Grammar 8 parts


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8 parts of speech defined/examples

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Grammar 8 parts

  1. 1. Grammar 8 parts of speech
  2. 2. 1. Noun <ul><li>Person, place, thing or idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper or common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract or concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Proper & common nouns <ul><li>Proper nouns name particular people, places, or things. These are capitalized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ann, Montana, Sears Tower </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Common nouns are not capitalized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>woman, street, building </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pronoun <ul><li>Used in place of a noun or more than one noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful to avoid unreferenced or ambiguous pronouns </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>It was a beautiful day. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenny was arguing with Paula, and she looked unhappy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adjective <ul><li>Used to modify a noun or pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adjectives need not precede the modified word </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rat, large and ugly, sat gazing at the corn field. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Adjectives that modify the subject of the sentence may follow the verb (called a predicate adjective). These only occur with being/linking verbs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bethany is homely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is called a predicate adjective </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The most commonly used adjectives are a, an , and the . They are often called articles. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Verb <ul><li>A word that expresses action or state of being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action verbs that take an object are called transitive verbs The rain lashed the windows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An intransitive verb takes no object The rain fell. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Linking or being verbs suggest a state or condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being verbs – is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been (others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking verbs – appear, become, feel, grow, look, remain, seem (others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mildred looks very angry. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one or more helping verbs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has played, should have paid, will be coming, must have been hurt </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Adverb <ul><li>Used to modify verbs and adjectives, or other adverbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tells how, when, where, or to what extent (how often/how much) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Modifying a verb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theresa reads quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas can really skate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents left yesterday. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Modifying an adjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bart is an incredibly intense competitor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I couldn’t tell if the unbelievably ugly dog was coming or going. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Modifying another adverb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She swam very fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sean fell terribly hard on the ice. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Preposition <ul><li>Used to show the relation of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALWAYS occurs in a phrase </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The phrase, as a whole, operates as an adjective or adverb </li></ul><ul><li>The noun or pronoun (in the definition) is called the object of the preposition </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>A short list of prepositions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About, above, across, after, at, in, by, into, of, on, over, since, through, throughout, to, toward, under, until, up, upon, with, before, beside, among, around, from, for, like, since, between </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The first person in the pool wins the race. </li></ul><ul><li>I edited the article for the magazine. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conjunction <ul><li>Joins words or groups of words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlative conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Coordinating conjunctions join two equal “things” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joan and Tarren are the best musicians in our school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cougar turned and ran through the yard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle or swine remain the only critters raised in this county. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Correlative conjunctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>always occur in pairs – either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but (also), whether/or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His act was neither interesting nor exciting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either come help me in the kitchen or go clean the garage. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to begin subordinate clauses, usually adverb clauses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This computer is even better than we had anticipated . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will do it myself since you can’t help me . </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Interjection <ul><li>Expresses emotion and has no grammatical relation to other words in the sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oh! Hurry! Wow! Ouch! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Don’t panic yet ! We will deal with this in small chunks, and only to a certain depth.