A Framework for campus planning - Case Study - India
AXIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYA Framework for campus planning
“A first challenge in the design of a new campus is not tocreate new buildings, but to create a shared vision”.
Buildings and Spaces that PromoteIntellectual and Social Exchange.The purpose of a campus is to bring together diversepeople and their ideas in an environment that createspotential for intellectual and social exchange.
EXISTINGENTRANCE TO THE CAMPUSVISIONCampus entrance should be visible tothose arriving on the campus, andshould contribute to the life andactivity of streets and walks.The choice of material should be moresensitive , since it’s located in greensurrounding . Guard room looks out ofplace , with different material usage. Grand entranceProper monitoring of publicmovement
ENTRANCE ROADEXISTING VISIONSensitive landscaping with properslope correction required.Usage of local flora and faun to addcolour to the entrance , to make itmore vibrant and lively .
SITE PLAN - EXISTINGBuilding 103Building 104Existing BuildingsProposed BuildingsSite BoundaryEntryto the siteOther’sPropertyOther’sProperty
EXISTING BUILDINGSBUILDING 103 ANALYSIS“A building is not just a frame to beerected. It is itself a device forcultivating communication.”Buildings in campus should reflect thePhilosophy of the university throughits architectural expression .Façade can be amalgamation of globalas well as cultural expressions.Use of different materials on facadecan make buildings much vibrant andinteresting .Canopy at the entrance will add morewarmth and make the entrance moreinteractive.
EXISTING BUILDINGSBUILDING 104Building entrances are frequently themeeting places, and gathering places ofthose using buildings, and should bedesigned to encourage interaction.
VEHICULAR – PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENTVEHICULAR MOVEMENTEntryto the siteOther’sPropertyOther’sPropertyPEDESTRIAN MOVEMENTGREEN INTERACTIVE ZONESConnections between the different partsof campus are critical to establishing acontinuous fabric.Vehicular Movement can be restrictedtill Administrative Block and parkingshould be placed at the entrance only, so as to avoid disturbance in Academicareas.‘MOVEMENT SEGREGATION”NEED
“Open spaces, in the form ofcourtyards and landscaped greenareas, should be the buildingblocks of the campus, and theyshould be the focus of thecampus neighborhoods.”NEEDINTEGRATED SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPT
LANDSCAPE, STREETSCAPE & SIGNAGEThe campus palate of landscapematerials, walkways, lighting, signage andstreet furniture must be used on all publicspaces that are part of building projects.These elements should be used to createboth active gathering and contemplativespaces, and to reinforce linkages andgateways within the campus and at its edge.EXISTING NEED
LANDSCAPE, STREETSCAPE & SIGNAGENEEDStreet lighting enhances thelandscape and make those spacesusable in evenings as well.Hoardings, sign boards, directionalboards, bill boards, neon signbards, banners etc. have becomesymbols of present day urban scapeand important instruments ofoutdoor publicity and public“Signages help in path finding for anynewcomer in the campus. “
LANDSCAPE, STREETSCAPE & SIGNAGENEEDWhile the physical character andquality of a campus is defined byboth its buildings and its openspace, it is the open space whichhas the greatest potential forunifying and equalizing the sharedspace of the campus.“Design must reflect respectto pedestrians and physicallychallenged people.”
LANDSCAPE – INTERACTIVE SPACESNEEDEXISTINGSpaces between the buildings can beused as landscape courtyards which willadd vibrancy to the space.Exposed piping need to be concealedwith landscaping elements , to give anicer view .Piping should be concealed rather thanon the façade.
LANDSCAPE – INTERACTIVE SPACESEXISTING NEEDStreet furniture for students –interactive spaces.Soft and hard landscapeUn-utilized spaces in-between the buildings.
COMMITMENT TO ACCESSIBILITYNEEDEXISTINGBuildings required to be barrier –freemust comply with all requirementsdesigned to assist person withphysical , sensory and developmentdisabilities.Access from the exterior to thebuildings and movement throughoutthe interior of the building shall be bya barrier –free path of travel.Barrier free
EXISTINGBEAUTIFICATION OF EXISTING STRUCTURENEEDExposed structural beams can be a partof landscape with creepers hanged onthem, which will give a nicer view fromthe classrooms and courtyard below.
BEUTIFICATION OF EXISTING STRUCTUREEXISTING NEEDStructure need revamping withrespect to the elevational elements .
THE WATER CONSERVATIONA System can be suggested to collect andforce rainwater to filter into theground, applied in all roadsides andgreen areas in streets throughout theCampus which will have an interestinglandscape and earth profile as shown inthe picture here.
ENERGY : SOLAR POWEROne of the most important sourcesof energy i.e. the solar energy canbe collected by means of solarenergy panels installed on the roofterrace of the building which canbe taken into account at the timeof design and the energy thusretained can be used in getting thehot water supply, cooking andemergency lighting etc. Thepictures showing installed systemscan be referred to.
Solar street lights are recommendedfor the main road .28 street lights each having 11 W CFL(compact fluorescent light) tube lightcovering 5 m radius area arerecommended.Total expected annual electricalsavings from each light would be 48kWh.Each light would cost Rs 22 000 Solarwater heating systemSOLAR STREET LIGHTS
Solar water heating system of 200 litper day capacity is recommended forhostels.A solar flat plate collector basedsystem with an electrical back up of 3kW is recommended.Each solar water heating systemwould save 2450 kWh of electricalenergy per annum.A solar water heating system wouldcost between Rs 30000 and 40000,such buildings save 55.75% energyover conventional buildings.SOLAR WATER HEATER
The clean, litter free public spacesadd to the pleasant builtenvironment.Thus the design , location andmaintenance of public amenitiessuch as public toilets, garbagebins, bus stops, etc. determine thequality of public spaces.PUBLIC AMENITIES
INTERIORSEXISTING NEEDExisting interiors are very basic andbland.To make an world class institute theentrance foyer should be attractivekeeping with the functional aspects.
INTERIORSEXISTING NEEDClassroom are yet to be properlyarranged with required lighting andorderly furniture .Classroom need better furniture andrequire wall treatment .The wall plaster is raking off and thecrakes are visible .
INTERIORSEXISTING NEEDLecture hall does not have anyfurniture and the board is small asper the area of the hall.Lecture hall function on the steppedsitting format , because the lengthat time is too large for the laststudents to understand the Teacher.No furniture
INTERIORSEXISTING NEEDCentral space of the building should bemore interactive , with generalinformation to students .The interior design and concept isunderpinned by four key principles; thecareful consideration of the interiorform, selection of materials, applicationof colour and the utilization of naturalCentral Courtyard
INTERIORSEXISTINGToiletscentral courtyardspaceInterior spaces needto designed accordingto the requirement.
Each project should undertake a comprehensive analysis to diminish the use of energyand reduce the use of non-renewable resources.Creating a campus environment that moves beyond merely sustainable, to one thatactively improves the quality of life and the environment for its users is the need ofthe hour.The goals should include:• Reducing dependence on non-renewable resources by using appropriate recycledmaterials and by promoting adaptive reuse of existing structures.• Reducing marginal energy costs by promoting selection of locally manufactured orfabricated products and materials.•Sitting new structures mindful of orientation, shading and the effect on adjacentbuildings and spaces .•Using landscape design to create healthy and ecologically appropriatespaces, provide pleasant outdoor environments, reduce exterior lighting demand andminimize storm water runoff.Responsible Use of Energy and Natural Resources
•Minimizing maintenance and operating costs by employing whole-systems lifecycleevaluation to determine the true project costs, and by integrating innovativeday lighting and building engineering solutions at project inception.• Improving indoor environmental quality•Adopting monitoring, measuring and feedback systems to establish baselines ofenergy usage and building performance, against which the university can evaluateimprovements and set goals for future projects.• Maximizing building flexibility to satisfy the varied demands of current and futureusers and residents.• Reduce energy consumption of building and site systems (HVAC, hotwater, lighting)through the use of appropriate mechanical and constructiontechnology (natural cooling, light recovery, passive solar design, etc.)•The construction, as well as design, process should also respect these goals.
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat AssessmentGRIHA
• Govt. of India promulgated Energy Conservation Act in 2001.The Act provides forefficient use of energy and its conservation.• Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEF) was set up and to regulate the mechanism EnergyConservation Building Code (ECBC) was formally launched in 2007 by Ministry of Powerfor its adoption in the country.• Construction of Green Buildings got started all over the country to take care of EnergyConservation, water and waste management, Environmental Impact, and minimumdestruction of natural resources, and also to address the concern of environment andclimate change.• Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is a Comprehensive BuildingRating system and was formally brought in for implementation in at least all thebuildings of Govt. of India / PSU’s by Cabinet Secretary, GOI in 2009.• It is brought out that the buildings hence forth would at least meet the requirements ofGRIHA- 3 star though every effort would be made to achieve higher star rating wheneversite conditions permit to do so.Various incentives which are available under different schemesfor Deployment of• Solar Hot Water System.• Roof top PV Systems and• Waste Recycling for Energy ConservationGREEN BUILDINGS
GREEN RATING FOR INTEGRATED HABITAT ASSESSMENT(GRIHA)1. GRIHA – the green building rating system evaluates the environmental performance ofa building holistically over its entire life cycle.2. On a macro scale, the rating system seeks to benefit the community at large through• Reduced energy consumption, resulting in savings on account of reduced energy bills withoutcompromising on achieving the human comfort levels.• Integration of solar energy devices such as solar water heating systems and roof top PVsystems to generate on-site energy for various requirements.• Waste recycling and reuse.• Reduced water consumption.• Reduced air and water pollution (with direct health benefits)• Reduced destruction of natural areas, habitats and biodiversity and reduced soil loss fromerosion etc.• Increased user productivity.• Enhanced image and marketability.3. GRIHA has 100 points distributed across 34 criteria. Different levels of certification areas below:• Minimum score required for certification is 50.• Building scoring 50-60 points - 1 star.• Building scoring 61-70 points - 2 star.• Building scoring 71-80 points - 3 star.• Building scoring 81-90 points - 4 star.• Building scoring 91-100 points - 5 star.
CRITERIA INVOLVED IN GRIHACriteria 1 - Site SelectionCriteria 2 - Preserve and protect landscape during construction / compensatorydepository forestationCriteria 3 - Soil conservation (post construction)Criteria 4 - Design to include existing site features.Criteria 5 - Reduce hard paving on site.Criteria 6 - Enhance outdoor lighting system efficiency and use RE system for meetingoutdoor lighting requirementCriteria 7 - Plan utilities efficiently and optimize on site circulation efficiency.Criteria 8 - Provide, at least, minimum level of sanitation / safety facilities forconstruction workers.Criteria 9 - Reduce air pollution during construction.Criteria 10 - Efficient water use during construction.Criteria 11 - Reduce building water use.Criteria 12 - Reduce landscape water requirement.Criteria 13 - Efficient water use during construction.
Criteria 15 - Utilization of fly ash in building structure.Criteria 16 - Reduce volume, weight and time of construction by adoptingefficient technology(e.g. pre-cast systems, ready- mix concrete, etc.Criteria 17 - Use low-energy material in interiors.Criteria 18 - Renewable energy utilization.Criteria 19 - Renewable energy based hot water system.Criteria 20 - Waste water treatment.Criteria 21 - Water re-cycle and re-use (including rain water).Criteria 22 - Reduction in waste during construction.Criteria 23 - Efficient waste segregation.Criteria 24 - Storage and disposal of waste.Criteria 25 - Resource recovery from waste.Criteria 26 - Use of low VOC paints/adhesives/sealants.Criteria 27 - Minimize Ozone depleting substances.Criteria 28 - Ensure water quality.Criteria 29 - Acceptable outdoor and indoor noise levels.Criteria 30 - Tobacco and smoke control.Criteria 31 - Universal Accessibility.Criteria 32 - Energy audit and validation.Criteria 33 - Operations and Maintenance protocol for electrical andmechanical equipment.Criteria 34 - Innovation
COURSE OF ACTION FOR MAKING IT GREENBUILDING (GHRIHA COMPLIANT)1. Totally barrier free accessed building.2. Efficient window design thro’ highly reflective tinted and insulated glass.3. External shade for glazing by means of louvers on façade and trees around thebuilding.4. Adequate natural light for common circulation space through central atriumby means of PV Cell glass panels on top.5. Roof shaded by terrace garden to insulate the roof top and reduce externalsolar heat gains.6. Water cooler chiller selected for greater efficiency recommended by ECBC.7. Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) installed in AHU’s8. Low energy strategies such as replacement of water cooler by water body tocool the condenser loop, integration of thermal energy storage and earth airtunnel enabled reduction in chiller capacity.9. Energy efficient lighting design that complies to ECBC such as use of CFL, LEDand energy efficient light fittings/ fixtures.10. Integration of day light with Artificial lighting.11. To use fly ash concrete blocks in place of bricks.12. Aluminum windows in place of natural wood’s door window. Door shutters tobe used from the materials that are byproducts of processed waste wood.
13. Use of glass/ steel and other eco-friendly materials in place of natural wood inInteriors.14. Hot water demand met by Solar Hot water System.15. Photovoltaic cell panels to supplement the energy requirements equivalent to30% of internal light connected loads.16. To have cavity walls for thermal insulation from incident solar radiation on thebuilding.17. Reduction of total water consumption in the building by 25% by using LowFlow fixtures.18. Rain Water Harvesting of Roof top rain water and area drainage of thebuilding.19. Uses of low energy material in Interiors.20. Efficient waste segregation by using different coloured bins for the differentcategories of waste from the building.21. Employing resources recovery systems for biodegradable waste as per solidwaste management and Handling rules 2000 of MOEF.22. Arrangement of recycling of waste thro local dealers.23. Use of non-toxic paints/ interior finishes .24. Use of zero ODP ( Ozone Depleting Potential) substances/materials and avoidmaterials like polyurethene foams.25. Water to be used to meet water quality norms.26. To maintain acceptable Indoor and Outdoor NOISE levels.27. To ensure zero exposure of nonsmokers to the tobacco smoke in AC/non ACbuilding areas.28. After building’s occupancy to get the energy audit done.
LIST OF PROJECTS REGISTERED/ BEING REGISTERED WITH GRIHA1. Suzlon Energy Limited. - Pune - Commercial2. Fortis Hospital. - New Delhi - Institutional3. Fortis Hospital - Gurgaon - Institutional4. AIIMS - Bhubaneswar - Institutional5. Central Library for BBRAU - Lucknow - Institutional6. Academic Building, Mechanical Building& Lecture Hall complex at NIT Rourkela - Rourkela - Institutional8 Auditorium for BBRAU - Lucknow - Institutional9. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation - Noida - Residential10. National Hydro Power Corporation - Hyderabad - Residential11. IISER - Pune - Institutional12. IISER - Bhopal - Institutional13. IISER - Trivandrum - Institutional14 HAREDA – Akshay Urja Bhawan - Chandigarh - Institutional15 IIT, New Lecture Theatre and Lab block - New Delhi - Institutional16 Haryana Technology Park - Faridabad - IT,ITES17 IIM Hostel Complex - Ahmadabad - Residential18 SIDBI - Bhubaneswar - Commercial
INDIAN GREEN BUILDING COUNCILLEEDThe Leadership in Energy and EnvironmentalDesign (LEED-INDIA)
WHAT IS LEED?• LEED is the U.S. Green Building Councils Leadership in Energyand Environmental Design building rating program.• The LEED Green Building Rating System™ is the nationallyaccepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operationof high performance green buildings.• LEED promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability byrecognizing performance in five key areas of human andenvironmental health: sustainable site development water savings indoor environmental quality
LEED CERTIFIED BUILDING• Are leading the transformation of the built environment• Are built as designed and perform as expected• Have lower operating costs and increased asset value• Are healthy and comfortable for their occupants• To Reduce waste sent to landfills• Conserve energy and water• To reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions• Qualify for tax rebates, zoning allowances, and other incentives inhundreds of cities
• Demonstrate an owners commitment to environmental stewardshipand social responsibility• LEED designation has 4 possible levels: Certified, Silver, Gold, andPlatinum• LEED applies to both new construction and existing buildings.• Since its inception in 1998, LEED has grown to encompass over 14,000projects in all 50 US States.
COST OF GREEN BUILDING•Initial costs are approximately 2% to 5% more than traditional building• Lifecycle savings will yield more than 10 times the initial investment, or 20% ofthe construction costs.SOME FINANCIAL BENEFITS OF GREEN BUILDING•Energy and water savings.• Reduced environmental costs from pollution.• Occupant health and safety- improved employee efficiency.• Reduced maintenance/replacement costs over the life of the building.