Narrative theory 2

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Narrative theory 2

  1. 1. Narrative Theory
  2. 2. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionStarter:What narrative theories do you already know?How can you apply these to your coursework?
  3. 3. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionWhat is narrative?"Story is the irreducible substance of a story (Ameets B, something happens, orderreturns), while narrative is the way the story isrelated (Once upon a time there was aprincess...)" (Key Concepts in Communication -Fiske et al (1983))
  4. 4. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionBarthesNarrative conventions:• Genre- certain genres have certain narratives• Character- by identifying the character type we can establish their narrative path• Form- types or style of narrative• Time- linear/non linear narrativesNarrative codes:• Action- resolution is produced by action• Enigma- mysteries/ questions/riddles to be solved• Symbolic- connotation• Semic- denotation• Cultural- cultural representations
  5. 5. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionTypes of narrative:Linear narrativeA B C D E
  6. 6. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionNon LinearE A B C DA B C DE D C B A
  7. 7. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam question• flashbacks• dream sequences• repetition• different characters POV• flash forwards• real time interludes• pre-figuring of events that have not yet taken place
  8. 8. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionTemporal OrderThe narrative can also be presented in parallel terms, for instance we watch a scene where a character isgetting ready for a party, then we see another scene where a friend is doing the same. The time when this ishappening is parallel to each other - it is happening at the same time in real terms. Parallel editingTemporal Duration There are 3 distinctions of time within a film:Screen duration: the time the film takes to show- real timeNarrative duration: the length of time the narrative covers- actually shownStory duration: the length of time the story covers (including all the inferred events we bring to it)- 5 yearslater…Temporal Frequency The narrative of a film may show us an event which happens once in the film but we know to have happenedmany times in the story - a short-cutting of information for the viewer. For instance, in a film such as Gladiator,we see the hero fight four battles before his final triumph. We assume that many more battles have actuallytaken place, but we are being shown the most important ones in whatever respect. Alternatively, but lessfrequently, a story event may be shown more than one time during the plot - we see an event occur fromanother angle which may lead us to view characters or events in a different light.
  9. 9. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionClosed narrative:All threads are resolvedOpen narrative:Story is not resolved or is left for interpretation
  10. 10. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionSingle strand: one storyMulti strand: more than one story which are allresolved by the endFlexi-narrative: More than one story, not all ofwhich are resolved but may feature and beresolved in a sequel or series
  11. 11. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionNarrative structures:Todorov:EQUILIBRIUM DISRUPTION/DISEQUILIBRIUM NEW EQUILIBRIUMEquilibrium disruption recognition repair new equilibriumLINEAR
  12. 12. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionNarrative structure:Propp’s character types and functions:• the villain, who struggles with the hero (formally known as the antagonist)• the donor,• the helper,• the Princess, a sought-for person (and/or her father), who exists as a goal and often recognizes and marries hero and/or punishes villain• the dispatcher,• the hero, who departs on a search (seeker-hero), reacts to the donor and weds• the false hero (or antihero or usurper), who claims to be the hero, often seeking and reacting like a real hero (ie by trying to marry the princess)31 stagesLINEAR
  13. 13. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionLevis-StraussBinary opposites:Conflict pushes the narrative forward. In order tohave conflict we must have opposing elements e.gGood and EvilUsually one element will overcome the other toresolve the narrative
  14. 14. Aim: Explore narrative theories and apply to coursework in preparation for exam questionPlan your response to this example exam question:
  15. 15. useful links:http://www.longroadmedia.com/resources/Narrative%20Theory%20Hand-Out.pdfhttp://mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/alevkeyconcepts/alevelkeycon.php?pageID=narrativehttp://www.esfmedia.com/page/Narrative+theory

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