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  1. 1. Generic Development <ul><li>Following on from the work of Christian Metz, Thomas Schatz put forward the view that genres tend to pass through a number of ‘stages’, in a predictable pattern or cycle, through their lifespan </li></ul>
  2. 2. Stage 1 - Innovative <ul><li>Genre texts offer a high degree of innovation, experimenting with genre conventions or merging existing genres to create new forms. </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage, genre texts are likely to challenge audiences and to attain popularity through their originality. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stage 2 - Classical <ul><li>Genre conventions are well established and boundaries between genres tend to be well-defined and more stable </li></ul><ul><li>At this stage, genre texts are likely to generate pleasure through the reinforcement of predictable elements and the repetition of popular structures </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stage 3 - Parody <ul><li>Genre texts take advantage of the audience’s familiarity with their conventions by self-consciously drawing attention to their form and style. </li></ul><ul><li>Audience pleasure is generated by the acknowledgement of the shared experience, often in the form of exaggerated or humourous use of generic conventions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stage 4 - Deconstruction <ul><li>Genre texts begin to challenge their generic elements by reformulating the conventions – breaking, ignoring or altering the shared understanding of genre. </li></ul><ul><li>Audience pleasure is generated through the genre text’s ability to recognise and to subvert its forms and meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of transformation may sometimes lead the genre through to the beginning of the cycle once more </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Schatz Cycle <ul><li>Innovation phase </li></ul><ul><li>Classical phase </li></ul><ul><li>Parodic phase </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruction phase </li></ul><ul><li>“ As a genre’s classic conventions are refined and eventually parodied and subverted, its transparency gradually gives way to opacity; we no longer look through the form…rather we look at the form itself to examine and appreciate its structure and its cultural appeal” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Problems with Schatz’ Cycle <ul><li>Schatz’s work depends upon a closed view of genre, in which texts that do not fit the pattern are rejected or ignored </li></ul><ul><li>The cycle ignores the issue of sub-genres which can splinter from the original genre template </li></ul><ul><li>No time-frame is offered for this view of genre development </li></ul><ul><li>The cycle addresses how genre changes, but offers no attempt to say why genre changes </li></ul><ul><li>The cycle implies that genre development is ‘internal’ or that genres have a ‘natural’ lifespan. This ignores the institutional and social/cultural forces which must have an impact on the ways in which genres change. </li></ul>