research process


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research process

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROCESSPresented by: Cherry Goyal
  2. 2. RESEARCH Research can be defined as the search for knowledge,or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind,to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems,prove new ideas, or develop new theories. The primarypurposes of basic research (as opposed to appliedresearch) documentation,  discovery,  interpretation, orthe research and development of methods and systemsfor the advancement of human knowledge. 2
  3. 3. Research Process• A Research process consists of series of actions or stepsnecessary to effectively carry out research and the desiredsequencing of these steps. 3
  4. 4. The Research Process• to produce new knowledge, or to offer a new manner of understanding present knowledge 4
  5. 5. METHODS OF RESEARCH 1. The Scientific MethodThis method involves techniques for investigating phenomena acquiring knowledge correcting and integrating previous knowledge 5
  6. 6. METHODS OF RESEARCHCONT…2. Historical Method It involves techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history This approach may also be used with artistic project development 6
  7. 7. RESEARCH SOURCESResearch Sources are mainly of two types –1. Primary Research – It includes collection of data not previously existent Examples are Interviews ,Surveys ,Speeches or performances 7
  8. 8. RESEARCH SOURCES CONT…2. Secondary Research – It includes summary, collation Examples are Books, Journals and magazines,Electronics Database – library, Internet - primarily .org, .edu, .gov 8
  9. 9. The Research Process Establish the Need for ResearchIt is beneficial for one who is preparing himself for a career ofcarrying out research.We can use the knowledge of research methodology as it is helpfulin various fields such as government or business administration,community development and social work where persons areincreasingly called upon to evaluate and use research results foraction.When one knows how research is done, then one may have thesatisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can becomea way of looking at the world. 9
  10. 10. The Research ProcessA research journey there are two important decisions to make-1) What you want to find out aboutor what research questions you want to find answers to;2) How to go about finding their answers.There are practical steps through which you must pass in your research journey in order to find answers to your research questions. The path to finding answers to your research questions constitutes research methodology. 10
  11. 11. RESEARCH PROCESSING…. Examine a social Asking the relationship, study the Formulating the Research Question relevant literature HypothesesContribute Develop anew researchevidence to THEORY designliteratureand beginagain Evaluating the Analyzing Collecting Data Hypotheses Data 11
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  13. 13. The Research ProcessStep One: Define the Problem• The research process begins with the recognition of a problem or opportunity.• At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study, i.e to decide area of interest.• There are two steps involved in research process :  Understanding the problem thoroughly  And rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view  The best way of understanding the problem is to discuss it with one’s own colleagues or with those having the same expertise in the matter. 13
  14. 14. The Research Process Cont…STEP2:EXTENSIVE LITERATURE SURVEY It is necessary for the researcher to conduct an extensive survey connected with the problem. For this purpose – Manuals Company Records journals ,published data can be used. 14
  15. 15. THE RESEARCH PROCESSStep two Cont… -Literature review is integral part of entire research process and makes valuable contribution to every operational step. -Reviewing literature can be time-consuming, daunting and frustrating, but is also rewarding. Its functions are: a. Bring clarity and focus to your research problem; b. Improve your methodology; c. Broaden your knowledge; d. Contextualise your findings. 15
  16. 16. Step Three: Formulation the objectiveObjectives are the goals you set out to attain in yourstudy.They inform a reader what you want to attain through thestudy.It is extremely important to word them clearly andspecifically.Objectives should be listed under two headings:a) main objectives ( aims);b) sub-objectives.• The main objective is an overall statement of the thrustof your study.It is also a statement of the main associations andrelationships that you seek to discover or establish. 16
  17. 17. The Research ProcessStep Four: Determine Research DesignResearch Design step involves the development of a research plan for carrying out the study. – There are a number of alternative research designs. The choice will largely depend on the research purpose. Types Of Research Design Descriptiv CausalExploratory e 17
  18. 18. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY Descriptive Studies are undertaken in organizations to learn and describe the characteristics of a group of employees, as for example, the age, education level, job status, and length of service. Explortory studies are study of collection of data in informal manner and unstructured Casual Study A causal study Is an inquiry to know the cause of one or more problems. 18
  19. 19. RESEARCH DESIGN CONT…Research Design - SAMPLE STUDY POPULATION SIZE SAMPLE SIZE DATA COLLECTIONThe various tools of empowerment were identified throughquestionnaire and interview. 19
  20. 20. RESEARCH PROCESS CONT…Step 5: Collecting The DataPublished data are available in: Publications of central, state and local newspapers Publication of foreign government or of international bodies Technical or trade journals Books, magazines and newspaper and Internet Public record and statistics, historical documents and sources of p ublic information.Methods of Data Collection Personal Interview Questionnaire Telephonic Interview 20
  21. 21. THE RESEARCH PROCESS CONT…Step6:Analysis Of DataThe Analyses of data can of two types: Quantitative analysis Qualitative analysis Thus analysis of data require a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories into raw data through tabulation, chart and then draw inferences. Analysis work is based on the computation of various percentage, coefficient etc 21
  22. 22. STEP 7: ANALYZE AND EVALUATETHE INFORMATION 1. Relate the information you have found and compiled, and your ideas from reading and thinking about the information, to your topic. 2. Analyze your notes. 3.Break down your notes into topic themes or categories decide how these themes or categories relate to your topic and discard notes that do not relate to your thesis 4. Look for holes in your thesis statement support and go back to find information you are missing 5. Do you have enough information to complete your research? If not, you may have to repeat several of the previous steps and/or extend the 22 research process
  23. 23. The Research Process Cont…Step9:Analysis And Interpretations Analysis and Interpretation are the central steps in the research process. The goal of analysis is to summaries the collected data in such a way that they provide answer to questions that triggered while research. Interpretation is the research for border, meaning of research finding 23
  24. 24. The Research Process Cont…Step 8: Execution of project• Execution of the project is a very important step in the research process.• If the execution of the project proceeds on correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable.• The researcher should see that the project is executed in a systematic manner and in time.• If the data should be made for proper coded.• A careful watch and in order to keep the survey as much realistic as possible.• Accuracy is very necessary. 24
  25. 25. THE MARKETING RESEARCHPROCESS CONT…Step 10: Prepare & Present the Final Research Report Findings are presented often by research ,objective should be in clear and concise way It is a report that communicates properly and result to clients 25
  26. 26. CONCLUSION Good quality research requires a researcher to follow scientific approach. Researcher must follow scientific method in conducting literature review, identifying research gaps, writing problem statement & outlining research questions and research objectives. Researcher must carefully select among different research designs, the selection of which depends on specific research questions and the overall objectives of the study. Decisions like choosing among data collection methods and sampling techniques require researcher to exercise logical 26 reasoning..
  27. 27. REFRENCES Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques, New Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology 27