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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
A Seminar Report
Submitted by
SHUBHAM MALETIA
15110317
In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree
of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
Electrical Engineering
At
GIANI ZAIL SINGH CAMPUS COLLEGE OF ENGGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
(MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY)
BATHINDA-151001
NOVEMBER 2018
i
PREFACE
A report of this is having some great information on the fore coming technology and very
interesting topic “Artificial intelligence” Artificial Intelligence” (AI). We have tried to
explore the full breadth of the field, which encompasses logic, probability, and continuous
mathematics; perception, reasoning, learning, and action; and everything from microelectronic
devices to robotic planetary explorers. The report is also big because we go into some depth to
know the human behaviour and then think to implement it on the machines so that the machine
would be able to think like a human brain. The information about the machines with the respect
of human beings is present in this report
The main unifying theme is the idea of an intelligent agent. We define AI as the study of
agents that receive precepts from the environment and perform actions. Each such agent
implements a function that maps percept sequences to actions, and we cover different ways to
represent these functions, such as reactive agents, real-time planners, and decision-theoretic
systems. We explain the role of learning as extending the reach of the designer into unknown
environments, and we show how that role constrains agent design, favouring explicit
knowledge representation and reasoning. We treat robotics and vision not as independently
defined problems, but as occurring in the service of achieving goals. We stress the importance
of the task environment in determining the appropriate agent design.
ii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 History 3
2 Dive into AI 6
2.1 Categories of AI 6
3 Case study on Artificial Intelligence 8
3.1 Google Deepmind 8
3.2 Machine Learning 9
3.3 Deep reinforcement learning 9
3.4 AlphaGO 10
3.5 Healthcare 11
3.6 Controversies 11
4 Goals of AI 12
4.1 Main Goals of Artificial Intelligence 12
4.2 Typical Problems to which AI are applied 14
4.3 Other fields in which AI methods are implemented 15
5 Applications of AI 18
5.1 Main goals of Artificial Intelligence 18
5.2 Future Scope of AI 21
Conclusion 22
Bibliography 23
1
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
ARTIFICIAL: -
The simple definition of artificial is that objects that are made or produced by human
beings rather than occurring naturally.
INTELLIGENCE: -
The simple definition of intelligence is a process of entail a set of skills of problem solving,
enabling to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that encounters and to create an
effective product and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems and
thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: -Ar t i f i ci al i nt el l i gence i s a br anch of sci ence whi ch deal s wi t h hel pi ng m achi nes f i nd sol ut i on t o com pl ex pr obl em s i n a m or e hum an l i ke f ashi on. Thi s gener al l y i nvol ves bor r owi ng
Characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer
friendly way. A more or less or flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the
requirements established, which influences how artificial intelligent behaviour appears.
Artificial intelligence is generally associated with computer science, but it has many important
links with other fields such as maths, psychology, cognition, biology and philosophy, among
many others. Our ability to combine knowledge from all these fields will ultimately benefits
our progress in the quest of creating an intelligent artificial being.
A.I. is mainly concerned with the popular mind with the robotics development, but also the
main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in the areas of software
development which require computational understandings and modelling such as such as
finance and economics, data mining and physical science.
2
Fig. 1.1 Artificial Intelligence
A.I in the fields of robotics is the make a computational models of human thought processes.
It is not enough to make a program that seems to behave the way human do. You want to make
a program that does it the way humans do it.
In computer science they also the problems because we have to make a computer that are satisfy
for understanding the high-level languages and that was taken to be A.I.
3
Fig. 2.2 Evolution of Artificial Intelligence
1.1.1 HISTORY
The intellectual roots of AI, and the concept of intelligent machines, may be found in Greek
mythology. Intelligent artifacts appear in literature since then, with real mechanical devices
actually demonstrating behaviour with some degree of intelligence. After modern computers
became available following World War-II, it has become possible to create programs that
perform difficult intellectual tasks.
1.1.2 The Timeline
Fig. 3.3 Evolution of Artificial Intelligence
4
1950s: The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research
With the development of the electronic computer in 1941 and the stored program computer in
1949 the condition for research in artificial intelligence is given, still the observation of a link
between human intelligence and machines was not widely observed until the late in 1950. The
first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine of the
University of Manchester (UK): a draughts-playing program written by Christopher Strachey
and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.
The person who finally coined the term artificial intelligence and is regarded as the father of
the AL is John McCarthy. In 1956 he organized a conference “the Dartmouth summer
research project on artificial intelligence" to draw the talent and expertise of others interested
in machine intelligence of a month of brainstorming. In the following years AI research
centres began forming at the Carnegie Mellon University as well as the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology (MIT) and new challenges were faced:
1) The creation of systems that could efficiently solve problems by limiting the search.
2) The construction of systems that could learn by themselves.
1960:-
By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of
Defence and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were
profoundly optimistic about the future of the new field: Herbert Simon predicted that
"machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do" and Marvin
Minsky agreed, writing that "within a generation .By the 1960’s, America and its federal
government starting pushing more for the development of AI. The Department of Defence
started backing several programs in order to stay ahead of Soviet technology. The U.S. also
started to commercially market the sale of robotics to various manufacturers. The rise of
expert systems also became popular due to the creation of Edward Feigenbaum and Robert K.
Lindsay’s DENDRAL. DENDRAL had the ability to map the complex structures of organic
chemicals, but like many AI inventions, it began to tangle its results once the program had
too many factors built into it... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will
substantially be solved". The same predicament fell upon the program SHRDLU which
would use robotics through a computer so the user could ask questions and give commands in
English.
5
Fig. 1.4 Time v/s human Progress
1980:-
In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems, a
form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more
human experts. By 1985 the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars. At the same
time, Japan's fifth generation computer project inspired the U.S and British governments to
restore funding for academic research in the field. In the 1990s and early 21st century, AI
achieved its greatest successes, albeit somewhat behind the scenes. Artificial intelligence is
used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas throughout the
technology industry
1990:-
From 1990s until the turn of the century, AI has reached some incredible landmarks with the
creation of intelligent agents. Intelligent agents basically use their surrounding environment to
solve problems in the most efficient and effective manner. In 1997, the first computer
(named Deep Blue) beat a world chess champion. In 1995, the VaMP car drove an entire
158 km racing track without any help from human intelligence. In 1999, humanoid robots
began to gain popularity as well as the ability to walk around freely. Since then, AI has been
playing a big role in certain commercial markets and throughout the World Wide Web. The
more advanced AI projects, like fully adapting common sense knowledge, have taken a
back-burner to more lucrative industries.
6
CHAPTER-2
DIVE INTO AI
2.1 CATEGORIES OF A.I
AI divides roughly into two schools of thought:
1. Conventional AI
2. Computational Intelligence (CI)
1.ConventionalAI: -
Conventional AI mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning, characterized
by formalism and statistical analysis. This is also known as symbolic AI, logical AI, neat AI
and Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI).
Methods include:
 Expert systems: apply reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. An expert system
can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on
them.
 Case based reasoning
 Bayesian networks
 Behaviour based AI: a modular method of building AI systems by hand.
2.ComputationalIntelligence (CI): -
Computational Intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g. parameter tuning
e.g. in connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with non-
symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing.
Methods include:
 Neural networks: systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities.
7
Fig. 2.1 Global computational Intelligence Brief History
 Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, has been widely used in
modern industrial and consumer product control systems.
 Evolutionary computation: applies biologically inspired concepts such as populations,
mutation and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly better solutions to the
problem. These methods most notably divide into evolutionary algorithms (e.g. genetic
algorithms) and swarm intelligence (e.g. ant algorithms).
8
CHAPTER-3
CASE STUDY ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENGE
3.1 GOOGLE DEEPMIND
DeepMind Technologies Limited is a British artificial intelligence company founded in
September 2010. It was acquired by Google in 2014. The company has created a neural
network that learns how to play video games in a fashion similar to that of humans,as well
as a Neural Turing Machine, or a neural network that may be able to access an external
memory like a conventional Turing machine, resulting in a computer that mimics the short-
term memory of the human brain.
The company made headlines in 2016 after its AlphaGo program beat a human
professional Go player for the first time.
3.1.1 History
The start-up was founded by Demis Hassabis, Shane Legg and Mustafa Suleyman in 2010.
Hassabis and Legg first met at University College London's Gatsby Computational
Neuroscience Unit.On 26 January 2014, Google announced the company had acquired
DeepMind for $500 million, and that it had agreed to take over DeepMind Technologies.
Since then major venture capital firms Horizons Ventures and Founders Fund have invested in
the company, as well as entrepreneurs Scott Banister and Elon Musk. Jaan Tallinn was an early
investor and an adviser to the company. The sale to Google took place after Facebook
reportedly ended negotiations with DeepMind Technologies in 2013. The company was
afterwards renamed Google DeepMind and kept that name for about two years.
In 2014, DeepMind received the "Company of the Year" award by Cambridge
Computer Laboratory.
After Google's acquisition the company established an artificial intelligence ethics board. The
ethics board for AI research remains a mystery, with both Google and DeepMind declining to
reveal who sits on the board. DeepMind, together with Amazon, Google, Facebook, IBM, and
Microsoft are members of Partnership on AI, an organization devoted to the society-AI
interface.
9
3.2 Machine learning
DeepMind Technologies' goal is to "solve intelligence", which they are trying to achieve by
combining "the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build
powerful general-purpose learning algorithms". They are trying to formalize intelligence in
order to not only implement it into machines, but also understand the human brain, as
Demis Hassabis explains:
[...] attempting to distil intelligence into an algorithmic construct may prove to be the
best path to understanding some of the enduring mysteries of our minds.
Google Research has released a paper in 2016 regarding AI Safety and avoiding
undesirable behaviour during the AI learning process. DeepMind has also released several
publications via their website.
To date, the company has published research on computer systems that are able to play
games, and developing these systems, ranging from strategy games such as Go to arcade
games. According to Shane Legg human-level machine intelligence can be achieved "when a
machine can learn to play a really wide range of games from perceptual stream input and
output, and transfer understanding across games [...]."Research describing an AI playing
seven different Atari 2600 video games (the Pong game in Video Olympics, Breakout, Space
Invaders, Seaquest, Beamrider, Enduro, and Q*bert) reportedly led to their acquisition by
Google. Hassabis has mentioned the popular e-sport game StarCraft as a possible future
challenge, since it requires a high level of strategic thinking and handling imperfect
information.
3.3 Deepreinforcement learning
As opposed to other AIs, such as IBM's Deep Blue or Watson, which were developed for a
pre-defined purpose and only function within its scope, DeepMind claims that their system is
not pre-programmed: it learns from experience, using only raw pixels as data input.
Technically it uses deep learning on a convolutional neural network, with a novel form of Q-
learning, a form of model-free reinforcement learning. They test the system on video games,
notably early arcade games, such as Space Invaders or Breakout. Without altering the code,
the AI begins to understand how to play the game, and after some time plays, for a few
games (most notably Breakout), a more efficient game than any human ever could.
For most games (Space Invaders, Ms Pac-Man, Q*Bert for example), DeepMind plays
below the current World Record. The application of DeepMind's AI to video games is
10
Fig. 3.1 Alpha Go Logo
currently for games made in the 1970s and 1980s, with work being done on more complex
3D games such as Doom, which first appeared in the early 1990s.
3.4 AlphaGo
In October 2015, a computer Go program called AlphaGo, powered by DeepMind, beat the
European Go champion Fan Hui, professional, five to zero. This is the first time an artificial
intelligence (AI) defeated a professional Go player. Previously, computers were only known
to have played Go at "amateur" level. Go is considered much more difficult for computers to
win compared to other games like chess, due to the much larger number of possibilities,
making it prohibitively difficult for traditional AI methods such as brute-force.The
announcement of the news was delayed until 27 January 2016 to coincide with the
publication of a paper in the journal Nature describing the algorithms used. In March 2016 it
beat Lee Sedol—a 9th dan Go player and one of the highest ranked players in the world—
with 4-1 in a five-game match.
3.5 Healthcare
In July 2016, a collaboration between DeepMind and Moorfields Eye Hospital was
announced. DeepMind would be applied to the analysis of anonymised eye scans,
searching for early signs of diseases leading to blindness.
11
In August 2016, a research programme with University College London Hospital was
announced with the aim of developing an algorithm that can automatically differentiate
between healthy and cancerous tissues in head and neck areas.
There are also projects with the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust to develop new clinical mobile apps linked to
electronic patient records.
3.6 Controversies
In April 2016 New Scientist obtained a copy of a data-sharing agreement between
DeepMind and the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. The latter operates the three
London hospitals where an estimated 1.6 million patients are treated annually. The
revelation has exposed the ease with which private companies can obtain highly sensitive
medical information without patient consent. The agreement shows DeepMind Health is
gaining access to admissions, discharge and transfer data, accident and emergency,
pathology and radiology, and critical care at these hospitals. This included personal details
such as whether patients had been diagnosed with HIV, suffered from depression or had
ever undergone an abortion. The agreement is seen as controversial and its legality has been
questioned. Officials from Google have yet to make a statement on the matter.
The concerns were widely reported and have led to a complaint to the Information
Commissioner's Office (ICO), arguing that the data should be pseudonymised and encrypted
In May 2016, New Scientist published a further article claiming that the project had failed to
secure approval from the Confidentiality Advisory Group of the Medicines and Healthcare
Products Regulatory Agency.
12
CHAPTER-4
GOALS OF A.I.
4.1 Main Goals of Artificial Intelligence: -
The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into
a number of specific sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that
researchers would like an intelligent system to display. The traits described below have
received the most attention.
4.1.1. Deduction, reasoning,problem solving: -
For difficult problems, most of these algorithms can require enormous computational resources
most experience a "combinatorial explosion": the amount of memory or computer time required
becomes astronomical when the problem goes beyond a certain size. The search for more
efficient problem-solving algorithms is a high priority for AI research.
Human beings solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgements rather than the
conscious, step-by-step deduction that early AI research was able to model. AI has made some
progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving: embodied agent approaches
emphasize the importance of sensorimotor skills to higher reasoning; neural net research
attempts to simulate the structures inside the brain that give rise to this skill; statistical
approaches to AI mimic the probabilistic nature of the human ability to guess.
4.1.2. Knowledge representation: -
Knowledge representation and knowledge engineering are central to AI research. Many of the
problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowledge about the world.
Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects, properties, categories and relations
between objects; situations, events, states and time; causes and effects; knowledge about
knowledge (what we know about what other people know) and many other, less well
researched domains. A representation of "what exists" is an ontology: the set of objects,
relations, concepts and so on that the machine knows about. The most general are called upper
ontologies, which attempt provide a foundation for all other knowledge.
4.1.3. Planning: -
Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them. They need a way to visualize
the future and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available
choices.
13
In classical planning problems, the agent can assume that it is the only thing acting on
the world and it can be certain what the consequences of its actions may be. However, if
the agent is not the only actor, it must periodically ascertain whether the world matches
its predictions and it must change its plan as this becomes necessary, requiring the agent
to reason under uncertainty.
4.1.4. NaturalLanguage Processing:-
Natural language processing gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages
that humans speak. A sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would enable
natural language user interfaces and the acquisition of knowledge directly from human-written
sources, such as Internet texts. Some straightforward applications of natural language
processing include information retrieval (or text mining) and machine translation. A common
method of processing and extracting meaning from natural language is through semantic
indexing. Increases in processing speeds and the drop in the cost of data storage makes indexing
large volumes of abstractions of the users input much more efficient.
4.1.5. Motionand Manipulation: -
The field of robotics is closely related to AI. Intelligence is required for robots to be able to
handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation, with sub-problems of localization
(knowing where you are, or finding out where other things are), mapping (learning what is
around you, building a map of the environment), and motion planning (figuring out how to get
there) or path planning (going from one point in space to another point, which may involve
compliant motion - where the robot moves while maintaining physical contact with an object).
4.1.6. Perception: -
Machine perceptions the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras, microphones, sonar
and others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. Computer vision is the ability to analyse
visual input. A few selected sub problems are speech recognition facial recognition and object
recognition.
4.1.7. Socialintelligence:-
Affective computing is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize,
interpret, process, and simulate human affects. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning
computer sciences, psychology, and cognitive science While the origins of the field may be
traced as far back as to early philosophical inquiries into emotion. A motivation for the research
14
is the ability to simulate empathy. The machine should interpret the emotional state of humans
and adapt its behaviour to them, giving an appropriate response for those emotions.
Emotion and social skills play two roles for an intelligent agent. First, it must be able to predict
the actions of others, by understanding their motives and emotional states. (This involves
elements of game theory, decision theory, as well as the ability to model human emotions and
the perceptual skills to detect emotions.) Also, in an effort to facilitate human-computer
interaction, an intelligent machine might want to be able to display emotions—even if it does
not actually experience them itself—in order to appear sensitive to the emotional dynamics of
human interaction.
4.1.8. Generalintelligence:-
Most researchers think that their work will eventually be incorporated into a machine with
general intelligence (known as strong AI), combining all the skills above and exceeding human
abilities at most or all of them. A few believe that anthropomorphic features like artificial
consciousness or an artificial brain may be required for such a project.
Many of the problems above may require general intelligence to be considered solved. For
example, even a straightforward, specific task like machine translation requires that the
machine read and write in both languages (NLP), follow the author's argument (reason), know
what is being talked about (knowledge), and faithfully reproduce the author's intention (social
intelligence). A problem like machine translation is considered "AI-complete". In order to solve
this particular problem, you must solve all the problems.
4.2 Typical problems to which AI methods are applied :-
 Pattern recognition
 Optical character recognition
 Handwriting recognition
 Speech recognition
 Face recognition
 Natural language processing, Translation and Chatter bots
 Non-linear control and Robotics
 Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing
 Game theory and Strategic planning
15
4.3 Other fields in which AI methods are implemented: -
4.3.1 Automation: -
Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to
optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The correct
incentive for applying automation is to increase productivity, and/or quality beyond that
possible with current human labour levels so as to realize economies of scale, and/or realize
predictable quality levels. automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and
mental requirements while increasing load capacity, speed, and repeatability.
4.3.2 Cybernetics:-
Cybernetics in some ways is like the science of organisation, with special emphasis on the
dynamic nature of the system being organised. The human brain is just such a complex
organisation which qualifies for cybernetic study. It has all the characteristics of feedback,
storage, etc. and is also typical of many large businesses or Government departments.
Cybernetics is that of artificial intelligence, where the aim is to show how artificially
manufactured systems can demonstrate intelligent behaviour.
4.3.3 Hybrid intelligent system: -
Hybridization of different intelligent systems is an innovative approach to construct
computationally intelligent systems consisting of artificial neural network, fuzzy inference
systems, rough set, approximate reasoning and derivative free optimization methods such as
evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, bacterial foraging and so on. The integration of
different learning and adaptation techniques, to overcome individual limitations and achieve
synergetic effects through hybridization or fusion of these techniques, has in recent years
contributed to an emergence of large number of new superior class of intelligence known as
Hybrid Intelligence.
4.3.4 Intelligent agent: -
In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes
through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs
its activity towards achieving goals.
16
4.3.5 Intelligent control: -
Intelligent Control or self-organising/learning control is a new emerging discipline that is
designed to deal with problems. Rather than being model based, it is experiential based.
Intelligent Control is the amalgam of the disciplines of Artificial Intelligence, Systems Theory
and Operations Research. It uses most recent experiences or evidence to improve its
performance through a variety of learning schemas, that for practical implementation must
demonstrate rapid learning convergence, be temporally stable, be robust to parameter changes
and internal and external disturbances.
4.3.6 Automated reasoning: -
The study of automated reasoning helps produces software that allows computers to reason
completely, or nearly completely, automatically. Although automated reasoning is
considered a sub-field of artificial intelligence, it also has connections with theoretical
computer science, and even philosophy.
4.3.7 Data mining: -
Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD),
an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science, is the computational process of discovering
patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence,
machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process
is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for
further use.
4.3.11 Chabot:-
Chatterbot, a chatter robot is a type of conversational agent, a computer program designed
to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual
methods.
17
4.3.12 Knowledge Representation: -
Knowledge representation (KR) is an area of artificial intelligence research aimed at
representing knowledge in symbols to facilitate inferencing from those knowledge elements,
creating new elements of knowledge.
The KR can be made to be independent of the underlying knowledge model or knowledge base
system (KBS) such as a semantic network
American Associationfor Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) :-
Founded in 1979, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is a non-profit
scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms
underlying thought and intelligent behaviour and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also
aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and
training of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning
the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions.
18
Fig. 5.1 Applications of AI
CHAPTER-5
APPLICATIONS OF A.I.
5.1 Main Goals of Artificial Intelligence: -
Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis,
stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys.
5.1.1 Hospitals and Medicine: -
A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a
staff rotation, and provide medical information.
Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for
medical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR
software.
19
Fig. 5.2 Gaming Implementation of AI
Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence include:
 Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help scan digita l
images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight
conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the
detection of a tumour.
 Heart sound analysis.

5.1.2 Heavy industry: -
Robots have become common in many industries. They are often given jobs that are
considered dangerous to humans. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very
repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and
other jobs which humans may find degrading.
5.1.3 Game Playing: -
 This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people, especially
children, to a life of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence
 You can also buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars.
There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force
computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.

 The internet is the best example were one can buy machine and play various games.



20
5.1.4 SpeechRecognition: -
In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes.
Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using
speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the other hand,
while it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone back to the
keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient.
5.1.5 Understanding Natural Language: -
Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentences is not enough
either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about,
and this is presently possible only for very limited domains.
5.1.6 Computer Vision: -
The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and
computer’s TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two
dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not
just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing
three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently
use.
21
5.2 FUTURE SCOPE OF A.I
 In the next 10 years’ technologies in narrow fields such as speech recognition will
continue to
 Improve and will reach human levels.
 In 10 years AI will be able to communicate with humans in unstructured English
using text or voice, navigate (not perfectly) in an unprepared environment and will
have some rudimentary common sense (and domain-specific intelligence).
 We will recreate some parts of the human (animal) brain in silicon. The feasibility
of this is demonstrated by tentative hippocampus experiments in rats There are two
major projects aiming for human brain simulation, Cortex and IBM Blue Brain.
 There will be an increasing number of practical applications based on digitally
recreated aspects human intelligence, such as cognition, perception, rehearsal
learning, or learning by repetitive practice.
 The development of meaningful artificial intelligence will require that machines
acquire some variant of human consciousness.
 Systems that do not possess self-awareness and sentience will at best always be very
brittle.
 Without these uniquely human characteristics, truly useful and powerful
assistants will remain a goal to achieve. To be sure, advances in hardware,
storage, parallel processing architectures will enable ever greater leaps in
functionality
 Systems that are able to demonstrate conclusively that they possess self-awareness,
language skills, surface, shallow and deep knowledge about the world around them
and their role within it will be needed going forward.
Fig. 5.3 Future Scopes of AI
22
CONCLUSION
We conclude that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable
observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent. AI systems are now in routine use in
various field such as economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built
into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games etc.
AI is an exciting and rewarding discipline. AI is branch of computer science that is concerned
with the automation of intelligent behaviour. The revised definition of AI is
- AI is the study of mechanisms underlying intelligent behaviour through the construction and
evaluation of artifacts that attempt to enact those mechanisms. So it is concluded that it works
as an artificial human brain which have an unbelievable artificial thinking power.
23
Bibliography
 Programs with Common Sense:-
o John McCarthy, In Mechanization of Thought Processes,
Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory,
1959.
 Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing CommonSense: -
o Richmond Thomason, editor, Philosophical Logic and Artificial
Intelligence. Klüver Academic, 1989.
 Logic and Artificial Intelligence: -
o Richmond Thomason.In Edward N. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopaedia
of
o Philosophy. Fall 2003.
o http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2003/entries/logic-ai/.
 Artificial Intelligence a Modern Approach
o Russell, Stuart and Norvig, Peter
o The second edition of a standard (and very substantial) university- level
textbook on AI. 2003
WEBSITES: -
 www.google.com
 www.wikipedia.com
 http://www.aaai.org/
 http://ww0w- formal.stanford.edu/
 http://insight.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/
 http://www.genetic-programming.com/

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Artificial Intelligence Report

  • 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE A Seminar Report Submitted by SHUBHAM MALETIA 15110317 In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN Electrical Engineering At GIANI ZAIL SINGH CAMPUS COLLEGE OF ENGGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY) BATHINDA-151001 NOVEMBER 2018
  • 2. i PREFACE A report of this is having some great information on the fore coming technology and very interesting topic “Artificial intelligence” Artificial Intelligence” (AI). We have tried to explore the full breadth of the field, which encompasses logic, probability, and continuous mathematics; perception, reasoning, learning, and action; and everything from microelectronic devices to robotic planetary explorers. The report is also big because we go into some depth to know the human behaviour and then think to implement it on the machines so that the machine would be able to think like a human brain. The information about the machines with the respect of human beings is present in this report The main unifying theme is the idea of an intelligent agent. We define AI as the study of agents that receive precepts from the environment and perform actions. Each such agent implements a function that maps percept sequences to actions, and we cover different ways to represent these functions, such as reactive agents, real-time planners, and decision-theoretic systems. We explain the role of learning as extending the reach of the designer into unknown environments, and we show how that role constrains agent design, favouring explicit knowledge representation and reasoning. We treat robotics and vision not as independently defined problems, but as occurring in the service of achieving goals. We stress the importance of the task environment in determining the appropriate agent design.
  • 3. ii CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 History 3 2 Dive into AI 6 2.1 Categories of AI 6 3 Case study on Artificial Intelligence 8 3.1 Google Deepmind 8 3.2 Machine Learning 9 3.3 Deep reinforcement learning 9 3.4 AlphaGO 10 3.5 Healthcare 11 3.6 Controversies 11 4 Goals of AI 12 4.1 Main Goals of Artificial Intelligence 12 4.2 Typical Problems to which AI are applied 14 4.3 Other fields in which AI methods are implemented 15 5 Applications of AI 18 5.1 Main goals of Artificial Intelligence 18 5.2 Future Scope of AI 21 Conclusion 22 Bibliography 23
  • 4. 1 CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION ARTIFICIAL: - The simple definition of artificial is that objects that are made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally. INTELLIGENCE: - The simple definition of intelligence is a process of entail a set of skills of problem solving, enabling to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that encounters and to create an effective product and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: -Ar t i f i ci al i nt el l i gence i s a br anch of sci ence whi ch deal s wi t h hel pi ng m achi nes f i nd sol ut i on t o com pl ex pr obl em s i n a m or e hum an l i ke f ashi on. Thi s gener al l y i nvol ves bor r owi ng Characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less or flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial intelligent behaviour appears. Artificial intelligence is generally associated with computer science, but it has many important links with other fields such as maths, psychology, cognition, biology and philosophy, among many others. Our ability to combine knowledge from all these fields will ultimately benefits our progress in the quest of creating an intelligent artificial being. A.I. is mainly concerned with the popular mind with the robotics development, but also the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in the areas of software development which require computational understandings and modelling such as such as finance and economics, data mining and physical science.
  • 5. 2 Fig. 1.1 Artificial Intelligence A.I in the fields of robotics is the make a computational models of human thought processes. It is not enough to make a program that seems to behave the way human do. You want to make a program that does it the way humans do it. In computer science they also the problems because we have to make a computer that are satisfy for understanding the high-level languages and that was taken to be A.I.
  • 6. 3 Fig. 2.2 Evolution of Artificial Intelligence 1.1.1 HISTORY The intellectual roots of AI, and the concept of intelligent machines, may be found in Greek mythology. Intelligent artifacts appear in literature since then, with real mechanical devices actually demonstrating behaviour with some degree of intelligence. After modern computers became available following World War-II, it has become possible to create programs that perform difficult intellectual tasks. 1.1.2 The Timeline Fig. 3.3 Evolution of Artificial Intelligence
  • 7. 4 1950s: The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research With the development of the electronic computer in 1941 and the stored program computer in 1949 the condition for research in artificial intelligence is given, still the observation of a link between human intelligence and machines was not widely observed until the late in 1950. The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester (UK): a draughts-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz. The person who finally coined the term artificial intelligence and is regarded as the father of the AL is John McCarthy. In 1956 he organized a conference “the Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence" to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence of a month of brainstorming. In the following years AI research centres began forming at the Carnegie Mellon University as well as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and new challenges were faced: 1) The creation of systems that could efficiently solve problems by limiting the search. 2) The construction of systems that could learn by themselves. 1960:- By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defence and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were profoundly optimistic about the future of the new field: Herbert Simon predicted that "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do" and Marvin Minsky agreed, writing that "within a generation .By the 1960’s, America and its federal government starting pushing more for the development of AI. The Department of Defence started backing several programs in order to stay ahead of Soviet technology. The U.S. also started to commercially market the sale of robotics to various manufacturers. The rise of expert systems also became popular due to the creation of Edward Feigenbaum and Robert K. Lindsay’s DENDRAL. DENDRAL had the ability to map the complex structures of organic chemicals, but like many AI inventions, it began to tangle its results once the program had too many factors built into it... the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved". The same predicament fell upon the program SHRDLU which would use robotics through a computer so the user could ask questions and give commands in English.
  • 8. 5 Fig. 1.4 Time v/s human Progress 1980:- In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems, a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts. By 1985 the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars. At the same time, Japan's fifth generation computer project inspired the U.S and British governments to restore funding for academic research in the field. In the 1990s and early 21st century, AI achieved its greatest successes, albeit somewhat behind the scenes. Artificial intelligence is used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas throughout the technology industry 1990:- From 1990s until the turn of the century, AI has reached some incredible landmarks with the creation of intelligent agents. Intelligent agents basically use their surrounding environment to solve problems in the most efficient and effective manner. In 1997, the first computer (named Deep Blue) beat a world chess champion. In 1995, the VaMP car drove an entire 158 km racing track without any help from human intelligence. In 1999, humanoid robots began to gain popularity as well as the ability to walk around freely. Since then, AI has been playing a big role in certain commercial markets and throughout the World Wide Web. The more advanced AI projects, like fully adapting common sense knowledge, have taken a back-burner to more lucrative industries.
  • 9. 6 CHAPTER-2 DIVE INTO AI 2.1 CATEGORIES OF A.I AI divides roughly into two schools of thought: 1. Conventional AI 2. Computational Intelligence (CI) 1.ConventionalAI: - Conventional AI mostly involves methods now classified as machine learning, characterized by formalism and statistical analysis. This is also known as symbolic AI, logical AI, neat AI and Good Old Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI). Methods include:  Expert systems: apply reasoning capabilities to reach a conclusion. An expert system can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them.  Case based reasoning  Bayesian networks  Behaviour based AI: a modular method of building AI systems by hand. 2.ComputationalIntelligence (CI): - Computational Intelligence involves iterative development or learning (e.g. parameter tuning e.g. in connectionist systems). Learning is based on empirical data and is associated with non- symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing. Methods include:  Neural networks: systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities.
  • 10. 7 Fig. 2.1 Global computational Intelligence Brief History  Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, has been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems.  Evolutionary computation: applies biologically inspired concepts such as populations, mutation and survival of the fittest to generate increasingly better solutions to the problem. These methods most notably divide into evolutionary algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithms) and swarm intelligence (e.g. ant algorithms).
  • 11. 8 CHAPTER-3 CASE STUDY ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENGE 3.1 GOOGLE DEEPMIND DeepMind Technologies Limited is a British artificial intelligence company founded in September 2010. It was acquired by Google in 2014. The company has created a neural network that learns how to play video games in a fashion similar to that of humans,as well as a Neural Turing Machine, or a neural network that may be able to access an external memory like a conventional Turing machine, resulting in a computer that mimics the short- term memory of the human brain. The company made headlines in 2016 after its AlphaGo program beat a human professional Go player for the first time. 3.1.1 History The start-up was founded by Demis Hassabis, Shane Legg and Mustafa Suleyman in 2010. Hassabis and Legg first met at University College London's Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit.On 26 January 2014, Google announced the company had acquired DeepMind for $500 million, and that it had agreed to take over DeepMind Technologies. Since then major venture capital firms Horizons Ventures and Founders Fund have invested in the company, as well as entrepreneurs Scott Banister and Elon Musk. Jaan Tallinn was an early investor and an adviser to the company. The sale to Google took place after Facebook reportedly ended negotiations with DeepMind Technologies in 2013. The company was afterwards renamed Google DeepMind and kept that name for about two years. In 2014, DeepMind received the "Company of the Year" award by Cambridge Computer Laboratory. After Google's acquisition the company established an artificial intelligence ethics board. The ethics board for AI research remains a mystery, with both Google and DeepMind declining to reveal who sits on the board. DeepMind, together with Amazon, Google, Facebook, IBM, and Microsoft are members of Partnership on AI, an organization devoted to the society-AI interface.
  • 12. 9 3.2 Machine learning DeepMind Technologies' goal is to "solve intelligence", which they are trying to achieve by combining "the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build powerful general-purpose learning algorithms". They are trying to formalize intelligence in order to not only implement it into machines, but also understand the human brain, as Demis Hassabis explains: [...] attempting to distil intelligence into an algorithmic construct may prove to be the best path to understanding some of the enduring mysteries of our minds. Google Research has released a paper in 2016 regarding AI Safety and avoiding undesirable behaviour during the AI learning process. DeepMind has also released several publications via their website. To date, the company has published research on computer systems that are able to play games, and developing these systems, ranging from strategy games such as Go to arcade games. According to Shane Legg human-level machine intelligence can be achieved "when a machine can learn to play a really wide range of games from perceptual stream input and output, and transfer understanding across games [...]."Research describing an AI playing seven different Atari 2600 video games (the Pong game in Video Olympics, Breakout, Space Invaders, Seaquest, Beamrider, Enduro, and Q*bert) reportedly led to their acquisition by Google. Hassabis has mentioned the popular e-sport game StarCraft as a possible future challenge, since it requires a high level of strategic thinking and handling imperfect information. 3.3 Deepreinforcement learning As opposed to other AIs, such as IBM's Deep Blue or Watson, which were developed for a pre-defined purpose and only function within its scope, DeepMind claims that their system is not pre-programmed: it learns from experience, using only raw pixels as data input. Technically it uses deep learning on a convolutional neural network, with a novel form of Q- learning, a form of model-free reinforcement learning. They test the system on video games, notably early arcade games, such as Space Invaders or Breakout. Without altering the code, the AI begins to understand how to play the game, and after some time plays, for a few games (most notably Breakout), a more efficient game than any human ever could. For most games (Space Invaders, Ms Pac-Man, Q*Bert for example), DeepMind plays below the current World Record. The application of DeepMind's AI to video games is
  • 13. 10 Fig. 3.1 Alpha Go Logo currently for games made in the 1970s and 1980s, with work being done on more complex 3D games such as Doom, which first appeared in the early 1990s. 3.4 AlphaGo In October 2015, a computer Go program called AlphaGo, powered by DeepMind, beat the European Go champion Fan Hui, professional, five to zero. This is the first time an artificial intelligence (AI) defeated a professional Go player. Previously, computers were only known to have played Go at "amateur" level. Go is considered much more difficult for computers to win compared to other games like chess, due to the much larger number of possibilities, making it prohibitively difficult for traditional AI methods such as brute-force.The announcement of the news was delayed until 27 January 2016 to coincide with the publication of a paper in the journal Nature describing the algorithms used. In March 2016 it beat Lee Sedol—a 9th dan Go player and one of the highest ranked players in the world— with 4-1 in a five-game match. 3.5 Healthcare In July 2016, a collaboration between DeepMind and Moorfields Eye Hospital was announced. DeepMind would be applied to the analysis of anonymised eye scans, searching for early signs of diseases leading to blindness.
  • 14. 11 In August 2016, a research programme with University College London Hospital was announced with the aim of developing an algorithm that can automatically differentiate between healthy and cancerous tissues in head and neck areas. There are also projects with the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust to develop new clinical mobile apps linked to electronic patient records. 3.6 Controversies In April 2016 New Scientist obtained a copy of a data-sharing agreement between DeepMind and the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. The latter operates the three London hospitals where an estimated 1.6 million patients are treated annually. The revelation has exposed the ease with which private companies can obtain highly sensitive medical information without patient consent. The agreement shows DeepMind Health is gaining access to admissions, discharge and transfer data, accident and emergency, pathology and radiology, and critical care at these hospitals. This included personal details such as whether patients had been diagnosed with HIV, suffered from depression or had ever undergone an abortion. The agreement is seen as controversial and its legality has been questioned. Officials from Google have yet to make a statement on the matter. The concerns were widely reported and have led to a complaint to the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO), arguing that the data should be pseudonymised and encrypted In May 2016, New Scientist published a further article claiming that the project had failed to secure approval from the Confidentiality Advisory Group of the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency.
  • 15. 12 CHAPTER-4 GOALS OF A.I. 4.1 Main Goals of Artificial Intelligence: - The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into a number of specific sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display. The traits described below have received the most attention. 4.1.1. Deduction, reasoning,problem solving: - For difficult problems, most of these algorithms can require enormous computational resources most experience a "combinatorial explosion": the amount of memory or computer time required becomes astronomical when the problem goes beyond a certain size. The search for more efficient problem-solving algorithms is a high priority for AI research. Human beings solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgements rather than the conscious, step-by-step deduction that early AI research was able to model. AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving: embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensorimotor skills to higher reasoning; neural net research attempts to simulate the structures inside the brain that give rise to this skill; statistical approaches to AI mimic the probabilistic nature of the human ability to guess. 4.1.2. Knowledge representation: - Knowledge representation and knowledge engineering are central to AI research. Many of the problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowledge about the world. Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects, properties, categories and relations between objects; situations, events, states and time; causes and effects; knowledge about knowledge (what we know about what other people know) and many other, less well researched domains. A representation of "what exists" is an ontology: the set of objects, relations, concepts and so on that the machine knows about. The most general are called upper ontologies, which attempt provide a foundation for all other knowledge. 4.1.3. Planning: - Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them. They need a way to visualize the future and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available choices.
  • 16. 13 In classical planning problems, the agent can assume that it is the only thing acting on the world and it can be certain what the consequences of its actions may be. However, if the agent is not the only actor, it must periodically ascertain whether the world matches its predictions and it must change its plan as this becomes necessary, requiring the agent to reason under uncertainty. 4.1.4. NaturalLanguage Processing:- Natural language processing gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages that humans speak. A sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would enable natural language user interfaces and the acquisition of knowledge directly from human-written sources, such as Internet texts. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval (or text mining) and machine translation. A common method of processing and extracting meaning from natural language is through semantic indexing. Increases in processing speeds and the drop in the cost of data storage makes indexing large volumes of abstractions of the users input much more efficient. 4.1.5. Motionand Manipulation: - The field of robotics is closely related to AI. Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation, with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are, or finding out where other things are), mapping (learning what is around you, building a map of the environment), and motion planning (figuring out how to get there) or path planning (going from one point in space to another point, which may involve compliant motion - where the robot moves while maintaining physical contact with an object). 4.1.6. Perception: - Machine perceptions the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras, microphones, sonar and others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. Computer vision is the ability to analyse visual input. A few selected sub problems are speech recognition facial recognition and object recognition. 4.1.7. Socialintelligence:- Affective computing is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning computer sciences, psychology, and cognitive science While the origins of the field may be traced as far back as to early philosophical inquiries into emotion. A motivation for the research
  • 17. 14 is the ability to simulate empathy. The machine should interpret the emotional state of humans and adapt its behaviour to them, giving an appropriate response for those emotions. Emotion and social skills play two roles for an intelligent agent. First, it must be able to predict the actions of others, by understanding their motives and emotional states. (This involves elements of game theory, decision theory, as well as the ability to model human emotions and the perceptual skills to detect emotions.) Also, in an effort to facilitate human-computer interaction, an intelligent machine might want to be able to display emotions—even if it does not actually experience them itself—in order to appear sensitive to the emotional dynamics of human interaction. 4.1.8. Generalintelligence:- Most researchers think that their work will eventually be incorporated into a machine with general intelligence (known as strong AI), combining all the skills above and exceeding human abilities at most or all of them. A few believe that anthropomorphic features like artificial consciousness or an artificial brain may be required for such a project. Many of the problems above may require general intelligence to be considered solved. For example, even a straightforward, specific task like machine translation requires that the machine read and write in both languages (NLP), follow the author's argument (reason), know what is being talked about (knowledge), and faithfully reproduce the author's intention (social intelligence). A problem like machine translation is considered "AI-complete". In order to solve this particular problem, you must solve all the problems. 4.2 Typical problems to which AI methods are applied :-  Pattern recognition  Optical character recognition  Handwriting recognition  Speech recognition  Face recognition  Natural language processing, Translation and Chatter bots  Non-linear control and Robotics  Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing  Game theory and Strategic planning
  • 18. 15 4.3 Other fields in which AI methods are implemented: - 4.3.1 Automation: - Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The correct incentive for applying automation is to increase productivity, and/or quality beyond that possible with current human labour levels so as to realize economies of scale, and/or realize predictable quality levels. automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements while increasing load capacity, speed, and repeatability. 4.3.2 Cybernetics:- Cybernetics in some ways is like the science of organisation, with special emphasis on the dynamic nature of the system being organised. The human brain is just such a complex organisation which qualifies for cybernetic study. It has all the characteristics of feedback, storage, etc. and is also typical of many large businesses or Government departments. Cybernetics is that of artificial intelligence, where the aim is to show how artificially manufactured systems can demonstrate intelligent behaviour. 4.3.3 Hybrid intelligent system: - Hybridization of different intelligent systems is an innovative approach to construct computationally intelligent systems consisting of artificial neural network, fuzzy inference systems, rough set, approximate reasoning and derivative free optimization methods such as evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, bacterial foraging and so on. The integration of different learning and adaptation techniques, to overcome individual limitations and achieve synergetic effects through hybridization or fusion of these techniques, has in recent years contributed to an emergence of large number of new superior class of intelligence known as Hybrid Intelligence. 4.3.4 Intelligent agent: - In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals.
  • 19. 16 4.3.5 Intelligent control: - Intelligent Control or self-organising/learning control is a new emerging discipline that is designed to deal with problems. Rather than being model based, it is experiential based. Intelligent Control is the amalgam of the disciplines of Artificial Intelligence, Systems Theory and Operations Research. It uses most recent experiences or evidence to improve its performance through a variety of learning schemas, that for practical implementation must demonstrate rapid learning convergence, be temporally stable, be robust to parameter changes and internal and external disturbances. 4.3.6 Automated reasoning: - The study of automated reasoning helps produces software that allows computers to reason completely, or nearly completely, automatically. Although automated reasoning is considered a sub-field of artificial intelligence, it also has connections with theoretical computer science, and even philosophy. 4.3.7 Data mining: - Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD), an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science, is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. 4.3.11 Chabot:- Chatterbot, a chatter robot is a type of conversational agent, a computer program designed to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods.
  • 20. 17 4.3.12 Knowledge Representation: - Knowledge representation (KR) is an area of artificial intelligence research aimed at representing knowledge in symbols to facilitate inferencing from those knowledge elements, creating new elements of knowledge. The KR can be made to be independent of the underlying knowledge model or knowledge base system (KBS) such as a semantic network American Associationfor Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) :- Founded in 1979, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) is a non-profit scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behaviour and their embodiment in machines. AAAI also aims to increase public understanding of artificial intelligence, improve the teaching and training of AI practitioners, and provide guidance for research planners and funders concerning the importance and potential of current AI developments and future directions.
  • 21. 18 Fig. 5.1 Applications of AI CHAPTER-5 APPLICATIONS OF A.I. 5.1 Main Goals of Artificial Intelligence: - Artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys. 5.1.1 Hospitals and Medicine: - A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information. Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for medical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software.
  • 22. 19 Fig. 5.2 Gaming Implementation of AI Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence include:  Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help scan digita l images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the detection of a tumour.  Heart sound analysis.  5.1.2 Heavy industry: - Robots have become common in many industries. They are often given jobs that are considered dangerous to humans. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading. 5.1.3 Game Playing: -  This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people, especially children, to a life of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence  You can also buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.   The internet is the best example were one can buy machine and play various games.   
  • 23. 20 5.1.4 SpeechRecognition: - In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On the other hand, while it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most users have gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. 5.1.5 Understanding Natural Language: - Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentences is not enough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains. 5.1.6 Computer Vision: - The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and computer’s TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use.
  • 24. 21 5.2 FUTURE SCOPE OF A.I  In the next 10 years’ technologies in narrow fields such as speech recognition will continue to  Improve and will reach human levels.  In 10 years AI will be able to communicate with humans in unstructured English using text or voice, navigate (not perfectly) in an unprepared environment and will have some rudimentary common sense (and domain-specific intelligence).  We will recreate some parts of the human (animal) brain in silicon. The feasibility of this is demonstrated by tentative hippocampus experiments in rats There are two major projects aiming for human brain simulation, Cortex and IBM Blue Brain.  There will be an increasing number of practical applications based on digitally recreated aspects human intelligence, such as cognition, perception, rehearsal learning, or learning by repetitive practice.  The development of meaningful artificial intelligence will require that machines acquire some variant of human consciousness.  Systems that do not possess self-awareness and sentience will at best always be very brittle.  Without these uniquely human characteristics, truly useful and powerful assistants will remain a goal to achieve. To be sure, advances in hardware, storage, parallel processing architectures will enable ever greater leaps in functionality  Systems that are able to demonstrate conclusively that they possess self-awareness, language skills, surface, shallow and deep knowledge about the world around them and their role within it will be needed going forward. Fig. 5.3 Future Scopes of AI
  • 25. 22 CONCLUSION We conclude that if the machine could successfully pretend to be human to a knowledgeable observer then you certainly should consider it intelligent. AI systems are now in routine use in various field such as economics, medicine, engineering and the military, as well as being built into many common home computer software applications, traditional strategy games etc. AI is an exciting and rewarding discipline. AI is branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour. The revised definition of AI is - AI is the study of mechanisms underlying intelligent behaviour through the construction and evaluation of artifacts that attempt to enact those mechanisms. So it is concluded that it works as an artificial human brain which have an unbelievable artificial thinking power.
  • 26. 23 Bibliography  Programs with Common Sense:- o John McCarthy, In Mechanization of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory, 1959.  Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing CommonSense: - o Richmond Thomason, editor, Philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence. Klüver Academic, 1989.  Logic and Artificial Intelligence: - o Richmond Thomason.In Edward N. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopaedia of o Philosophy. Fall 2003. o http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2003/entries/logic-ai/.  Artificial Intelligence a Modern Approach o Russell, Stuart and Norvig, Peter o The second edition of a standard (and very substantial) university- level textbook on AI. 2003 WEBSITES: -  www.google.com  www.wikipedia.com  http://www.aaai.org/  http://ww0w- formal.stanford.edu/  http://insight.zdnet.co.uk/hardware/emergingtech/  http://www.genetic-programming.com/