION
• The therapist’s fingertip or a double-tipped cotton
swab is used to apply a firm pressure on the ski...
DEEP SENSATIONS
KINESTHESIA AWARENESS
• AWARENESS OF MOVEMENT
• The extremity or joint(s) is moved passively through a
rel...
• Response
• The patient is asked to describe verbally the
direction (up, down, in, out, and so forth) and
range of moveme...
PROPRIOCEPTIVE AWARENESS
• JOINT POSITION SENSE AND THE AWARENESS OF JOINTS AT REST.
• The extremity or joint(s) is moved ...
VIBRATION PERCEPTION
• This test requires a tuning fork that vibrates at 128 Hz.
• TEST- place the base of a vibrating tun...
COMBINED CORTICAL SENSATIONS
STEREOGNOSIS PERCEPTION
• ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE THE FORM OF OBJECTS BY TOUCH .
• A variety of ...
BAROGNOSIS (RECOGNITION OF WEIGHT)
• the ability to recognize different weights.
• A set of discrimination weights consist...
Discrimination weights are identical in size,
shape, and texture. The only distinguishing feature is
their variation in we...
TACTILE LOCALIZATION
• This test determines the ability to localize
touch sensation on the skin (topognosis).
• The patien...
• Response
• The patient is asked to identify the location of
the stimuli by pointing to the area or by verbal
description...
TWO-POINT DISCRIMINATION
• the ability to perceive two points applied to the
skin simultaneously.
• It is a measure of the...
• the aesthesiometer and the circular two-point discriminator - most
common devices used for measurement.
• TEST PROCEDURE...
DOUBLE SIMULTANEOUS STIMULATION
• the ability to perceive simultaneous touch stimuli (double
simultaneous stimulation [DSS...
• GRAPHESTHESIA (TRACED FIGURE IDENTIFICATION)
• This test determines the ability to recognize letters,
numbers, or design...
RECOGNITION OF TEXTURE
• This test determines the ability to differentiate among
various textures.
• Textures like include...
Sensory Assessment
Sensory Assessment
Sensory Assessment
Sensory Assessment
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Sensory Assessment

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Clinical examination of superficial, deep and cortical sensations.

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Sensory Assessment

  1. 1. SENSORY ASSESSMENT -SHUCHI JOSHI
  2. 2. - SENSORY EXAMINATION
  3. 3. SENSORY INTEGRATION • Sensory integration is the ability of the brain to organize, interpret, and use sensory information. • Somatosensation (somatosensory) refers to sensation received from the skin and musculoskeletal system (as opposed to that from specialized senses such as sight or hearing). • Examination of sensory function involves testing patient’s ability to interpret and discriminate among incoming sensory information.
  4. 4. PATTERN OF SENSORY IMPAIRMENT • A seminal feature of the examination involves determining the pattern (specific boundaries) of sensory involvement. 1. The term dermatome (or skin segment) refers to the skin area supplied by one dorsal root.
  5. 5. 2. Peripheral nerve injuries generally present sensory impairments that parallel the distribution of the involved nerve and correspond to its pattern of innervation. • For example, if a patient presents with complaints of numbness on the ulnar half of the ring finger, the little finger, and the ulnar side of the hand, the therapist would be alerted to carefully address ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) integrity during the sensory examination.
  6. 6. 3. Other patterns of sensory loss may be associated with specific pathology. • For example, with peripheral neuropathy (e.g., diabetes), sensory loss is often an early symptom and presents in a glove and stocking distribution (referring to the typical involvement of the hands and feet). • In contrast, MS frequently presents with an unpredictable or scattered pattern of sensory involvement.
  7. 7. SPINAL CORD TRACTS
  8. 8. • The three major tracts of the spinothalamic system • are the • (1) anterior (ventral) spinothalamic tract, which carries the sensations of crudely localized touch and pressure; • (2) the lateral spinothalamic tract, which carries pain and temperature; and • (3) the spinoreticular tract, which is involved with diffuse pain sensations
  9. 9. SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX • The most complex processing of sensory information occurs in the somatosensory cortex, which is divided into three main divisions: • primary somatosensory cortex (S-I), • secondary somatosensory cortex (S-II), and • Posterior parietal cortex .
  10. 10. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS • Arousal • Attention • Orientation • Cognition • Memory • Hearing • Visual acuity
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION OF SENSORY SYSTEM• Superficial Sensation • Exteroceptors are responsible for the superficial sensations. They receive stimuli from the external environment via the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Exteroceptors are responsible for the perception of pain, temperature, light touch, and pressure. • Deep Sensation • Proprioceptors are responsible for the deep sensations. These receptors receive stimuli from muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and fascia, and are responsible for position sense and awareness of joints at rest, movement awareness (kinesthesia), and vibration. • Combined Cortical Sensations • The combination of both the superficial and deep sensory mechanisms makes up the third category of combined sensations. These sensations require information from both exteroceptive and proprioceptive receptors, as well as intact function of cortical sensory association areas. • The cortical combined sensations include stereognosis, two-point discrimination, barognosis, graphesthesia, tactile localization, recognition of texture, and double simultaneous stimulation.
  12. 12. SCREENING
  13. 13. TESTING ENVIRONMENT • The sensory examination should be administered in a quiet, well-lighted area. • Depending on the number of body areas to be tested, either a sitting or recumbent position may be used. • If full body testing is indicated, both prone and supine positions will be required and use of a treatment table is recommended to allow examination of each side of the body.
  14. 14. EQUIPMENTS • To perform a sensory examination the following equipment and materials are used: 1. Pain. A large-headed safety pin or a large paper clip that has one segment bent open (providing one sharp and one dull end). The sharp end of the instrument should not be sharp enough to risk puncturing the skin. 2. Temperature. Two standard laboratory test tubes with stoppers.
  15. 15. 3. Light touch. A camel-hair brush, a piece of cotton, or a tissue. 4. Vibration. Tuning fork and earphones (if available, to reduce auditory clues). Tuning forks are made of steel or magnesium alloy and grossly resemble a two-pronged fork. When the tines are stuck against a surface (usually the palm of the examiner’s hand) the fork resonates at a specific pitch (e.g., 128, 256, or 512 Hz) determined by the length of the two U-shaped prongs (tines). 5. Stereognosis (object recognition). A variety of small, commonly used articles such as a comb, fork, paper clip, key, marble, coin, pencil, and so forth. 6. Two-point discrimination. Several instruments are available to measure two-point discrimination. A two-point discrimination aesthesiometer is a small handheld instrument designed to measure the shortest distance that two points of contact on the skin can be distinguished.
  16. 16. • 7. Recognition of texture. Samples of fabrics of various texture such as cotton, wool, burlap, or silk (approximately 4 × 4 inches [10 × 10 cm]).
  17. 17. PATIENT PREPARATION • A full explanation of the purpose of the testing should be provided. • The patient also should be informed that cooperation is necessary to obtain accurate test results. • It is of considerable importance that the patient be requested not to guess if uncertain of the correct response.
  18. 18. • During the examination, the patient should be in a comfortable, relaxed position. Preferably, the tests should be performed when the patient is well rested. • Considering the high level of concentration required, it is not surprising that fatigue has been noted to affect results of some sensory tests adversely.
  19. 19. SUPERFICIAL SENSATIONS PAIN PERCEPTION • indicates function of protective sensation. • To test pain awareness, the sharp and dull ends of a large headed safety pin, a reshaped paper clip can be used. • The instrument should be carefully cleaned before administering the test and disposed of immediately afterward. • The sharp and dull ends of the instrument are randomly applied perpendicularly to the skin.
  20. 20. • To maintain a uniform pressure with each successive application of stimuli, the pin should be held firmly and the fingers allowed to “slide” down the pin once in contact with the skin. • Response • The patient is asked to verbally indicate sharp or dull when a stimulus is felt. All areas of the body may be tested.
  21. 21. TEMPERATURE AWARENESS • This test determines the ability to distinguish between warm and cool stimuli. • Two test tubes with stoppers are required for this examination; • 1- warm water and • 2- crushed ice. • Ideal temperatures : • cold - between 41°F (5°C) and 50°F (10°C) and • warmth- between 104°F (40°C) and 113°F (45°C). • The side of the test tube should be placed in contact with the skin (as opposed to only the distal end). • All skin surfaces should be tested. • Response • The patient is asked to reply hot or cold after each stimulus application.
  22. 22. TOUCH Awareness • This test determines perception of tactile touch input. • A camel-hair brush, piece of cotton (ball or swab), or tissue is used. • The area to be tested is lightly touched or stroked. • Response • The patient is asked to indicate when he or she recognizes that a stimulus has been applied by responding “yes” or “no.”
  23. 23. PRESSURE PERCEPTION • The therapist’s fingertip or a double-tipped cotton swab is used to apply a firm pressure on the skin surface. • This pressure should be firm enough to indent the skin and to stimulate the deep receptors. • Response • The patient is asked to indicate when an applied stimulus is recognized by responding “yes” or “no.”
  24. 24. DEEP SENSATIONS KINESTHESIA AWARENESS • AWARENESS OF MOVEMENT • The extremity or joint(s) is moved passively through a relatively small range of motion (ROM). • The therapist should identify the range of movement being examined (e.g., initial, mid-, or terminal range). • A trial run or demonstration of the procedure should be performed prior to actual testing. • The therapist’s grip should remain constant and minimal (fingertip grip over bony prominences), to reduce tactile stimulation.
  25. 25. • Response • The patient is asked to describe verbally the direction (up, down, in, out, and so forth) and range of movement while the extremity is in motion. • The patient may also respond by simultaneously duplicating the movement with the contralateral extremity.
  26. 26. PROPRIOCEPTIVE AWARENESS • JOINT POSITION SENSE AND THE AWARENESS OF JOINTS AT REST. • The extremity or joint(s) is moved through a ROM and held in a static position. • As with kinesthesia, caution should be used with hand placements to avoid excessive tactile stimulation. • Response • While the extremity or joint(s) is held in a static position by the therapist, the patient is asked to describe the position verbally or to duplicate the position of the extremity or joint(s) with the contralateral extremity (position matching).
  27. 27. VIBRATION PERCEPTION • This test requires a tuning fork that vibrates at 128 Hz. • TEST- place the base of a vibrating tuning fork on a bony prominence (such as the sternum, elbow, or ankle). • The tuning fork base (the “handle” of the fork) is held between the examiner’s thumb and index finger without making contact with the tines. • The tines are then briskly hit against the open palm of the examiner’s opposite • hand to initiate the vibration. • The base of the fork in then placed over a bony prominence. • If vibration sensation is intact, the patient will perceive the vibration. • If there is impairment, the patient will be unable to distinguish between a vibrating and nonvibrating tuning fork. • Therefore, there should be a random application of vibrating and non-vibrating stimuli. • Response • The patient is asked to respond by verbally identifying or otherwise indicating if the stimulus is vibrating or non-vibrating each time the fork makes contact.
  28. 28. COMBINED CORTICAL SENSATIONS STEREOGNOSIS PERCEPTION • ABILITY TO RECOGNIZE THE FORM OF OBJECTS BY TOUCH . • A variety of small, easily obtainable, and culturally familiar objects of differing size and shape are required • (e.g., keys, coins, combs, safety pins, pencils, and so forth). • A single object is placed in the hand, the patient manipulates the object, and then identifies the item verbally. • Response • The patient is asked to name the object verbally. • For patients with speech impairments, the item manipulated can be identified from a group of images presented after each test.
  29. 29. BAROGNOSIS (RECOGNITION OF WEIGHT) • the ability to recognize different weights. • A set of discrimination weights consisting of small objects of the same size and shape but of graduated weight is used. • Response • When the objects are placed (or picked up) in both hands simultaneously the patient is asked to compare the weight of the two objects. The patient responds by indicating that the object is “heavier” or “lighter.”
  30. 30. Discrimination weights are identical in size, shape, and texture. The only distinguishing feature is their variation in weight
  31. 31. TACTILE LOCALIZATION • This test determines the ability to localize touch sensation on the skin (topognosis). • The patient is asked to identify the specific point of application of a touch stimulus using a cotton swap or fingertip. • After each application of a stimulus the patient is given time to respond.
  32. 32. • Response • The patient is asked to identify the location of the stimuli by pointing to the area or by verbal description. • The distance between the application of the stimulus and the site indicated by the patient can be measured and recorded.
  33. 33. TWO-POINT DISCRIMINATION • the ability to perceive two points applied to the skin simultaneously. • It is a measure of the smallest distance between two stimuli (applied simultaneously and with equal pressure) that can still be perceived as two distinct stimuli. • As this sensory function is most refined in the distal upper extremities, this is the typical site for testing.
  34. 34. • the aesthesiometer and the circular two-point discriminator - most common devices used for measurement. • TEST PROCEDURE- • the two tips of the instrument are applied to the skin simultaneously with tips spread apart. • To increase the validity of the test, alternate the application of two stimuli with the random application of only a single stimulus. • With each successive application, the two tips are gradually brought closer together until the stimuli are perceived as one. • The smallest distance between the stimuli that is still perceived as two • distinct points is measured. • Response • The patient is asked to identify the perception of “one” or “two” stimuli.
  35. 35. DOUBLE SIMULTANEOUS STIMULATION • the ability to perceive simultaneous touch stimuli (double simultaneous stimulation [DSS]). • The therapist simultaneously (and with equal pressure) touches: • (1) identical locations on opposite sides of the body, • (2) proximally and distally on opposite sides of the body, and/or • (3) proximal and distal locations on the same side of the body. • Response • The patient verbally states when he or she perceives a touch stimulus and the number of stimuli felt.
  36. 36. • GRAPHESTHESIA (TRACED FIGURE IDENTIFICATION) • This test determines the ability to recognize letters, numbers, or designs “written” on the skin. • Using a fingertip or a pencil, a series of letters, numbers, or shapes is traced on the palm of the patient’s hand. • Response • The patient is asked to identify verbally the figures drawn on the skin. • For patients with speech or language impairments, the figures can be selected (pointed to) from a series of line drawings.
  37. 37. RECOGNITION OF TEXTURE • This test determines the ability to differentiate among various textures. • Textures like include cotton, wool, burlap, or silk are placed individually in the patient’s hand. • The patient is allowed to manipulate the sample texture. • Response • The patient is asked to identify the individual textures as they are placed in the hand. • They may be identified by name (e.g., silk, cotton) or by texture (e.g., rough, smooth).

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