Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Project Report G1

  • Be the first to comment

Project Report G1

  1. 1. Project Report on CONSTRUCTION OF LANE KEEP MECHANISM WITH ACTIVE STEERING A Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering in the supervision of Mr. Mani Bhanot SUBMITTED BY Mahesh Bhatt Manoj Kumar Shubham Bijalwan Vinod Rawat Ansi Sharma Shiwali Arya SUBMITTED TO DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINNERING AMRAPALI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES YEAR 2015-2016
  2. 2. i DECLARATION We hereby declare that the project work entitled “Lane Keep Mechanism with Active Steering” is an authentic record of our own work carried out as per requirement of final year project for the award of Degree of Bachelors of Technology in Mechanical Engineering, Uttarakhand Technical University, under the guidance of Mr. Mani Bhanot, during 2015-2016. Mahesh Bhatt (Roll No.630030104003) Manoj Kumar (Roll No. 120030108019) Shubham Bijalwan (Roll No. 630030104006) Vinod Rawat (Roll No. 630030104007) Ansi Sharma (Roll No.630030104001) Shiwali Arya (Roll No. 120030104043) It is certified that the above statement made by us is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief. Mr. Mani Bhanot Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Amrapali Institute of Technology and Sciences Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Head of Department Department of Mechanical Engineering Amrapali Institute of Technology and Sciences
  3. 3. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We wish to express our profound sense of gratitude to the Head, Mechanical Engineering Department, Mr. Sanjeev Kumar and Director, College of Technology for their everlasting support and for allowing to use the college labs and necessary material. We are also thankful to the Mechanical Engineering Department for providing us with the necessary equipment’s and help. This project though could not have reached its final stages without the guidance of our project guide, Mr. Mani Bhanot, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering. We are thankful to him for suggesting the various aspects of the problem and project, designing its methodology, help rendered to us during fabrication of work and encouragement rendered during the various phase of work. Mahesh Bhatt (Roll No: 630030104003) Manoj Kumar (Roll No: 120030108019) Shubham Bijalwan (Roll No: 630030104006) Vinod Rawat (Roll No: 630030104007) Ansi Sharma (Roll No: 630030104001) Shiwali Arya (Roll No: 120030104043)
  4. 4. iii ABSTRACT Steering is the collection of components, linkages etc which allow a vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car, motorcycle, and bicycle) to follow the desired course. The basic aim of steering is to ensure that the wheels are pointing in the desired directions. This is generally achieved by a series of linkages, rods, pivots and gears. Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanism, where the steering wheel turns the pinion gear; the pinion moves the rack, which is linear gear that meshes with the pinion, converting circular motion into linear motion along the transverse axis of the car. Our idea holds a unique place in Steering technology. This project is divided into two parts: (I) Active Steering and (II) Lane keeping mechanism. With the optional Active Steering mode, Steering wheel will offer proactive assistance on every bend and will react flexibly to the current driving situation. At low speeds, such as in the town or when parking, steering becomes more direct. Turning the steering wheel ever so slightly is enough to carry out the tightest maneuvers and park more easily. At high speeds, the required angle increases and the steering becomes more indirect. Now you can control the wheels more precisely with more turns of the steering wheel, and driving stability improves noticeably. The result is improved road holding and a confident steering sensation even at high speeds. Lane keeping mechanism can be used in heavy-duty trucks and buses. With this mechanism Heavy trucks and buses can be steered if driver loose driving attention and vehicle cross off driving marked lane. The use of this intelligent steering mechanism will enable the generation of steering input independently from the driver. For example, HCVs can also be equipped with an active lane- keeping assistant to avoid serious accidents. The technology is variable, independent of front axle load, and environmentally friendly.
  5. 5. iv TABLE OF CONTENT Declaration.........................................................................................................................................i Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................ii Abstract............................................................................................................................................ iii Table of contents .............................................................................................................................iv Table of Figures.............................................................................................................................. vii List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................viii 1. Introduction 1.1. Project Background ..............................................................................................................1 1.2. Problem Statement................................................................................................................2 1.3. Research Objective ...............................................................................................................2 1.4. Scope of Research.................................................................................................................2 1.5. Expected Results...................................................................................................................2 2. Literature Review 2.1. Lane Departure Warning System by Nissan Cima ...............................................................3 2.2. Active Steering .....................................................................................................................4 2.3. Overview of Literature Review ............................................................................................5 2.4. Summary ..............................................................................................................................5 2.5. Steering System ....................................................................................................................5 2.6. History of Steering................................................................................................................5 2.7. Sensors .................................................................................................................................6 2.8. Principle of Lane Keep Mechanism and Active Steering.....................................................7 2.9. Design Consideration............................................................................................................8 2.10. Design Criteria......................................................................................................................9 2.11. Applications and Target Markets........................................................................................10 2.11.1. Target Markets........................................................................................................10 2.12. Features of Lane Keep Mechanism with Active Steering ..................................................10
  6. 6. v 3. Material and Methodology 3.1. Material/Components Required For Project.......................................................................11 3.1.1.Electromagnetic Clutch....................................................................................................11 3.1.2.Gears.................................................................................................................................13 3.1.3.Spur Gear..........................................................................................................................14 3.1.4.Rack and Pinion................................................................................................................14 3.1.5.Bevel Gears ......................................................................................................................15 3.1.6.Bearings ...........................................................................................................................17 3.1.7.DC Gear Motor.................................................................................................................19 3.1.8.Transformer .....................................................................................................................20 3.1.9.Diode ...............................................................................................................................20 3.1.10. Resistors ........................................................................................................................22 3.1.11. Transistors .....................................................................................................................23 3.1.12. Capacitor .......................................................................................................................24 3.1.13. Relays ............................................................................................................................25 3.1.14. IC LM567.......................................................................................................................26 3.1.15. Infrared Sensor ...............................................................................................................26 3.2. Methodology.......................................................................................................................27 3.2.1.Construction of Project main frame .................................................................................27 3.2.2.Construction of electrical circuits.....................................................................................33 4. Results and Discussions 4.1. Active Steering Mode Turned ON......................................................................................34 4.2. Active Steering Mode Turned OFF ....................................................................................34 4.3. Lane Keep Mechanism .......................................................................................................35 4.4. Results.................................................................................................................................36 5. Conclusions and Recommendations.......................................................................................37 References......................................................................................................................................38 Appendices Appendix-1 Project Synopsis .........................................................................................................39
  7. 7. vi Appendix-2 Budget Table...............................................................................................................49 Appendix-3 Time Table..................................................................................................................50 Appendix-4 Writing Resources ......................................................................................................51 Appendix-5 Original Images of Project..........................................................................................53
  8. 8. vii TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1 Active Steering by BMW.................................................................................................. 4 Figure 2 Electromagnetic Clutch ................................................................................................... 11 Figure 3 Rack and Pinion .............................................................................................................. 15 Figure 4 Bevel Gear....................................................................................................................... 16 Figure 5 Ball Bearing..................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 6 Cut Section of Ball Bearing ............................................................................................ 18 Figure 7 Working of a DC Motor .................................................................................................. 19 Figure 8 Transformer..................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 9 Types of Diode ................................................................................................................ 21 Figure 10 Diode's type................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 11 Typical Axial lead Resistor ........................................................................................... 22 Figure 12 Assorted Discrete Transistor ......................................................................................... 23 Figure 13 Capacitors...................................................................................................................... 24 Figure 14 Electromagnetic Relay .................................................................................................. 25 Figure 15 Construction of Wheel and Tie Rod Mechanism.......................................................... 27 Figure 16 Testing of Assembly...................................................................................................... 28 Figure 17 Fixing of Rack Gear on Tie Rod ................................................................................... 28 Figure 18 Construction of Bevel Gear Mechanism....................................................................... 29 Figure 19 Construction Of Body Frame ........................................................................................ 29 Figure 20 Installation of Plastic wheel on Tie Rod Fixture ........................................................... 30 Figure 21 Installation of Electromagnetic Clutch and Gears......................................................... 30 Figure 22 Installation of Gear with Active Steering...................................................................... 31 Figure 23 Installation of DC Gear Motor with Electromagnetic clutch ........................................ 31 Figure 24 Construction of metal pole for making road like conditions......................................... 32 Figure 25 Construction of infrared control unit............................................................................. 32 Figure 26 Electrical Circuit of Road Sensing Unit........................................................................ 33 Figure 27 Working of Project in Active Steering ON Mode......................................................... 34 Figure 28 Working of Project in Active Steering OFF Mode ....................................................... 35 Figure 29 Lane Keep Mechanism in ON Mode............................................................................. 35 Figure 30 Lane Keep Mechanism in OFF Mode........................................................................... 36
  9. 9. viii LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Specifications of Nissan Cima............................................................................................ 3 Table 2 Design Consideration ......................................................................................................... 8 Table 3 Design Criteria.................................................................................................................... 9
  10. 10. 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. PROJECT BACKGROUND Since the start of automobile industry, the major calamities associated with the vehicles are accidents due to collisions. The frequency of traffic collisions in India is amongst the highest in the world. A National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report revealed that every year, more than 135,000 traffic collision-related deaths occur in India. In New Delhi, the capital of India, the frequency of traffic collisions is 40 times higher than the rate in London, the capital of the United Kingdom. Traffic collision-related deaths increased from 13 per hour in 2008 to 14 per hour in 2009. More than 40 per cent of these casualties are associated with motorcycles and trucks. The most accident-prone time on Indian roads is during the peak hour at afternoon and evening. According to road traffic safety experts, the actual number of casualties may be higher than what is documented, as many traffic accidents go unreported. Moreover, victims who die some time after the accident, a span of time which may vary from a few hours to several days, are not counted as car accident victims. In 2015, one person dies every 4 minutes in roads accidents in India, according to NGO 'Indians for Road Safety'. India stands out miserably in the latest World Health Organization’s (WHO) "Global Road Safety Report-2015" with an estimated 207,551 deaths on roads. The "Global Status Report on Road Safety" published by the World Health Organization (WHO) identified the major causes of traffic collisions as driving over the speed limit, driving under the influence, and not using helmets and seat belts. Failure to maintain lane or yield to oncoming traffic when turning are prime causes of accidents on four lanes, non-access controlled National Highways. The report noted users of motorcycles and motor-powered three-wheelers constitute the second largest group of traffic collision deaths. The Planning Commission in its 2001–2003 research estimated that traffic collision resulted in an annual monetary loss of INR 550 billion during the years 1999–2000. The Campaign against Drunken Driving (CADD) is an organization founded by Prince Singhal which is campaigning against driving under the influence. But this campaign has been ineffective. Therefore in present scenario there is a need of some device or mechanism that can help protect road accidents. This problem among with ease of driving is addressed in our project.
  11. 11. 2 1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT The aim of our project was to construct an economical and reliable mechanism that would reduce or eliminate the severity of accidents which are caused due to driver error, distractions and drowsiness by alerting the driver and at the same time take action to bring back the vehicle in its lane. Along with this our project aims to make a steering mechanism that will provide a proactive assistance on every curve by allowing the wheel to steer at a greater angle with less rotation of steering wheel. 1.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The purpose of this project was to make a lane keep mechanism with active steering that is reliable and is cheap enough so that it can be installed in small and medium vehicles of low and mid price range. 1.4. SCOPE OF RESEARCH a) To make this mechanism more reliable and cheap. b) Currently this mechanism is dependent on the visual input that is highway strip, to make this mechanism works without these aids. c) To make this mechanism suitable for use in smaller vehicles like cars. 1.5. EXPECTED RESULTS During the testing of all criteria put forward, the project was deemed a success as it met virtually all of the listed criteria. The primary goal is to find out how to decide that vehicle has crossed the lane and needs to be taken back to its lane and to make a mechanism that will serve this purpose and the secondary purpose is to make a mechanism that can provide assistance in bent, in parking by providing a variable steering ratio. For fulfilling the primary function that was deciding the whether the vehicle is in its lane or not we used Infrared sensor which worked fine with our model and was able to detect if the vehicle has crossed the lane or not and turned the vehicle back to the if the vehicle was out of the lane. Active steering too was able to deliver the expected results of providing the variable steering ratio to steering wheel of the vehicle when switched ON.
  12. 12. 3 2. LITRATURE REVIEW 2.1. LANE DEPARTURE WARNING SYSTEMOF NISSAN CIMA The Lane Keeping Support System supports steering operations so that the vehicle can maintain its course in the lane against the effects of road inclination and crosswinds, thereby alleviating driver fatigue. The first of its kind in the world, this system was installed in the Nissan Cima released in January 2001. Table 1 Specifications of Nissan Cima 1. Familiar Name Lane Keeping Assistance System 2. Device Structure This system consists of the following parts: a CCD camera that recognizes the lane in front of the vehicle, a steering actuator that adds control force to the steering, an alarm buzzer, and a controller that performs control and computing. 3. Performance Function The CCD camera mounted at the upper part of the rearview mirror is used to detect the lane, and the force necessary to make the vehicle run close to the center of the lane is calculated based on the vehicle speed and the steering angle. Part of this force is collaterally added to the steering. When this system is in operation, the indicator flashes together with a warning beep to inform the driver is the vehicle is judged to be deviating from the lane. In addition, the force that is gradually added to the steering is decreased when entering a curve, resulting in the addition of no force 4. Effects The Lane Keeping Support System supports steering operations so that the vehicle can maintain its course in the lane against the effects of road inclination and crosswinds. This system reduces the load of steering operations on the driver and improves comfort. 5. Features a. The system detects unintended deviation of vehicles from their lane and issues a warning. b. Gentle control closely supports driver operation. c. Braking of each wheel is independently controlled to change the direction of the vehicle.
  13. 13. 4 2.2. ACTIVE STEERING Active Steering offers precision, agility and comfort in every driving situation. Active Steering system consists of a planetary gear set integrated into the steering column. An electric motor in the joint adjusts the front wheels steering angle in proportion to the Sedan's current speed. When driving at lower speeds - such as in city traffic, when parking or on winding mountain roads, Active Steering increases the size of the steering angle. The front wheels respond immediately to small movements of the steering wheel, enabling the driver to maneuvers through tight spaces without needing to make multiple turns of the steering wheel. Parking is easier and agility enhanced. At medium speeds, steering is also easier. And to ensure smoothness at higher speeds, as of around 120 to 140 km/h Active Steering becomes more indirect. Active Steering therefore reduces the amount of change in the steering angle for every movement of the steering wheel. This gives the driver the advantage of more precise steering at higher speeds, and ensures great stability and more comfort. If the vehicle is threatened with instability, such as by over steering or braking on a changeable surface, DSC identifies the problem and can use Active Steering to help overcome it. Active Steering does not interrupt the direct connection between steering wheel and front wheels, so that even in the unlikely event of a complete failure of the electronic systems, the vehicle remains completely controllable at all times. This is because at the first sign of any problems, an adaptation mechanism blocks the Active Steering immediately using a pivot so that the driver is eternally in control of the situation. Figure 1 Active Steering by BMW
  14. 14. 5 2.3. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW After the study of types of the system in the previous section, it is noticed that each one of the system has got their own advantage and disadvantage. Basically, the lane keep assistance system of Nissan Cima uses a CCD camera mounted on the top of car near rear view mirror and monitors the road in front of in a 40° circle. It has an advantage of getting a clear view of road but it can face problems in weather condition like fog and rain where visibility gets reduced. In case of active steering, used by BMW in its passenger cars, it uses a planetary gear set integrated into the steering column and an electric motor in the joint adjusts the front wheels steering angle in proportion to the vehicle current speed. However they don’t provide a manual switching ON/OFF of the system that is driver has no choice of using it or not. 2.4. SUMMARY After the literature review section, it is concluded that a thorough understanding of different aspects, carful choose of different components and suitable method in design and implementation is the right path to a successful construction of the project. 2.5. STEERING SYSTEM Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc. which allow a vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car, motorcycles and bicycles) to follow the desired course. An exception is the case of rail transport by which rails track combined together with railroad switches provide the steering function. The primary purpose of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle. Steering system is generally of two types:  Rack and pinion steering.  Parallelogram linkage steering. 2.6. HISTORY OF STEERING Steering wheel was not in the mind of inventor of cars for guiding the cars as they are droved. The steering wheel did not come to be at the same time with the car, but was adopted later, as it became obvious its shape is perfect for the task. At the turn of the 19th century, when the idea of the automobile germinated in the minds of the time's inventors, there was really a single man-
  15. 15. 6 made machine the man himself controlled: boats. So it was a source of inspiration for the inventors of car maker. By 1894 however, the use of a tiller to steer a car became more and more ineffective. Taking inspiration from the same nautical industry, car builders began replacing the tillers with ship- inspired helms. Simpler and smaller than their nautical counterparts, the steering wheels in the car made their mark during the Paris-Rouen race, when the Panhard model driven by Alfred Vacheron was first recorded using a steering wheel to turn. The ease of operation shown in the 1894 race meant that by 1898, all Panhard et Levassor cars came equipped as standard with steering wheels. The principle quickly caught on and similar systems sparked across the world. In Britain, Charles Stewart Rolls bought a Panhard from France and implemented the steering wheel into his designs. By 1899, the steering wheel fever expanded to the US, where Packard introduced the steering wheel on one of its models. By the time the Model T arrived, the steering wheel was an essential part of the car. After that moment, the steering wheel stuck with the car, with its most common shape, that of a circle, unchanged for more than a century now. What did (and still does) change however is the purpose the steering wheel serves. As humanity crawls its way through the 21th century, the steering wheel is quickly leaving behind its established role of "helm of the car" and becomes more and more of a command hub for the entire vehicle. 2.7. SENSORS In the broadest definition, a sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output. A sensor is a type of transducer; sensors may provide various types of output, but typically use electrical or optical signals. For example, a thermocouple generates a known voltage (the output) in response to its temperature (the environment). Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micro-machinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms,
  16. 16. 7 the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the most traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used. Applications include manufacturing and machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, and robotics. It is also included in our day-to-day life. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the input quantity being measured changes. There are many types of sensor currently used and available in markets some of them are as follows:  Pressure Sensor  Ultrasonic Sensor  Humidity Sensor  Gas Sensor  PIR Motion Sensor  Acceleration Sensor  Displacement Sensor  Force Measurement Sensor  Color Sensor  Gyro Sensor  Ultrasonic Sensor 2.8. PRINCIPLE OF LANE KEEP MECHANISM AND ACTIVE STEERING The principle behind the working of our project lane keep mechanism with active steering is that a counter steering effect and an alert to the driver can be issued if the marking on the road can be detected by the use of a suitable sensor. In our case, an infrared sensor is used to detect the road stripes on the road. These sensors are placed just below the vehicle body near the front two wheels. These sensors continuously monitors the road below them and in case vehicle came close to road stripes and exceeds it the sensor of that side sends a signal regarding this to the controller circuit. This circuit on analyzing from which side’s sensor sends the signal calculates
  17. 17. 8 the motion to be given to the DC gear motor, which is connected to the wheel’s steering mechanism with the help of some linkages and joints, so that the vehicle can be brought back to its own lane. Lane keep mechanism is provided in optional mode that is if the driver does not want its vehicles to be directed by an electronic system or if some error occurs in the components of the circuit, this system can be turned OFF. Active steering works on the principle of variable steering ratio. Steering angle of a vehicle can be altered by using a set of planetary sun gear arrangement. This arrangement can be turned ON or OFF according to the driver’s will. When this will be made ON the wheels will turn more angles with less rotation of steering wheel whereas when it will be in OFF mode then the wheel will turn the angle at manufacturer’s default value. 2.9. DESIGN CONSIDERATION Before the designing process of Lane keep mechanism with Active steering began, we developed a list of criteria which would guide us. Four important criteria that we must consider in designing a working model of Lane keep mechanism with Active steering including the performance, serviceability, manufacturability, economic concerns. Table 2 Design Consideration S.NO. Consideration Priority Comments 1. Performance Essential Must perform in all service conditions. 2. Serviceability Essential Must be easy to maintain be designer. 3. Manufacturability Essential Must be constructed with limited resources. 4. Economic High Must be of minimum cost. Performance for the Lane keep mechanism with Active steering was a high priority. The main criteria governing performance was that the mechanism should work under all circumstances and must detect the lane marking made on the highways and take necessary action to keep the vehicle in its own lane. Serviceability was a concern for this project as it was assumed that, in time, the device would encounter unforeseen problems and need maintenance. Materials and parts were selected based on their availability and ease of use in repair. Economics played a large factor in the design of the device. So simplicity of design and ease of manufacture ruled.
  18. 18. 9 The mechanism must be light weight, rigid, should be able to withstand minor wear and tear during operation. The mechanism should have ease to operation so that even a person who does not have enough technological experience. Environmental and sustainability criteria did not significantly impact the design of the device as there are no serious environmental concerns which arise from the production and use of the mechanism. Health and safety of the user were taken into consideration, though this did not significantly impact design. There are also no real ethical, social, or political concerns which were taken into consideration as Lane keep mechanism with Active steering have been built by many societies in many nations for many different reasons. 2.10.DESIGN CRITERIA Using the design considerations, we developed a set of criteria to guide the design and fabrication of the hovercraft. Criteria were developed based on the perceived feasibility of the project after work completed in the end. The criteria can be divided into four categories, shown in table below which are pertain to material, control, sensor and steering. Table 3 Design Criteria Criteria Priority Description Material Low weight Essential Lighter weight will increase efficiency. Durability High Must be able to take minor wear and tear. Workability Essential It should be easy to work. Low cost High Price of the product must be as low as possible. Control Wheel control High Wheel should remain in control of the system. Sensor Road strip detection High Must detect road strip accurately. Steering Performance High Must provide ease at curves.
  19. 19. 10 2.11.APPLICATION AND TARGET MARKETS Lane keep mechanism with active steering find a wide application in the field of safety technologies in automobile sector of large, medium and small commercial and non commercial vehicle examples are small cars, SUVs, trucks etc. 2.11.1. TARGET MARKETS  Small vehicles like cars.  Drivers of long route.  Non luxury vehicles.  Commercial vehicles.  Sports utility vehicles. 2.12.FEATURES OF LANE KEEP MECHANISM WITH ACTIVE STEERING The required features of our project are as follows:  Safe- Our design is safe and environment friendly because we have used electric motor which does not create any pollution while operation. There is no chance of fire, because there is very less components are used, so chance of accident is reduced and our design becomes safer.  Light Weight- Overall weight of our mechanism is low since no bulky component is used to manufacture the product.  Cost Effective- Our design is cost effective because we have used the components which are of low cost and are easily available.  Easy To Manufacture-Manufacturing of our design is very easy. There is no need of any advanced machining operation.  Ease of Use-While testing we observe our design model is very easy to use and even an amateur driver or person can use it comfortably.  Ease of Installation- Our design is easy to install due to its simplicity of design.
  20. 20. 11 3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY To make anything various material are required details of which are given below. 3.1. MATERIAL/COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR PROJECT In order to construct our project several electrical and mechanical components were required to be purchased and some of the components were available in our surrounding as scrap material and parts from old machines and equipments this helped in reducing overall cost of the project. Each of the components has its own function and must be of desired specification in order to fulfill its intended function in the project. A brief description of components used is given below in this section. 3.1.1. ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH Figure 2 Electromagnetic Clutch Electromagnetic clutches operate electrically, but transmit torque mechanically. This is why they used to be referred to as electro-mechanical clutches. Over the years EM became known as electromagnetic versus electro mechanical, referring more about their actuation method versus
  21. 21. 12 physical operation. Since the clutches started becoming popular over sixty years ago, the variety of applications and clutch designs has increased dramatically, but the basic operation remains the same. Single-face clutches make up approximately 90% of all electromagnetic clutch sales. Electromagnetic clutches are most suitable for remote operation since no mechanical linkages are required to control their engagement, providing fast, smooth operation. However, because the activation energy dissipates as heat in the electromagnetic actuator when the clutch is engaged, there is a risk of overheating. Consequently, the maximum operating temperature of the clutch is limited by the temperature rating of the insulation of the electromagnet. This is a major limitation. Another disadvantage is higher initial cost. WORKING OF EM CLUTCH  ENGAGEMENT When the clutch is actuated, current flows through the electromagnet producing a magnetic field. The rotor portion of the clutch becomes magnetized and sets up a magnetic loop that attracts the armature. The armature is pulled against the rotor and a frictional force is generated at contact. Within a relatively short time, the load is accelerated to match the speed of the rotor, thereby engaging the armature and the output hub of the clutch. In most instances, the rotor is constantly rotating with the input all the time.  DISENGAGEMENT When current is removed from the clutch, the armature is free to turn with the shaft. In most designs, springs hold the armature away from the rotor surface when power is released, creating a small air gap.  CYCLING Cycling is achieved by interrupting the current through the electromagnet. Slippage normally occurs only during acceleration. When the clutch is fully engaged, there is no relative slip, assuming the clutch is sized properly, and thus torque transfer is 100% efficient.
  22. 22. 13 APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC CLUTCH  MACHINERY This type of clutch is used in some lawnmowers, copy machines, and conveyor drives. Other applications include packaging machinery, printing machinery, food processing machinery, and factory automation .  AUTOMOBILES When the electromagnetic clutch is used in automobiles, there may be a clutch release switch inside the gear lever. The driver operates the switch by holding the gear lever to change the gear, thus cutting off current to the electromagnet and disengaging the clutch. With this mechanism, there is no need to depress the clutch pedal. Alternatively, the switch may be replaced by a touch sensor or proximity sensor which senses the presence of the hand near the lever and cuts off the current. The advantages of using this type of clutch for automobiles are that complicated linkages are not required to actuate the clutch, and the driver needs to apply a considerably reduced force to operate the clutch. It is a type of semi-automatic transmission. Electromagnetic clutches are also often found in AWD systems, and are used to vary the amount of power sent to individual wheels or axles. A smaller electromagnetic clutch connects the air conditioning compressor to a pulley driven by the crankshaft, allowing the compressor to cycle on only when needed.  LOCOMOTIVES Electromagnetic clutches have been used on diesel locomotives, e.g. by Hohenzollern Locomotive Works. 3.1.2.GEARS A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque, in most cases with teeth on the one gear being of identical shape, and often also with that shape on the other gear. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The most common situation is for a gear to mesh with
  23. 23. 14 another gear; however, a gear can also mesh with a non-rotating toothed part, called a rack, thereby producing translation instead of rotation. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a crossed belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage. When two gears mesh, and one gear is bigger than the other (even though the size of the teeth must match), a mechanical advantage is produced, with the rotational speeds and the torques of the two gears differing in an inverse relationship. In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles, motorcycles, and cars—the term gear, as in first gear, refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term describes similar devices, even when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission. 3.1.3.SPUR GEAR Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with the teeth projecting radially, and although they are not straight-sided in form (they are usually of special form to achieve constant drive ratio, mainly involute), the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel shafts. 3.1.4. RACK AND PINION Rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. A circular gear called "the pinion" engages teeth on a linear "gear" bar called "the rack"; rotational motion applied to the pinion causes the rack to move, thereby translating the rotational motion of the pinion into the linear motion of the rack. The rack and pinion arrangement is commonly found in the steering mechanism of cars or other wheeled, steered vehicles. This arrangement provides a lesser mechanical advantage than other mechanisms such as recirculation ball, but much less backlash and greater feedback, or steering feel.
  24. 24. 15 Figure 3 Rack and Pinion The use of a variable rack (still using a normal pinion) was invented by Arthur Ernest Bishop, so as to improve vehicle response and steering feel especially at high speeds, and that has been fitted to many new vehicles, after he created a specialized version of a net-shape warm press forging process to manufacture the racks to their final form, thus eliminating any subsequent need to machine the gear teeth. For every pair of conjugate involute profile, there is a basic rack. This basic rack is the profile of the conjugate gear of infinite pitch radius. A generating rack is a rack outline used to indicate tooth details and dimensions for the design of a generating tool, such as a hob or a gear shaper cutter. 3.1.5. BEVEL GEARS They connect intersecting axes and come in several types. The pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone. They are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. Using gears of differing numbers of teeth can change the speed of rotation. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well. These gears permit minor adjustment during assembly and allow for some displacement due to deflection under operating loads without concentrating the load on the end of the tooth. For reliable performance, Gears must be pinned to shaft with a dowel or taper pin. Bevel gear sets consist of two gears of different pitch diameter that yield ratios greater than 1:1.
  25. 25. 16 Figure 4 Bevel Gear The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or bevel. In straight bevel gears teeth have no helix angles. They either have equal size gears with 90 degrees shaft angle or a shaft angle other than 90 degrees. Straight bevel angle can also be with one gear flat with a pitch angle of 90 degrees. In straight when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and simply curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. Spiral bevel gears have spiral angles, which gives performance improvements. The contact between the teeth starts at one end of the gear and then spreads across the whole tooth. In both the bevel types of gears the shaft must be perpendicular to each other and must be in the same plane. The hypoid bevel gears can engage with the axes in different planes. This is used in many car differentials. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. This allows input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear. Hypoid gears are stronger, operate more quietly and can be used for higher reduction ratios. They also have sliding action along the teeth, potentially reducing efficiency. A good example of bevel gears is seen as the main mechanism for a hand drill. As the handle of the drill is turned in a vertical direction, the bevel gears change the rotation of the chuck to a horizontal rotation. The bevel gears in a hand drill have the added advantage of increasing the speed of rotation of the chuck and this makes it possible to drill a range of materials. The bevel gears find its application in locomotives, marine applications, automobiles, printing presses, cooling towers, power plants, steel plants, railway track inspection machine and defense. They are important components on all current rotorcraft drive system. Spiral bevel gears are important components on all current rotorcraft drive systems. These
  26. 26. 17 components are required to operate at high speeds, high loads, and for an extremely large number of load cycles. In this application, spiral bevel gears are used to redirect the shaft from the horizontal gas turbine engine to the vertical rotor. 3.1.6. BEARINGS A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Many bearings also facilitate the desired motion as much as possible, such as by minimizing friction. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts. The term "bearing" is derived from the verb "to bear" a bearing being a machine element that allows one part to bear (i.e., to support) another. The simplest bearings are bearing surfaces, cut or formed into a part, with varying degrees of control over the form, size, roughness and location of the surface. Other bearings are separate devices installed into a machine or machine part. The most sophisticated bearings for the most demanding applications are very precise devices; their manufacture requires some of the highest standards of current technology. The first modern recorded patent on ball bearings was awarded to Philip Vaughan, a British inventor and ironmaster who created the first design for a ball bearing in Carmarthen in 1794. His was the first modern ball-bearing design, with the ball running along a groove in the axle assembly. Bearings played a pivotal role in the nascent Industrial Revolution, allowing the new industrial machinery to operate efficiently. Figure 5 Ball Bearing
  27. 27. 18 There are many types of bearing. Some of the commonly used bearings are as follows:  Plain bearing  Rolling element bearing  Fluid bearing  Jewel bearing  Magnetic bearing  Flexure bearing Figure 6 Cut Section of Ball Bearing By far, the most common bearing is the plain bearing, a bearing which uses surfaces in rubbing contact, often with a lubricant such as oil or graphite. A plain bearing may or may not be a discrete device. It may be nothing more than the bearing surface of a hole with a shaft passing through it, or of a planar surface that bears another (in these cases, not a discrete device); or it may be a layer of bearing metal either fused to the substrate (semi-discrete) or in the form of a separable sleeve (discrete). With suitable lubrication, plain bearings often give entirely acceptable accuracy, life, and friction at minimal cost. Therefore, they are very widely used. However, there are many applications where a more suitable bearing can improve efficiency, accuracy, service intervals, reliability, speed of operation, size, weight, and costs of purchasing and operating machinery.
  28. 28. 19 3.1.7. DC GEAR MOTOR A DC motor is any of a class of electrical machines that converts direct current electrical power into mechanical power. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. Nearly all types of DC motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic; to periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor. Most types produce rotary motion; a linear motor directly produces force and motion in a straight line. DC motors were the first type widely used, since they could be powered from existing direct-current lighting power distribution systems. A DC motor's speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys, and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight motor used for portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles, elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills. The advent of power electronics has made replacement of DC motors with AC motors possible in many applications. Figure 7 Working of a DC Motor The classic DC motor has a rotating armature in the form of an electromagnet. A rotary switch called a commutator reverses the direction of the electric current twice every cycle, to flow through the armature so that the poles of the electromagnet push and pull against the permanent magnets on the outside of the motor. As the poles of the armature electromagnet pass the poles of the permanent magnets, the commutator reverses the polarity of the armature electromagnet.
  29. 29. 20 During that instant of switching polarity, inertia keeps the classical motor going in the proper direction. 3.1.8. TRANSFORMER Transformers are a major class of coils having two or more windings usually wrapped around a common core made from laminated iron sheets. It has two coils named primary and secondary. If the current flowing through primary is fluctuating, then a current will be induced into the secondary winding. A steady current will not be transferred from one coil to other coil. Figure 8 Transformer Transformers are of two types:  Step up transformer  Step down transformer In power supply we use step down transformer. We apply 220V AC on the primary of step down transformer. This transformer steps down this voltage to 9V AC. We give this 9 V AC to rectifier circuit, which convert it to 5V DC. 3.1.9. DIODE The simplest semiconductor device is made up of a sandwich of P-type semi conducting material, with contacts provided to connect the p-and n-type layers to an external circuit. This is a junction Diode.
  30. 30. 21 Figure 9 Types of Diode If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type material (cathode) and the negative terminal to the N-type material (Anode), a large current will flow. This is called forward current or forward biased. If the connections are reversed, a very little current will flow. This is because under this condition, the p-type material will accept the electrons from the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type material will give up its free electrons to the battery, resulting in the state of electrical equilibrium since the N-type material has no more electrons. Thus there will be a small current to flow and the diode is called Reverse biased. Thus the Diode allows direct current to pass only in one direction while blocking it in the other direction. Power diodes are used in concerting AC into DC. In this, current will flow freely during the first half cycle (forward biased) and practically not at all during the other half cycle (reverse biased). This makes the diode an effective rectifier, which convert ac into pulsating dc. Signal diodes are used in radio circuits for detection. Zener diodes are used in the circuit to control the voltage. Figure 10 Diode's type Some common diodes are:-  Zener diode.  Photo diode.  Light Emitting diode.
  31. 31. 22 3.1.10. RESISTORS Figure 11 Typical Axial lead Resistor A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors may be used to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, may act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines among other uses. High-power resistors, that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer), or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. The nominal value of the resistance will fall within a manufacturing tolerance.
  32. 32. 23 3.1.11. TRANSISTORS Figure 12 Assorted Discrete Transistor A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. First conceived by Julius Lilienfeld in 1926and practically implemented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley, the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things. The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement. Transistors on the basis of electrical polarity can be classified as:  N-P-N type transistor  P-N-P type transistor  P- type transistor  N- type transistor
  33. 33. 24 3.1.12. CAPACITORS It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then release it. Figure 13 Capacitors To understand the concept of capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other without touching. If a battery is connected to these plates the positive pole to one and the negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors. Capacitors are of two types:  Fixed Type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic capacitors-these names refer to the material they are made of aluminum foil.  Variable Type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of capacitance. Small unit capacitor are Pico-Farad denoted by pF (1 pF=1/1000000000000 F). Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, its two terminal are marked as (-) and (+) so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.
  34. 34. 25 3.1.13. RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations. Figure 14 Electromagnetic Relay A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a contractor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays". Magnetic latching relays require one pulse of coil power to move their contacts in one direction, and another, redirected pulse to move them back. Repeated pulses from the same input have no
  35. 35. 26 effect. Magnetic latching relays are useful in applications where interrupted power should not be able to transition the contacts. Magnetic latching relays can have either single or dual coils. On a single coil device, the relay will operate in one direction when power is applied with one polarity, and will reset when the polarity is reversed. On a dual coil device, when polarized voltage is applied to the reset coil the contacts will transition. AC controlled magnetic latch relays have single coils that employ steering diodes to differentiate between operate and reset commands. 3.1.14. IC LM567 IC LM567, which is a precise phase-locked loop with synchronous AM lock detection and power output device. In simpler words the IC LM567 IC is a tone decoder chip which is designed basically for recognizing a specified frequency band, and activating the output in response to the detection. Needless to say this chip can be used for a number of different applications, the most common being in the field of remote controls, and security systems. 3.1.15. INFRARED SENSOR An infrared sensor (PIR sensor) is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. They are most often used in PIR-based motion detectors. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation. Usually this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it radiates at infrared wavelengths, but it can be detected by electronic devices designed for such a purpose. The term passive in this instance refers to the fact that PIR devices do not generate or radiate any energy for detection purposes. They work entirely by detecting the energy given off by other objects. PIR sensors don't detect or measure "heat"; instead they detect the infrared radiation emitted or reflected from an object. Infrared radiation enters through the front of the sensor, known as the 'sensor face'. At the core of a PIR sensor is a solid state sensor or set of sensors, made from pyroelectric materials— materials which generate energy when exposed to heat. Typically, the sensors are approximately 1/4 inch square (40 mm2), and take the form of a thin film. Materials commonly
  36. 36. 27 used in PIR sensors include Gallium Nitride (GaN), cesium nitrate (CsNO3), polyvinyl fluorides, derivatives of phenyl pyridine, and cobalt phthalocyanine. The sensor is often manufactured as part of an integrated circuit. 3.2. METHODOLOGY The construction of project involves construction of the following two sections:  Construction of project main frame.  Construction of electrical circuits. 3.2.1. Construction of Project main frame Construction of the frame can be completed by following the following procedure which is given in step by step way in this section:  Step-1 First construct wheel and tie rod controlling mechanism. Figure 15 Construction of Wheel and Tie Rod Mechanism
  37. 37. 28  Step-2 Tie rod control mechanism testing. Figure 16 Testing of Assembly  Step-3 Fix one Rack gear on Tie rod and move pinion gear over it as shown in the figure. Figure 17 Fixing of Rack Gear on Tie Rod
  38. 38. 29  Step-4 Now construct a bevel gear mechanism as a right angle sliding movement provider. This bevel gear assembly is connected with rack and pinion gear assembly as shown below. Figure 18 Construction of Bevel Gear Mechanism  Step-5 Now construct body frame with ½ inch iron pipe and fix whole tie rod and bevel fixture over it. Figure 19 Construction of Body Frame
  39. 39. 30  Step-6 Connect 16 inch plastic wheel in Tie Rod fixture. Figure 20 Installation of Plastic wheel on Tie Rod Fixture  Step-7 Now insert 8 mm round rod on other end of bevel gear. After that insert 3 different diameter iron gear with fixed electromagnetic clutches in that 8 mm rod as shown below. First two electromagnetic clutches are used for steering drive input as active steering mode and third one is used for line keeping mechanism. Figure 21 Installation of Electromagnetic Clutch and Gears
  40. 40. 31  Step-8 Now connect two opposite diameter gears with active steering gears. These gears are power by steering control gearbox. Steering control gear box is only used to increase steering rotations only; its ratio is 4:1. Figure 22 Installation of Gear with Active Steering  Step-9 Now connect one slow speed DC gear motor with third metal gear electromagnetic clutches of lane keeping control mode. Figure 23 Installation of DC Gear Motor with Electromagnetic clutch
  41. 41. 32  Step-10 Now construct two metal pole and insert one plastic pipe roller in it, this roller is painted black and Corner are wrapped with white tape to be made as road. Figure 24 Construction of metal pole for making road like conditions  Step-11 Now we construct simple inferred control unit. This inferred unit check roller’s (road) both white line, if side of lane is interrupted controlling switch on the gear motor to turn steering that side with alert buzzer. This mode will work if lane keeping mode is on. Figure 25 Construction of infrared control unit
  42. 42. 33 3.2.2. Construction of Electrical Circuits The major electrical circuit which is also our base of the project is Road Sensing Unit circuit. The electric circuit is given in the figure below and its working is as follows: DC supply is first converted into 5V using regulator LM7805 and supplied to the complete circuit. The high- efficiency IRLED driven by P-N-P transistor TBC369 with a modulating frequency of about 20 KHz (available from pin no 5 of the IC LM567, the versatile PLL tone decoder IC), emit infrared light. At this junction the output at pin no 8 is high and this condition is maintained until IC LM567 receives a valid 20 KHz signal at its pin 3. Figure 26 Electrical Circuit of Road Sensing Unit
  43. 43. 34 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION After the completion of the project manufacturing it was tested by our group. Many experiments were carried on the project at different working conditions and the working of the project in different conditions is depicted below in this section: 4.1. ACTIVE STEERING MODE TURNEDON If active steering mode is on near about 1.2 turn of steering cut the wheel rotation. Clutch 1 engages with wheel shaft. Big gear at steering side and small gear at clutch side provide extra turning to vehicle at less turning to steering. Figure 27 Working of Project in Active Steering ON Mode 4.2. ACTIVE STEERING MODE TURNED OFF If active steering mode is off near about 2 turn of steering cut the wheel rotation. Clutch 2 engage with wheel shaft. Small gear at steering side and big gear at clutch side provide less turning to vehicle.
  44. 44. 35 Figure 28 Working of Project in Active Steering OFF Mode 4.3. LANE KEEP MECHANISM Figure 29 Lane Keep Mechanism in ON Mode
  45. 45. 36 Figure 30 Lane Keep Mechanism in OFF Mode 4.4. RESULTS After conducting various types of experiments on the project it was found that the project was working successfully sensors and other electrical circuits were made perfectly and showed no sign of faults or any other defects. Mechanism for lane keeping worked fine and was able to steer vehicle back to its lane. Active steering was also working fine and the desired output was achieved. Although our project is a success but it in some extreme operating working it showed some malfunction like not working of sensor when sensor got covered with dirt and soil. Another problem which we encounter was switching of active steering ON and OFF. Although our project encountered with some problem but they are not serious and hence it can be said that our project can be a major breakthrough in automobile sector in field of safety and comfort.
  46. 46. 37 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Over the course of the project, we designed, built, and tested a Lane keep mechanism with active steering that is capable of alerting driver of the vehicle if its vehicle leaves its lane and bring it back without any input from driver it is also capable of providing a proactive assistance on every bent to make driving more comfortable. While doing this project, we learned about steering, electromagnetic clutches, DC gear motors, infrared sensor, IC LM567 & other electronic and mechanical components and how to connect them. Also, we learned the skills of planning, procurement which is vital to ensure that a project is completed within time and there is time left to improve the design or to troubleshoot as is normally needed. Throughout the project, we struggled with a lot of problems that includes making electrical circuits, assembling various components and last but not the least documentation of the project. But ultimately, we solved all the problems and our project worked much better than we expected. It was able to detect the road marks and buzzer was turned on timely and was able to bring vehicle back to its lane. In the future, sensor capability can be increased so that it can detect lane marking even in the worst condition of driving or otherwise can be made to work without being dependent on the lane marking and can detect if that the driver has lost attention on driving and take the control over vehicle and meanwhile alert the driver to pay attention on driving.
  47. 47. 38 REFERENCES 1. The Global Chassis Sector Report: An Analysis of the Braking, Steering and Suspension Market 2. Active Steering Control based on Tire Force (Kunsoo Huh and Joonyoung Kim) 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lane_departure_warning_system 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_steering 5. http://www.bmw.com/com/en/insights/technology/technology_guide/articles/mm_active_st eering.html 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor 7. http://www.autoevolution.com/news/history-of-the-steering-wheel-20109.html 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/steering 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sensor 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor 12. http://www.homemade-circuits.com/2013/03/lm567-tone-decoder-ic-features-and.html 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistor 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_infrared_sensor 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer 16. http://iprojectideas.blogspot.com
  48. 48. 39 APPENDIX-1 PROJECT SYNOPSIS 1. INTRODUCTION A major form of human caused calamities, which is caused by vehicles, is road accidents. According to various report, on road accident, the most common cause of serious accidents that occurs on highways is loss of attention of driver in driving. Loss of attention of driver is mainly due to fatigue which is caused by constant driving and other factor while driving. Loss of attention is also due to casual behavior of driver and due to sleepiness. Another problem which is also generally faced by many drivers of small and large vehicle is problem of parking and making tight maneuver and this problem is more felt by new drivers having less experience. To address both of these problems we are aiming to develop a project named lane keeping mechanism with active steering. In this project we will make a mechanism that Will Keep the Vehicle in Its Lane when it will cross the lane while driving due to negligence of driver or due to his loss of attention on road and not only this a buzzer will also be installed with it that will make sound when this sort of situation occurs, this will alert driver for keeping its attention on road and on driving. Second part of our project will focus to develop a steering mechanism which will provide more bending to the wheels with less rotation of the steering wheel. Both of these mechanisms will help in providing a better and safe driving experience to the user. A main option that will be made available to the driver will be that both of these mechanisms can be switched ON and OFF according to the circumstances and according to driver’s preferences.
  49. 49. 40 2. BACKGROUND 2.1. Introduction to Steering System The steering system is a group of parts that transmit the movement of the steering wheel to the front, and sometimes the rear, wheels. The primary purpose of the steering system is to allow the driver to guide the vehicle. When a vehicle is being driven straight ahead, the steering system must keep it from wandering without requiring the driver to make constant corrections. The steering system must also allow the driver to have some road feel (feedback through the steering wheel about road surface conditions). The steering system must help maintain proper tire-to-road contact. For maximum tire life, the steering system should maintain the proper angle between the tires both during turns and straight-ahead driving. The driver should be able to turn the vehicle with little effort, but not so easily that it is hard to control. 2.2. Types of Steering Systems Used Two main types of steering systems are used on modern cars and light trucks: the rack-and- pinion system and the conventional, or parallelogram linkage, steering system. On automobiles, the conventional system was the only type used until the 1970s. It has been almost completely replaced by rack-and-pinion steering. Many light trucks continue to use the conventional system. a. Conventional or Parallelogram Linkage Steering System All steering gears used on conventional steering systems appear similar when viewed from the outside. All contain a worm shaft, or worm gear, which is turned by the steering shaft, and a sector gear, which is turned by the worm gear. The interaction of the worm and sector gear converts the rotation of the worm into movement at the pitman arm while turning the steering effort 90°. There are two adjusting devices built into conventional gearbox. The Adjuster at the top of the sector shaft is used to adjust the Clearance between the sector gear and worm gear. The worm gear adjuster is used to adjust the bearing preload of the worm gear. The worm gear adjuster can also be removed to gain access to the worm gear and nut during overhaul. The adjuster can be located at either end of the worm gear shaft. A typical parallelogram linkage steering system is shown in the figure below.
  50. 50. 41 Figure 1 Parallelogram Steering System Parallelogram steering system is of following types: i. Re-circulating-Ball Steering Gear- It is commonly used in modern vehicles. ii. Worm and Roller Steering Gear- It is found on Asian vehicles, as well as some older Jeep vehicles and European cars. iii. Worm and Follower Steering Gear- It is found in old European cars. b. Rack and Pinion Steering System Rack-and-pinion steering is a simple system that directly converts the rotation of the steering wheel to straight line movement at the wheels. The steering gear consists of the rack, pinion, and related housings and support bearings. Turning the steering wheel causes the pinion to rotate. Since the pinion teeth are in mesh with the rack teeth, turning the pinion causes the rack to move to one side. The rack is attached to the steering knuckles through linkage, so moving the rack causes the wheels to turn. 2.3.Steering Ratio Steering ratio is the relative number of turns of the steering wheel compared to the movement of the wheels. If the steering wheel must be turned one revolution to turn the front wheels one
  51. 51. 42 sixteenth of a turn, the steering ratio is 1 to 1/16. Reversing the numbers gives a ratio of 16 to 1, or 16:1. 2.4. Power steering Power steering is a steering system feature that reduces driver effort by providing extra force to steer the vehicle. The use of power steering has increased to the point that all but the smallest cars are equipped with power steering as standard equipment. Power steering systems are used on both rack-and-pinion and conventional steering systems. 2.5. Active four wheel steering concept In this concept, all four wheels turn at the same time when the driver steers in most active four wheel steering systems the rear wheels are steered by a computers and actuators. The rear wheels generally cannot turn as far as the front wheels. There can be controls to switch off the rear steer and options to steer only the rear wheel independent of the front wheels. This concept was used in monster trucks and farming vehicles and trucks. It was also used by Honda in its cars but this concept could not gain much popularity thus this concept was dropped and was not used in further vehicles. Some other cars manufacturers like Audi, Mitsubishi, and Mercedes-Benz also used this concept but they were limited to some cars models only. Thus it can be said that it is not currently used technology. 2.6. Use of Sensors in Automobile Industry Sensors are the crucial sensory organs of vehicle safety systems Recognizing accident hazards and events in milliseconds, they activate and control crash avoidance and occupant protection systems accurately, reliable and effectively. Micro-mechanical oscillators feel vibrations due to shocks, thus controlling seat belt pre-tensioners and airbags according to the crash type and severity. Micro-mechanical gyroscopes register any vehicle rotations, thus stabilizing the vehicle path and movement as needed. Driver assistance systems controlled by cameras keep the vehicle in the lane and recognize a pedestrian surfacing in front of the vehicle. Radar and laser beams are scanning the road for frontal, side and rear collisions. In order to adequately control restraint systems, crash sensors must accurately discriminate frontal crashes, side
  52. 52. 43 impacts, rear-end collisions and vehicle rollover. New tests such as the lateral pole crash or the small overlap frontal crash continuously increase the requirements to the crash sensors and the intelligent restraint control. Utilizing predictive sensors will effectively increase the effectiveness of occupant protection systems. During multiple collisions, the restraint controller can activate the vehicle brakes in order to reduce the crash severity. Interior sensors recognize the presence, position (out-of-position), size and weight of the occupants, thus tailoring the protection specifically to each occupant. Driver assistance and crash avoidance systems are utilizing three types of sensors: 1. Inertial sensors to monitor the vehicle movements, both accelerations along and rotations around the vehicle axes. Utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) smaller than one tenth of a millimeter, they are extremely sensitive to control the vehicles intended path by activating the steering and braking system. 2. Surround sensors such as radar, laser, ultrasonic and cameras scan the vehicle environment for any hazards, not only for driver information and warning, rather to avoid accidents by activating the brakes and the steering. Even today, autonomous driving in specific situations is possible, such as the adaptive cruise control 3. Communication with satellites (GPS), from car-to-car- and from car-to-infrastructure (C2C2X) along with digital maps will play an important role in the future of automotive safety systems. Thus it is clear that in present scenario, there are many types of safety sensors and system that are used in vehicles for avoiding accidents but there is lack of efficient and price effective safety system in vehicles that can avoid accidents by keeping them in lane and correct its position if they cross lane. Similarly steering system are also not present that can be switched between active and regular steering. Therefore our project finds an important place in automobile industry in present time as it will provide an easy, safe, comfortable and moreover economical driving experience. 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE The aim of project is set to achieve are:  Construction of an intelligent mechanism that will enable the generation of steering input independently from the driver.  Construction of a steering mechanism that will help offer proactive assistance on every bent.
  53. 53. 44  Development of this mechanism which could be further modified and upgraded with extra functionalities. The above stated aims which the project is said to achieve are the objectives to be fulfilled. 4. SIGNIFICANCE AND OUTCOMES  This project aims to avoid serious accidents which are generally caused due to loss of attention of driver on roads due to fatigue of driving or due sleepiness.  It will also provide an option to get proactive assistance on every bent and curves to perform tightest maneuvers which will result in improved road holding and a confident steering sensation even at high speeds.  It will also help in parking of vehicles and will provide easy parking option.  Since it will be cheap in cost and thus can be added in vehicles as a safety measures. 5. METHODOLOGY The project will be completed in the following phases:  Formulation of a general idea of the project.  Research work, by gathering all the data and information related to the project.  Documentation of all the relevant data and information concerned with the project.  Development of a simple drawing of project design and electronics circuits.  Gathering of all the necessary parts and tools.  Building of all the different parts of the model viz. the mechanism.  Assembling all the parts of the model.  Testing.
  54. 54. 45 6. PROJECT DESIGN Figure 2 Design of Lane Keep Mechanism with Active Steering Figure 3 Division of Project in two sections
  55. 55. 46 Figure 4 Active Steering Mode turned OFF Figure 5 Active Steering Mode Turned ON
  56. 56. 47 Figure 6 Working of Lane Keep Mechanism 7. COMPONENTS USED Our proposed project will make use of following components, based on their use they can be categorized as following: Mechanical Components i. 3 set of different size of gear (Hs) ii. 1:4 gear box (Teflon) iii. Plastic steering iv. Dc gear motor v. Rack and pinion vi. Bevel gear mechanism vii. Bearing viii. Electromagnetic clutch ix. Iron rods (8 mm, 12mm) x. Plastic wheel
  57. 57. 48 xi. Iron body frame Electronic components i. ICLM 567 ii. Infrared sensor (2 pair) iii. Regulator iv. Resistance v. Relay vi. Capacitor vii. Transistor viii. Diode ix. Transformer
  58. 58. 49 APPENDIX-2 BUDGET TABLE Sr. No. Items Approximate Cost 1. Different sets of gears Rs. 2000 2. 1:4 Gear Box Rs.1500 3. Plastic Steering Rs. 200 4. DC Gear Motor Rs. 450 5 Rack and Pinion Rs. 2300 6. Bearing Rs. 150 7. Electromagnetic Clutch Rs. 250 8. Iron Rod Rs. 110 9. Plastic Wheel Rs. 50 10. Iron Body Frame Rs. 230 11. IC LM 567 Rs. 350 12. Infrared Sensor Rs. 430 13. Regulator + Relay Rs. 270 14. Resistance Rs. 50 15. Capacitor Rs. 70 16. Diode Rs. 90 17. Transformer Rs. 150 18. Transistor Rs. 160 19. Travel + Accommodations Rs. 3500 20. Total Rs. 12260
  59. 59. 50 APPENDIX-3 TIME TABLE Sr. No. Aim Activity Target date Duration 1 Registration Project registration 08-09-2015 2 hours 2 Formulation of general idea Group meetings 09-10-2015 8 hours 3 Research Collecting data and information and studying the data. 12-10-2015 48 hours 4 Proposal Making project proposal 29-10-2015 8 hours 5 Final proposal Seminar of final proposal 18-11-2015 2 hours 6 Purchasing Item purchase and starting project construction 20-02-2016 3-4 days 7 Progress Project progress report 24-02-2016 5 hours 8 Building and testing Components assembly & testing 15-03-2016 20 days 9 Guide comment Making thesis for guide comments 21-03-2016 2 days 10 Project report Making the final report & binding 11-04-2016 3 days
  60. 60. 51 APPENDIX-4 WRITING RESOURCES Journal of Mechanics and MEMS “Serial Publication, New Delhi (India).” Volume 5 July-December 2013 ISSN: 0974- 8407
  61. 61. 52 LAST PAGE
  62. 62. 53 APPENDIX-5 ORIGINAL IMAGES OF PROJECT
  63. 63. 54
  64. 64. 55

×