Milestones in biology


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Milestones in biology 1900-2010

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Milestones in biology

  1. 1. Milestones in Biology 1900 - 2010<br />Dr.G.ShubhakaraMsc.Ph.D<br />Bangalore university<br />Bangalore<br />
  2. 2. 1901 – 10 <br />- Hugo de Vries, Tshermak and Correns<br /> discovered Mendel’s long ignored paper<br /> “ Experiments with plants hybrids” <br />
  3. 3. 1901 – Hugo de vries of Holland introduces the concept of mutations in organims<br />1902 – Karl Landsteiner disovered the AB blood <br /> group<br />Archibald Garrod documented inborn errors associated with inheritance of recessive genes <br />
  4. 4. 1903 – Walter Sutton observes that egg and sperm cells contain half the number of chromosomes <br />1908 – Thomas Hunt Morgan started extension work on fruit flies. Morgan came from a prominent Kentucky family. <br />
  5. 5. Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin Develop a vaccine against tuberculosis called ( Bacillus Calmette Guerin ) the vaccine was put to use in 1921. <br />
  6. 6. 1909 – Johanssen suggested the term gene<br />1910 – T.H .Morgan found that genes are carried on chromosomes. The word gene was taken from pangene referred by De vries. It was part of English language from 1911.<br />
  7. 7. 1911 – 20 Time of war<br />The second decade of the 20th century was time of great international tension that erupted into a war. <br />Many researchers diverted their work from pure science to the war effort. <br />Fritz Haber in 1918 a Nobel laureate in chemistry promoted Germany’s use of chemical weapons in world war I <br />
  8. 8. The decade of the great war brought advances in areas of applied biology such as immunology bacteriology, food science and crop breeding. <br />1914 – Henry Hallett Dale isolated acetylcholine involved in sending nerve impulses<br />
  9. 9. 1915 – Frederick Twort – English bacteriologist describes bacteriophages<br />d Herelle identified bacteriophage and coined the term <br />
  10. 10. 1918 – A world wide epidemic of influenza kills 25 million people far more than died as a result of world war I <br />
  11. 11. 1921 - 30<br />1921 – Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated insulin from the pancreas of a dog. <br />1925 – A Tennesse court finds a biology teacher John Thomas guilty of violating a state law that bans the teaching of evolution. <br />
  12. 12. 1926 – Walter Canon a Neurologist coins the term Homeostasis <br />
  13. 13. 1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered Penicillin<br />Fleming (centre) receiving the Nobel prize from King Gustaf V of Sweden (right), 1945<br />
  14. 14. Griffith conducted several experiments on Streptococcus pneumonia to identity the transforming particle <br />
  15. 15. This decade marked a giant misstep for genetic science. <br />1928 George William Hunter classified five races of man different in each in instincts, social customs and to some extent structure<br />The highest type of all Caucasians represented by civilized white inhabitants of Europe and America. <br />
  16. 16. Darwin’s theory of evolution was being used in 1920 to teach racism in American high school students. <br />Francis Galton – Charles Darwin’s cousin coined the term eugenics meaning well born or good heritage <br />Galton believed that human species could be improved through careful genetic management. <br />
  17. 17. This idea led to the thinking of the idea that certain kinds of people are inherently superior to others.<br />This idea led to block immigrants from southern and eastern Europe on the grounds of their genetic unsuitability <br />
  18. 18. Eugenics – minded public officials also took it upon themselves to rule that certain individuals considered genetically inferior should be surgically sterilized against their will for the good of society <br />
  19. 19. Adolf Hitler seized power in Germany and his party enacted laws against those considered wither politically or genetically undesirable <br />Nazi policies caused many scientist, educators and public health officials to reexamine ideas about race and eugenics. <br />
  20. 20. In the late 19th century Bacteriologist Ernest Hankin has noticed that Hindu worshippers who drank the water of the sacred Ganges river did not contract Cholera <br />As he investigated he found that the water also contained an antibacterial agent.<br />
  21. 21. 1931- 40 Hard times and hard lessons<br />The 1930 was difficult decade marred by a worldwide economic slum, great depression and by dictatorial and militaristic government in several parts o the world. <br />Soviet union, Japan and Italy launched military conquests that led towards the horrors of world war II <br />
  22. 22. Nazi policies caused many scientist educators, and public officials especially those of Jewish heritage fled Germany setting back that countrys research programmes<br />
  23. 23. 1931 – BarabaraMclintock identified transposons<br />Albert Bethe introduces the concept of pheromones the substances effect the physiology of another individual of the same species.<br />
  24. 24. Sewall Wright proposes genetic drift as a factor in evolution<br />1933 – Shickel Painter and others rediscovered giant salivary chromosomes in Drosophila<br />
  25. 25. 1935 – American Scientist Stanley crystallized tobacco mosaic virus<br />1938 – Warren Weaver director of Rockfeller institute Division of Natural sciences coins the term Molecular biology <br />
  26. 26. 1939 – A war criminal Josef Mengele Became the director of Berlins institute of Hereditary biology and Racial Hygiene he sterilized 56,244 people as hereditary defectives<br />
  27. 27. 1951- 60 Double helix decade<br />The double helix molecules stands as the most prominent historical landmark in biological research between Gregor Mendel’s 19th century discoveries and the present day recombinant DNA and Bioengineering <br />
  28. 28. 1951- James Watson and Francis Crick attended a lecture by Maurice Wilkins on X-ray crystallography of DNA <br />
  29. 29. X- ray Crystallographer<br /> Rosalind Franklin produces <br /> the image of DNA <br />1952 – Immunologist Jones Salk <br /> began field trials of his<br /> experimental vaccine against <br /> Infantile paralysis also called Polio <br />
  30. 30. 1953 – The Journal nature publishes Watson and Crick’s manuscript describing the double helix structure of DNA<br />
  31. 31. 1955 – Salk’s Polio vaccine, having proven safe and effective was released for a vaccination program<br />
  32. 32. 1958 - Kornberg isolated DNA polymerase was called Kornberg enzyme<br />
  33. 33. 1961 – 70 Code breakers and Ecologists <br />1961 – Marshall W. Niremberg builds a strand of RNA from the base Uracil<br />Monod & Jacob coined the term messenger RNA<br />1966 – Niremberg and collegues show that codon determines each of 20 amino acids that form proteins <br />1970 – Temin discovered Reverse transcriptase<br />
  34. 34. 1971 - 1980<br />The field of molecular genetics changed radically as scientists achieved new means for probing measuring, synthesizing and ultimately manipulating DNA<br />
  35. 35. 1972 – Paul Berg achieves the first recombinant DNA molecule<br />1978 – Boyer makes a synthetic version of the human insulin gene and inserts into the bacterium E.coli<br />1980 – U. S supreme court rules that genetically altered life forms can be patented <br />
  36. 36. 1985 – AnandChakraborthy patented Super bug (oil eating bacteria) <br />
  37. 37. 1981 – 1990Biotech booms, AIDS looms <br />The field of biotechnology accelerated in the 1980s in large part because of new tools for molecular biologists <br />1982 – the term AIDS is used for the first time<br />1983 – Stanley Prusiner introduces the term PrionsKarry Mullis invents PCR <br />1985 – Alec Jaffreys introduced “DNA finger printing” which soon enters court room. <br />
  38. 38. 1986 – Robert Horvitz discovered genes controlling programmed cell death in the nemadoteC.elegans<br />1987 – The USA department of Energy establishes a research program to sequence the entire human genome <br />1990 – The human genome project begins work estimated cost 13 billion <br />Gene therapy was used for the first time on human subject <br />
  39. 39. 1991- 2000Sheep and Stem cells <br />1995 – O. J. Simpson a film actor and a foot ball of fame was convicted for the murder of his ex-wife and her friend by DNA analysis. <br />A Virginia prisoner is the first person put to death after a conviction based on DNA evidence <br />1997 – Wilmut announces the cloning of sheep Dolly <br />
  40. 40. 2000 – Human genome project <br />was completed and was published<br />in Nature journal <br />
  41. 41. Golden rice was produced by Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer <br />
  42. 42. 2010 – Steptoe & Edwards awarded Nobel prize for IVF<br />
  43. 43. 2001 - 2100<br />Future Perspectives : <br />The biological research in 20th century offers many great promises for the future and as many cautions <br />The science of genetics once involved tracing neat rules in pea plants – lead to the emergence of R DNA technique <br />
  44. 44. In the early 21stcentury Huntington’s disease took a toll.<br />Many children still go blind from Vitaminedeficiency. Herat disease and diabetes play a dominant role. <br />Cancers far better understood and more successfully treated than they were decades ago. Continue to disable and kill <br />The earth species are becoming extinct at an alarming rate <br />AIDS ravages the third world<br />
  45. 45. What happened to Recombinant DNA technology ?<br />Decades of success and failures. It has met opposition on religious and philosophical grounds. Recombinant DNA remains incredibly promising and dangerous too.<br />Ultimately the bigger challenge that biologists will face in the future are sure to be cultural political ethical and moral rather than pure scientific.<br />