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Introduction To Research Methods


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Introduction To Research Methods

  1. 1. Critical Research Studies <ul><li>You will need to choose one of the following areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and Film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics and the Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular Music and Youth Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Conception to Consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children and Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime and the Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport and the Media </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Critical Research Studies <ul><li>Once you have chosen your topic area, you will need to focus your study on a particular issue or question. </li></ul><ul><li>This involves creating a relevant hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>This will probably be most useful if it is in the form of the question </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some Examples <ul><li>Women and Film </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How have representations of female crimefighters in film changed over the last 50 years? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways do female audiences respond to images of the male body in modern films? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Politics and Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent are British politicians dependent upon the press for their success or failure? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the BBC an objective reporter of political news? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular Music and Youth Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does death metal music represent the values and beliefs of its audiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways do teenage audiences define themselves by the music they listen to? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Some Examples <ul><li>Community Radio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways can a community radio station define the values of the audiences which listen to it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Conception to Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What processes were used in the planning, construction and exhibition of Nuts magazine to guarantee its success? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children and Television </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways is the behaviour of young children affected by the television they watch? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do advertisers exploit children in order to sell their products on television? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Some Examples <ul><li>Crime and the Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between crime reporting and representations of race in the tabloid press? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are TV crime dramas so popular with British audiences? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sport and the Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what degree do the demands of television affect the organisation of key sports, such as football, in this country? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways is technology changing how sport is consumed by TV audiences? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Critical Research Studies <ul><li>You are now ready to begin thinking about research sources </li></ul><ul><li>The more that you can get done at an early stage of the study, the easier you will find this paper next year </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Research is like a shark . </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as it stops moving, it will die! </li></ul>
  7. 7. Critical Research Studies <ul><li>How do I carry out my research? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A huge variety of choices is available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best research offers a balance of sources, methods and data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, you need to show evidence of both primary and secondary research in your exam </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Primary Research <ul><li>This term refers to any research in which you, as researcher, generate your own data or information. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various forms of primary research which you might want to carry out. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Techniques of Primary Research <ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observational studies </li></ul><ul><li>Non-participant observational studies </li></ul><ul><li>Content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Textual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul>
  10. 10. Secondary Research <ul><li>This term refers to any research in which you, as researcher, collect data that already exists in some shape or form </li></ul><ul><li>There are various forms of secondary sources which you might want to look at in order to collect your data. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources of Secondary Research <ul><li>Books and textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Journals and magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Academic papers </li></ul><ul><li>The internet </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Official’ reports and statistics </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Unofficial’ reports and statistics </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Data <ul><li>You will find that the research that you carry out will produce, broadly, two types of data: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data - data that is largely numerical in form </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data - data consisting of words/meaning/interpretations </li></ul>