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36161850 go-green-initiative


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36161850 go-green-initiative

  1. 1. GO GREEN INITIATIVE Go Green Initiative Submitted to:- Prof. Reema Mohanty On 13th May 2010 Indian Business Academy Submitted by:- Amit Dandapath-FPBO911/009Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 1
  2. 2. GO GREEN INITIATIVE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTApart from the efforts of mine, the success of this project depends largely onthe encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity toexpress my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in thesuccessful completion of this project. I would first like to thank our CEO, Mr. Manish Jain, and Dean, Dr. SubhashSharma for being so encouraging and helpful throughout my report work . I would also like to express my profound gratitude to Prof. Reema Mohantyfor her constant and valuable suggestions while doing the project work.Without her encouragement and guidance this project would not havematerialized.CEO DEANM.Comm Faculty INDEXInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 2
  3. 3. GO GREEN INITIATIVES. No Contents Page No1 Introduction 42 Objective 63 Why Are Firms going Green? 64 What can be the available options 75 Rising challenges 106 Global Megatrends 117 How to achieve green growth? 128 Sector Segments - Alternative 149 Green Building 1610 Features of Green Buildings 1611 Green building perspectives & bottom line benefits 1912 Green building in a down economy 2113 Successful commercial green building projects 2214 Green marketing 2315 Conclusion 2716 Bibliography 281. Introduction As the world is facing problems with global warming and problem ofclimate change there is pressure from the developed countries on the developingInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 3
  4. 4. GO GREEN INITIATIVEcountries to reduce their carbon footprint and help reduce the impact on theenvironment. The world has a fixed amount of natural resources - some ofwhich are already depleted. So as population growths there is great strain on ourfinite resources. So the first step in this cause is to become sustainable andreduce the environmental impact and focus on going green as it has manybenefits other than cost associated benefits. Based on significant research and input from experts in the field,including the advisory panel convened to help guide this study, Pew hasdeveloped the following definition: A clean energy economy generates jobs,businesses and investments while expanding clean energy production,increasing energy efficiency, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste andpollution, and conserving water and other natural resources. The clean energyeconomy comprises five categories: (1) Clean Energy; (2) Energy Efficiency;(3) Environmentally Friendly Production; (4) Conservation and PollutionMitigation; and (5) Training and Support. As a Renewable Energy serviceprovider targeting emerging markets, Green Power Renewable Energy willcompete in the industry known as Renewable for Sustainable Power (RSP). RSPis a small, but fast-growing subset of the gigantic global energy industry, whichis currently experiencing an economic revolution. One significant characteristicof this revolution has been astonishing growth. Over the past ten years, forinstance, the worlds demand for electricity has increased by 40 percent. Expertspredict that, as industrialization sweeps developing countries, current demandcould triple by 2020. Because so many new electricity users live in remoteareas, most of this increased demand has been, and will continue to be, servicedby RE, As a result, renewable are by far the fastest growing segment of worldenergy use. The second trend of importance is the American Clean Energy andSecurity Act of 2009, a bipartisan legislation effort to p osition the U.S. to leadthe development of clean energy by ensuring that commercial financing forclean, new technologies is readily available for future energy use right here inAmerica. A strong renewable electricity standard (RES) is an essentialcomponent of any comprehensive national energy policy, not just an importantpart of such a strategy, but an essential component. A national RES also willreduce our greenhouse gas emissions, increase our energy security, and enhancethe reliability of the electricity grid by creating more homegrown renewableenergy. Rapidly ramps up clean, domestic sources of electricity by requiring thegradual increase of the amount of renewable energy utilities produce. Sellers ofelectricity must obtain the following percentages of their electricity fromrenewable energy resources or from energy efficiency improvements . YEAR __ % 2011-2013««««..3Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 4
  5. 5. GO GREEN INITIATIVE 2014-2016««««. 6 2017-2018««««. 9 2019-2020«««« 12 2021-2039«««« 15 An aspiration goal of limiting global temperature increase to 2 degreesCelsius, broad terms have been formulated for the reporting and verification ofcountries actions; a collective commitment by developed countries for $30billion in ³new and additional´ resources in 2010 -2012 to help devel opingcountries reduce emissions, preserve forests, and adapt to climate change; and agoal of mobilizing $100 billion a year in public and private finance by 2020 toaddress developing county needs. To meet the above goals of the Copenhagen summit the gov ernment hasto develop alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy or reforestation toreduce the carbon footprint. Government agency alone cannot do, it can only bedone with the help of the private sector. There is immense pressure from theCentral Pollution Control Board on the Business ,the companies should take thisin positive terms in with if they focus on these objectives they can benefitthemselves not just short term but in longer and much broader perceptive andcreate new opportunities of this they should focus on convocation that will helpthe business to grow and make them more competitive in long term, theseinitiative should range from layout change , operating activities to build greenbuildings so as reduce the impact on environment and will meet the businessneeds effectively.2. Objective y Why the companies are going green. y To find a green business model that can be applied to different business y How the companies become self sufficient in carry in out their operation.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 5
  6. 6. GO GREEN INITIATIVE y Market research on green marketing.3. Why Are Firms going Green? Firms are implementing go green in their systems, policies and products due to economic and noneconomic pressures from their consumers, business partners, regulators, citizen group and other stakeholders. Some of the other reasons may include. y Some scholar claim that green policies/products are profitable : green policies can reduce costs; green firms can shape future regulations and reap first mover advantage. y Now a day firms are becoming more concerned about their social responsibilities. They have taken S.R as a good strategic move to build up an image in the heart of Consumers. Even the socially responsible firms are getting leverage, whenever they intend to enter into foreign countries. There is example of firms like HCL, TCS, Infosys; these are heavily promoting them as environmentally concerned firms, so as to get important client abroad as well as domestic contracts. y Change in customers attitude: with increasing concern about environment, consumers attitude towards firms having green policies or green products are becoming motivating factor. y Governmental pressure: in all most all civilized countries Govt. has the law to protect the consumers and the environment from the harmful goods or byproducts and ensure through law that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods. Govt. established several regulations to control the amount of hazardous waste produced by firms and many by-products of production are controlled through the issuing of various environmental licenses, thus shaping the behavior organization towards more socially responsible one. Government has designed guidelines in such a way that consumer would have appropriate information which would enable them to evaluate organization¶s environmental claims. y Competitive pressure: competition is the integral part of business; and one can¶t over-look any competitive action taken by the competitor. So to be in the market one has to have a vigil over your competitor¶s move for marketing its products. y Cost or profit issue: firms may also use green strategy so as to have a control over the cost associated with waste disposal. Therefore firms thatInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 6
  7. 7. GO GREEN INITIATIVE would able to introduce green -practices by not inculcating or lesser use of harmful ingredients would able to reduce its operating cost to a considerable extend.4. What can be the available options If you are looking for ways to put a little green in your wallet by putting some green in your portfolio, you might be surprised at the wide range of offerings available for your consideration. Lets take a look at 10 interesting areas, which are highlighted below.Wind Windmill farms are sprouting up around the world. Australia, Europe andthe United States are all investing in wind as a l eading source of renewableenergy. The business of wind not only includes the generation and sale ofpower, but also the design and construction of wind turbines. Few countries relyon wind for more than a tiny fraction of their power generation need, but manycountries are interested in the possibility. If this is of interest to you, look for wind farm companies that sell wind-generated energy or companies that produce the windmill technology. There arefew pure play stocks that deal in wind in the U.S. , which will likely change overtime, but companies like General Electric have a presence in this market.Water One of the most important natural resources we have is water as it is anecessity in our survival. However, there has been a lot of fear that we arerunning out of clean water sources as the global population continues to grow.To investors this has created a clear opportunity to invest in companies thatcollect, clean and distribute water. The largest water utility company in the Aqua America, which supplies water to nearly 3 million people. Anothercompany in the industry, on the purification side, is ITT Industries, whichproduces water purification systems that help to make drinkable water. To see the power of water, one needs look n o further than Chinasmassive Three Gorges Dam project. While this $25 billion structure on theInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 7
  8. 8. GO GREEN INITIATIVEYangtze River will be the largest hydroelectric power station in the world, itssure not the only one. Hydropower involves a lot of technology, a lot ofinfrastructure and a lot of power-hungry customers. Every one of those areasholds potential opportunities for investors. On the power side, two publicallytraded producers include PG&E Corp. which has one of the largest hydrooperations and which has 17 hydro projects. (For related reading, seeSolar Energy Solar energy is powering homes, buildings and a variety of other itemsfrom lights to radios. As the cost of fossil fuels continues to rise and theiravailability continues to decline, the future looks bright for solar energy. If you think the sun is just starting to rise on this industry the companiesto look at are those that produce solar energy panels, which will benefit ifhomeowners and businesses adopt solar technology. Two of the leadingproducers of solar panels are Evergreen Solar and Sun power Corp. whichdevelop, manufacture and sell panels and components and will directly benefitfrom the increased adoption of solar power.Fuel Cells On a smaller scale, researchers are working with fuel cell technology todevelop an alternative method of powering automobiles. The U.S. governmenthopes that hydrogen powered cars will be commonplace by 2020. If thistechnology works, there are millions of cars - and millions of consumers -waiting for it. If you think this is the type of energy is the wave of the future there are afew companies that operate in the space and and develop fuel cell technology.For example, some of the largest producers include Ballard Power Systemswhich produces cells that can be used in from cars to power plants, and FuelCell Energy which focuses on providing power options to commercial andindustrial facilities.Efficiency Just about every aspect of efficiency is good for the environment. Energ yefficient construction and appliances reduce home energy use and energyefficient cars reduce our dependence on oil. From efficient lighting to creatingthe paperless office, innovative companies are developing innovative productsthat maximize the benef it that we get from the resources that we use. Efficiencyis the watchword of the day and a developing field that will create theInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 8
  9. 9. GO GREEN INITIATIVEtechnologies that we will use tomorrow. This area is a little more difficult to invest in as there are no real pure playcompanies dealing strictly in efficiency. However, there are some companiesthat have done a great job at leveraging efficiency such as General Electric withits Ecomagination business unit.Pollution Controls Reduction is the key term here. From reducing green house gas emissionson industrial power plants to minimizing the emissions that come out of thetailpipe of your car, the pollution control industry is on the rise. Every timelegislation mandates an improvement in the amount of some harmful chemicalthat can be released into the environment, the pollut ion control industryresponds. If this is something you are concerned about, look for companies thatdevelop pollution control technologies such as Fuel-Tech and Versar.Waste Reduction Recycling has become a standard practice for many people in recentdecades. The stuff that was formerly thrown away and trucked off to the landfillis now turned into useful products. Most people are aware that householdproducts such as paper, metal and glass are reprocessed and reused, but theynever stop to consider the business behind these endeavors. Of course, thesearent the only items that are reused; waste oil, vegetable oil, batteries, cellphones, computers and even parts from cars can have a second life. Rec yclingthese items involves a business enterprise humming along in the backgriound. In terms of your portfolio, waste management companies with a largebase of recycling facilities may be of interest including companies such asAllied Waste Industries and waste management.Organics Organic farms eschew the use of pesticides, engage in sustainablefarming practices and sell products that are often healthier to eat than the stuffcomposed of three-syllable words that you cant pronounce and a shelf -lifemeasured in decades. They also engage in animal management practices thatavoid the use of hormones and antibiotics, keeping those chemicals out of thefood chain and out of the ground and water surrounding the farms .Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 9
  10. 10. GO GREEN INITIATIVEBest In Class For many companies, the urge to go green is a relatively recentphenomenon. Like change everywhere, some firms adapt and some dont.Investment managers in the "green" space have begun to categorize firms by theplace they hold along the "green" spectrum. Take oil companies fo r example.One would be hard pressed to think of these firms as green, and for the mostpart, they arent. But if you take a closer look at their business models, it is easyto see that some are greener than others. Choosing the firms with the bestenvironmental records And practices is another way of looking at ³green´How to Grow a Green Portfolio If a "green" investment catches your eye, there are plenty of ways to finda place for it in your portfolio. Mutual funds, exchange -traded funds, stocks,bonds and even money market funds that focus on the environment are allavailable.5. Rising challenges Over the next four years, UNIDO will continue to pursue its overarchingdevelopment objective of industrial development for poverty reduction,inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. It will promotecapacity development, technology transfer, policy and institutional support,gender mainstreaming and sustainability, with the aim of enhancing growth,competitiveness and wealth creation in developing countries. Wealth creation,said Yumkella, is key in the fight against poverty. To better respond to thechallenges of today, the Director-General emphasized three cross-organizationalinitiatives: industrial upgrading and enterprise competitiveness for existingindustries in developing countries; greening industry; and South-Southcooperation. Many African countries are rich in raw materials, so rural development andvalue addition have to be addressed in order to foster economic growth. Thenext four years will be challenging. Focus will be on change management,knowledge management, results -based management, field effectiveness andstaff mobility, and accountability Of these, change management is a lynchpin.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 10
  11. 11. GO GREEN INITIATIVEUNIDO has accomplished much in the past four years, but needs to continuedoing more, and doing better. The Director-General closed his speech with anurgent plea to Member States to invest in the Organization and give it theresources it needs to achieve its aims.6. Global Megatrends The world¶s economic slowdown is not the only issue affecting developingcountries as they strive to build their economies and improve living standards.In his speech, the Director-General discussed these so-called µglobalmegatrends¶ and their implications. Here is an outline: 1) Food, fuel and financial crises continue to strain fragile economies. Loss of exports, reduced growth and concomitant rising unemployment is resulting in deepening poverty for many. Meanwhile, food prices have increased by more than 50 per cent over the past three years and the long- term trend for fuel prices is upwards. 2) Demographics rapid population growth in developing countries means increased demand for food and fuel. In 1959, Africa¶s population was estimated at 221 million. In 2009, it reached one billion and continues to increase rapidly. 3) Illicit economy is growing worldwide. Statistics show that poverty, and the lack of jobs and economic prospects for growing populations, is linked to an increase in crime and illegal migration. 4) Climate change is the defining global trend of our time. Developing countries are suffering most from the effects of global warming even though they contribute the least to greenhouse gas emissions. 5) Green growth and green industry energy access is crucial for development, economic growth and poverty reduction. Developing countries are ready to adopt clean technologies and build green industry, but they need international help to do so. 6) Globalization is creating greater interdependence and market connectivity, but not all developing countries and regions are growing at the same pace. Some are booming while in others the share of global trade has grown only slightly in the past decade.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 11
  12. 12. GO GREEN INITIATIVE7. How to achieve green growth? A. Innovation The proceedings got under way with an inspirational presentation byGunter Pauli on ³how to respond to the basic needs of all, with what we have´.Pauli listed case after case in which small, unlikely ideas have grown intopowerful expressions of self-sufficiency, generating jobs and revenue, whilebeing environmentally sound and sustainable. Referring to organic waste, hesaid: ³Natural systems never throw things into a landfill or use an incinerator.´³But in coffee growing, for example, we have developed a consumption patternin which we only give value to 0.2 per cent. That¶s what ends up in our coffeecup. The rest is waste,´ Pauli said. He then described a programmer inColombia, which converts coffee bean husks into a substrate for growingshitake mushrooms. After the mushrooms have been harvested, the spentsubstrate is used as animal feed. Today, in countries like Zimbabwe, women areworking with this method, building up businesses along with self-confidence,providing jobs and food for the local population, and generating revenues fromthe coffee that is exported. ³In future the lateral mind will be one of the keys.It¶s the linkages between ideas and technologies, that is when innovationcomes,´ agreed Gerard Evenden. He said the essence of Masdar City, the globalclean technology cluster in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, of which he isdesigner, is innovation. Currently, seven per cent of the energy needed to runMasdar, a city of 100,000 people, is produced from the waste generated bythose people. ³Innovation is not about technology,´ said Deborah Wince-Smith.³I would define innovation as the integration of imagination, ideas, ingenuity,and impact. Together we have transformational power. Every human being canbe an innovator.´ She also pointed out that by 2020, 80 per cent of globalconsumers will be outside of the developed world, so globalization andintegration must work in cooperation, not competition B. New thinking needed A new way of thinking is called for ± thinking green, said Suzana KahnRibeiro. ³Public awareness is very important. Consumers are now becomingaware of environmental problems and they are demanding other kinds ofproducts,´ she observed. ³The most challenging thing is to help people learnhow to live in a greener manner, change their behavior. We must invest inraising awareness in people.´ For Wince-Smith, the focus has to be on makingthe business case. ³One of my concerns about the climate issueis that we still have to think about energy security. If we delink energy securityand the need for energy for every single thing we do and only talk about theInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 12
  13. 13. GO GREEN INITIATIVEclimate challenge, we are creating an unsustainable model for global support,´she said. ³Firstly, let¶s look at energy efficiency. We have to link innovations tothe demand and business case and cultural attitudes if we want to moveforward.´ ³It¶s a matter of basic market conditions,´ remarked Ola Alter ³InSweden, we are about to phase out fossil fuels completely from the heatingsector. It¶s basically using waste heat and energy in a more intelligent way, butit would not have been possible without a high CO2 tax. The ecological costwas reflected in the market. So we are changing the whole heating sector . C. Technology transfer Developed countries continue to export old technologies to the developingworld, Evenden pointed out. He said that energy-wasting buildings with single-glazed windows are still being constructed around the world. There need to beexport controls on old technology. Ribeiro said that some multinationalcompanies prefer to build factories in countries with weak legislation so that theproduct can be cheaper. What is needed is to build institutional capacities in theleast developed countries in order to create a business envir onment that canattract innovative solutions and avoid the transfer of old technologies. ³The richcountries can afford to waste, although they should not for moral reasons. Thepoor countries can¶t afford to waste,´ noted von Weizsäcker. ³It¶s the duty ofthe rich countries to cooperate with poor countries in terms of technology, etc.,to make efficiency and sustainability worldwide issues and not just those of thetechnologically-advanced.´ Referring to Pauli¶s discussion of biomass, Alteråobserved that the solutions are not always to be found in sophisticatedtechnology. There was so much to be achieved on the ground and in that sensehe was optimistic about green growth.8. Sector Segments - Alternative A. Building retrofits An average-sized single-family home in the United States would requirean investment of as little as $2,500 in energy-efficiency retrofits to produce acost savings in the range of 30 percent per year.( 7) This would involve caulkingto plug air leaks in the house and adding insulation to attics and basementceilings. For an additional $2,500, further energy savings are available throughreplacing windows with air leaks and installing energy efficient appliances.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 13
  14. 14. GO GREEN INITIATIVEDespite these potential savings, most homeowners have not retrofitted theirhomes because they are unaware of the costs savings available to them or theycannot afford the upfront expenses and time commitment involved. But thesebarriers to retrofit investments will come down through the specific governmentspending programs that finance retrofits, the building codes that establish higherefficiency standards in buildings, and the more general regulatory environmentthat raises the costs of burning conventional fossil fuels. As the market becomesmore extensive and efficient, this will further encourage new investment inretrofits. In particular, banks, utility companies and various types of nonprofitgroups will increasingly organize themselves to supply the upfront financing forthese projects. In addition, construction crews wil l begin to organize theirservices to take advantage of the expanding opportunities. The potential marketfor building retrofits is huge. There are roughly 110 million occupied housingunits in the United States, including 80 million single-family detached homes,as well as smaller numbers of a) ached units, apartments, and trailers. As arough approximation, assuming an average investment in retrofits would bearound $4,000 per unit implies an overall potential market of $400 billion. Wewould then add the corresponding market for non-residential structures. TheU.S. Green Building Council surveyed the existing stock of these structures in2008, including all educational buildings, hospitals, retail outlets, and officebuildings of various sorts. They estimated the costs of retrofitting all of thesebuildings at $358 billion. B. Cogeneration Energy cogeneration systems utilize the heat generated by industrialprocesses to generate electricity on-site. These systems therefore offer asignificant means for utilizing available energy sources at higher levels ofefficiency, These investments will thus be encouraged" along with other energyefficiency investments "through regulations that set a cap on carbon emissio nsand subsequent increases in conventional fossil fuel prices. The EnergyInformation Administration projects that investment in on-site cogeneration isexpected to grow by about 40 percent between 2007 and 2030 . It is reasonableto expect that this will roughly entail an additional $5 billion in inv estment eachyear. C. Renewable energy Investments in renewable energy "wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, andhydroelectric power" will aim at advancing technologies to the point where theyare fully cost-competitive with conventional fossil fuels, and to integrate thesecost-competitive technologies into the U.S. economy¶s ongoing operations. Thiswill also proceed across the range of markets in which renewable energyInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 14
  15. 15. GO GREEN INITIATIVEsources are viable including on- and off-grid electricity generation, non-electricity forms of energy generation, and alternative fuels. D. Nonelectric renewable energy Electricity represents only one form of renewable energy that final userscan generate themselves. There are other forms of decentralized renewableenergy production such as geothermal pumps, solar hot water systems and evenwood-burning stoves, in which individual households and businesses alikecould invest. If we assume that the investment in these nonelectrical forms ofenergy production is roughly equivalent to investment i n renewable electricitygeneration by end-users "as calculated by the EIA" then investment by finalusers would total about $3 billion per year. E. Alternative fuels for motor vehicles Biofuels from non-food sources "for example, cellulosic biofuels" thatcan be used for motor vehicle transportation represent another area of growingclean-energy investment. By 2020, the market for ethanol from a variety ofsources is expected to be about 20 billion gallons per year. To produce one -thirdof this quantity of ethanol from cellulosic sources by 2020, additionalinvestment of about $50 billion would be needed over 10 year s, or about $5billion per year.9. Green Buildings Currently, conventional buildings in the U.S. have an enormous carbonfootprint (see table 1)1 which can be prevented and reversed through theconstruction of new and retrofitting of existing buildings to be environmentallyfriendly, or ³green.´2 Green buildings are designed, constructed, and operatedto maximize operational efficiency and minimize environmental impact. Thereare several different green elements that can be incorporated into a building thatnot only reduce environmental impact but have also proven to be cost effectiveinvestments.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 15
  16. 16. GO GREEN INITIATIVE Green Buildings are the Friendly Structures sustainable building, is thepractice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentallyresponsible and resource-efficient throughout a buildings life-cycle: fromsitting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renova tion, anddeconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical buildingdesign concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Now, it is beyond imagination, how much damage has been inflicted onearth by the construction of various types of buildings using sand and waterfrom the rivers, stones from the mountains, cement manufactured from theingredients dug from the land. In addition, carbon emission from the buildingsand manufacture of construction materials warm up the air and spa ce. The concept of Green Buildings envision a new approach to save water,energy and material resources in the construction and maintenance of thebuildings and can reduce or eliminate the adverse impact of buildings on theenvironment and occupants .10. Features of Green Buildings 1. Rainwater recovery systems y Rainwater and other non-potable water such as condensation can be recycled for toilet flushing and site irrigation 2. Occupancy sensors that ensure lights turn off when not in use 3. ³Green´ cleaning products 4. Cool roof y materials with highly reflective coating on the roof that allow the hottest rays to bounce off 5. Recycling and solid waste management programs 6. Strategic landscaping y Select plans that require little water and maintenance 7. Tinted windows y Maximize natural light while blocking heat 8. Low-flow fixtures and waterless urinals 9. Preferred parking for high efficiency vehicles 10. Highly energy efficient HVAC systems 11. Low or no-volatile organic compound (VOC) paints and adhesives 12. Solar panels 13. Bicycle storageInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 16
  17. 17. GO GREEN INITIATIVE 14. Location suited to take advantage of mass transitConcept cross section of a Green Building A. Land: The landscaping and the exterior design in a green building shall be in such a way that there is more shaded area, the light trespass is eliminated and local species of plants are grown. B. Water: The green building by its design and shape shall not disrupt the natural water flows, it should orient and stand just likes a tree. Rain falling over the whole area of the complex shall be harvested in full either to replenish the ground water table in and around the building or to be utilized in the services of the building. The toilets shall be fitted with low flesh fixtures. The plumbing system should have separate lines for drinking and flushing. Grey water from kitchenette, bath and laundry shall be treated and reused for gardening or in cooling towers of air conditioning. C. Energy: The solar energy at the top of a green building is harvested to supplement the conventional energy,. The natural light is harvested in the intermediate floors to minimize the usage of electricity. Sunlight is restricted by the high grown trees outside the lower floors of the building. High efficiency light fixtures make a pleasant lighting apart from saving the energy. High-efficiency windows and insulation in walls, ceilings, and floors are used for the benefit of better temperature control.Green buildings improve internal environment for the occupants A. Light: In a designed green building the occupants shall feel as if they are in outdoor location. The interior and exterior designs shall go hand in hand by blending the natural and artificial lighting and presenting transparent views wherever possible. B. Air: In the air conditioned environment, a green building shall be specially equipped to ensure the Indoor Air Quality for a healthy atmosphere. Even the nasal feelings shall be pleasant free from the odor of paints and furnishings.Green buildings preserve the environment at places far away from thebuildings.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 17
  18. 18. GO GREEN INITIATIVE We all know that a building is constructed using cement, sand, steel,stones, bricks, and a lot of finishing materials. These materials are quarried orprocured from far away from the location of the buildings. Building materialsare responsible for about 20 percent of the greenhouse gasses emitted by abuilding during its lifetime. Green buildings shall use the products that are non-toxic, reusable, renewable, and/or recyclable wherever possible. Locallymanufactured products are preferred so that the collective material environmentof the locality remains a constant and moreover the fuel for the transport ofmaterials is saved. As we see, our food and domestic products are tagged with green as afashion of eco friendly practices; building materials are also going green. Thefuturistic green buildings are to use green materi als which are in research stagenow. A. Green wood: A Stanford team has done a research for wood alternate. Hemp fibers and biodegradable plastic when pressed together and heated form layers and this material is as strong as wood. When buried in land fill, it degrades faster. This wood creates more raw materials when it breaks down. Microbes produce methane gas when they decompose this wood substitute and other debris thrown into landfills. Another type of bacteria absorbs this gas and turns it into plastic that can be used to create a new wooden plank. By this cycle, there is a continuous source of raw material for this wood. When this material at research comes to market, it may help to control deforestation and promote the rainfall. B. Green Cement: Bruce Constants at Calera, based in Los Gatos, has developed a green method to produce both cement and aggregate, another component of Concrete. Their method sequesters Carbon Di Oxide from power plant flues and mixes the gas with sea water to produce the minera l raw materials of concrete. For every ton of green cement Calera manufactures half a ton of fly ash from coal plants is used apart from preventing production and emission of Carbon Di Oxide. C. Other Green Building materials: Renewable plant materials like bamboo (because bamboo grows quickly) and straw, lumber from forests ecology blocks, dimension stone, recycled stone, recycled metal are some of the other materials used in a Green Building.ENERGY STAR for Buildings Space Types Applicable for CommercialReal Estate:Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 18
  19. 19. GO GREEN INITIATIVE 1. Offices 2. Retail stores 3. Hospitals 4. Hotels/motels 5. Supermarkets/grocery stores 6. Banks/financial institutions 7. Medical office11. Green building perspectives & bottom line benefits The question of whose responsibility it is to transform commercial real estateinto a sustainable industry has been eagerly debated over the past decade. Whilesome feel it is a task for developers¶, others assert that if owners and tenantsdemand it, green buildings will become readily available in response. Althoughall sides of the debate have valid grounds, the reality is that the responsibility ofgreening the industry rests in the hands of everyone involved.Developers Speak with any developer and they will tell you that their goal is todeliver to their client the best building a specified budget and a defined timeframe will allow. Some claim that green buildings are virtually impossible tobuild as a result of these strict limitations, especially in tough economic timeswhen clients are watching every extra dolla r a project requires. While thisjustification may have been relevant in the past, when green constructionmaterials had a premium due to the lack of knowledge and availability in theindustry, it is no longer germane. Now that the costs of green building materialsare becoming competitive with conventional materials, developers whopreviously dismissed green buildings should take a second look. Greenbuildings have been sustainably designed and constructed within roughly thesame budgets and time frames as conventional building projects across thecountry. Decreased material costs coupled with cost sensitive, strategic choicesof integrated sustainable design elements have made green buildings a superiorinvestment. Although developers must make an initial investment to learn greenbuilding techniques, they can gain a fairly complete understanding fromcompleting a single project. It is highly recommended to seek assistance from agreen building consultant or have someone knowledgeable about green bu ildingon the project team. After this initial obstacle is accomplished, green buildingInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 19
  20. 20. GO GREEN INITIATIVEpractices have proven to be easily adaptable and as straightforward asconventional approaches. The investment in education can be quickly recoveredthrough profits made from an increase in the number of projects acquiredsimply because of green building knowledge. Studies have also shown awillingness of companies to pay more for green space. A 2007 study conductedby the Jones Lang LaSalle firm surveyed corporate comme rcial buyers¶ demandfor green space and found that 77% would pay more for green office space.additionally; a 2008 Costar Group study found buildings that earned theENERGY STAR sell on average for $61 per square foot more than comparablenon-green buildingsOwners In the slow yet necessary process of constructing and convertingbuildings into environmentally conscious, sustainable operations, owners netleasing their buildings may feel as though they are incurring the bulk of the costwhile their tenants reap the evident financial benefits. Although this is true tosome extent, owners of net leased properties have the opportunity to realize keybenefits which make ³greening´ their buildings financially and economicallysensible. Owners that make the decision to green their properties sooner ratherthan later have the potential to benefit from some government incentives and aclear competitive advantage, both of which will inevitably slowly dissolve asmore buildings are greened and exceedingly feasible government mandates areimplemented. Tenants across the nation are beginning to demand the greening of spacethey lease due to the economic, environmental and human health benefits greenbuildings offer. A survey of tenants conducted in breaker¶ factor in theirlocation decisions.11 Forward -thinking top U.S. companies (and excellenttenants) which have started to operate out of USGBC LEED certified orENERGY STAR labeled buildings includes:Walgreens Pizza Fusion StarbucksREI PNC Bank SubwayChipotle Mexican Grill Best Buy McDonaldsWhole Foods Office Depot StaplesCommercial real estate owners of green buildings can gain a competitiveadvantage by securing and retaining high quality, desired tenants. Recentstudies show that green buildings generally have higher occupancy rates andrents. For example, a 2008 Costar Group study 12 found that LEED certifiedbuildings have a 4.1% higher occupancy rate and rent for $11.33 per square footmore than conventional buildings.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 20
  21. 21. GO GREEN INITIATIVE12. Green building in a down economy Despite the current down economy, the overall green building movementcontinues to experience growth. One can draw this conclusion by simplylooking at the numbers. For example, Green build, the world¶s largestconference and expo dedicated to green building, had more than 28,000attendees in 2008, which is an increase of 25% from Green build 2007.Moreover, in April of 2003, a mere 84 buildings had received LEEDcertification. The most recent number of certified projects released by theUSGBC was 2,878 in May of 2009. This number will only continue to grow,evidenced by the 21,252 projects currently registered seeking LEEDcertification. The sustained growth in this sector may be baffling to those whobelieve in sticking to what they know during hard economic times; however,departure from conventional buildings may be exactly what is needed. Green buildings pave the way for businesses to prosper through a triplebottom line encompassing financial, social and environmental goals, which hasproven an endearing strategy during hard economic times. Some industryprofessionals have recognized this economic climate as the perfect opportunityto ³green´ business and use triple bottom line benefits to save money and gain acompetitive advantage as other options are less obvious. A recent study releasedby A.T Kearney found that companies focused on sustainability outperformedindustry averages by 15% during the current financial crisis.7The greenbuilding movement will continue to grow as more companies recognize that asmall upfront investment in ³green´ can assist in retaining value and provideprotection from a volatile market.13. Successful commercial green building projects PNC Bank ± LEED Certified Currently, PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. has more certified greenbuildings than any other company on earth.8 As of June 2009; the company hadachieved USGBC LEED certification for 66 buildings. Ways LEED certification has benefited PNC¶s bottom line:Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 21
  22. 22. GO GREEN INITIATIVE 1. According to Gary Saulson, PNC¶s corporate real estate director, PNC has been able to build green branches for $2.6 million, which is approximately $100,000 less than some competitors are spending on comparable non-green branches. y More than 50% of each branch is made from recycled materials, including flooring, wall coverings, and carpet. Many of these recycled materials cost less than non -recycled products. 2. Energy usage in PNC¶s green branches is reduced by 50% or more compared to non -green branches due to high-efficiency systems and insulation and maximum use of natural light (which has also been associated with positive consumer response). 3. Water usage in green branches is reduced by 6,200 gallons a year.Walgreens ± LEED Registered Walgreens, the largest drugstore chain in the U.S., opened their first (andthe first) environmentally friendly drugstore on June 24th, 2009 in Mira Mesa,California. It has registered with the USGBC and expects to receive LEEDcertification within 4 to 6 months. The company has plans to open three moreLEED certified locations by the end of 2009, one of which is located inChicago. In 2007, Walgreens began taking a sustainable approach to reducetheir carbon footprint and save money by installing solar panel systems at selectlocations. The perusal of green building certification further solidifies thecompany¶s serious commitment to people, the environment, and achievingeconomic advancement through efficient measures.As the green Mira Mesa Walgreens location just opened a few weeks ago,specific quantitative financial benefits achieved have yet to be revealed. Thecompany has stated that the store managed to reduce lighting related energy useby 50% through the use of skylights, solar tubes, LED lights and highlyefficient coolers and freezers. The building¶s µwhite roof¶,11 another greenfeature, will significantly reduce cooling related energy use. Furthermore, alllandscaping was done with native plants, which will require no wateringwhatsoever. The environmentally friendly building has already generated agreat deal of free publicity for the company, yet another reason Walgreens madean excellent decision to build to LEED standards. In the company¶s 2008 social respon sibility report, financial savingsrealized through already in place environmentally friendly measures werediscussed. For example, the company saved $5.7 million in energy costs byInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 22
  23. 23. GO GREEN INITIATIVEusing high-efficiency fluorescent lighting in over 6,000 stores. The compa ny¶sgreen building plans were also briefly touched upon and will hopefully beevaluated from both a financial and environmental stand point in the 2009report.14. Green marketing The promotion of environmentally safe or beneficial products as result new³green´ products were introduced that were less damaging to the environment.Divergent aspects of green marketing include ecologically safer products,recyclable and biodegradable packaging, energy -efficient operations, and betterpollution controls. Advances produced from green marketing include packagingmade from recycled paper, phosphate -free detergents, refillable containers forcleaning products, and bottles using less plastic. As today¶s consumers become more conscious of the natural environment,businesses are beginning to modify their own thoughts and behavior in anattempt to address the concerns of consumers. Green marketing is becomingmore important to businesses because of the consumer¶s genuine concerns aboutour limited resources on the earth. By implementing green marketing measuresto save the earth¶s resources in production, packaging, and operations,businesses are showing consumers they too share the same concerns, boostingtheir credibility Green marketing , also alternatively known as environmental marketingand sustainable marketing, refers to organization.s efforts at designing,promoting, pricing and distributing products that will not harm the environmentPositive aspects of green marketing y a good green marketing program is one that either: adds renewables that would not already be added or supports renewable projects that might not otherwise continue to operate . If these things are already happening and being paid for by all, then the program doesnt meet the bottom -line test: green marketing programs must make a difference.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 23
  24. 24. GO GREEN INITIATIVE y A sign of a good green marketing program is one that has strong links to local environmental groups and that achieves broad support among regional and national grou ps with an interest in promoting renewable power. y A green marketer that is seriously interested in greening the electric system will have a program that is linked to a larger vision and a strategic plan for making renewable an increasingly larger part of the generation mix. y For green marketing programs to be successful in the long run, they should both improve the environment and be fair to consumers. Prices should not be excessively higher than the actual cost of the resources in the portfolio. This is particularly true for green pricing programs, which are scrutinized by regulators, and in imperfectly competitive markets, because in these cases, there is no real competition in the green market.Negative aspects of green marketing y Selling green power at a mark-up that would have been produced anyway with the cost shared by all. y Programs that do not in some way directly benefit the renewable generator. An example of this would be a utility that has an existing power purchase contract with a renewable gener ator, but does not flow any benefit through to the generator. y Programs that make false claims and do not adequately inform consumers about the nature of their product. For example, selling "nuclear and coal free" power when consumer money are sent to a nuclear- and coal-owning utility. y Collecting premiums in exchange for vague promises to build renewable in the future. Consumers should not be asked to pay for someone elses investment when they get nothing in return, and when no tangible benefit to society results.Green marketing ± adopted by the firmsInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 24
  25. 25. GO GREEN INITIATIVEGreen marketing has been widely adopted by the firms worldwide and thefollowing are the possible reasons cited for this wide adoption:1) Opportunities:- As demands change, many firms see these changes as anopportunity to be exploited and have a competitive advantage over firmsmarketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. Some example of firmswho have strived to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt tobetter satisfy their consumer needs are: y McDonalds replaced its clam shell packaging with waxed paper because of increased consumer concern relating to polystyrene production and Ozone depletion. y Tuna manufacturers modified their fishing techniques because of the increased concern over driftnet fishing, and the resulting death of dolphins. y Xerox introduced a "high quality" recycled photocopier paper in an attempt to satisfy the demands of firms for less environmentally harmful products.2) Social responsibility :- Many firms are beginning to realize that they aremembers of the wider community and therefore must behave in anenvironmentally responsible fashion thus resulting in environmental issuesbeing integrated into the firms corporate culture. An example of a firm that does not promote its environmental initiativesis Coca-Cola which invested large sums of money in various recyclingactivities, as well as having modified their packaging to minimize itsenvironmental impact. Another firm who is very environmentally res ponsiblebut does not promote this fact, at least outside the organization, is Walt DisneyWorld (WDW) with an extensive waste management program andinfrastructure.3) Governmental pressure :- governmental regulations relating toenvironmental marketing a re designed to protect consumers through regulationsdesigned to control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms byissuing of various environmental licenses, thus modifying organizationalbehavior. In some cases governments try to "induce" final consumers to becomemore responsible by taxing individuals who act in an irresponsible fashion. Forexample in Australia there is a higher gas tax associated with leaded petrol.4) Competitive pressure:-Another major force in the environmental marketingInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 25
  26. 26. GO GREEN INITIATIVEarea has been firms desire to maintain their competitive position. In many casesfirms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attemptto emulate this behavior. In some instances this competitive pressure has causedan entire industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmentalbehavior. For example, it could be argued that Xeroxs "Revive 100% Recycledpaper" was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introductionof recycled photocopier paper by other manufacturers. In another example whenone tuna manufacture stopped using driftnets the others followed suit.5) Cost or profit issues: - Disposing of environmentally harmful by-products,such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated oil are becomingincreasingly costly and in some cases difficult. In minimizing wastes firms oftendevelop more effective production processes that reduce the need for some rawmaterials thus serving as a double cost savings. In other cases firms attempt tofind end-of-pipe solutions, instead of minimizing waste by trying to findmarkets or uses for their waste materials, where one firms waste becomesanother firms input of production.GREEN CODEG eneralise with care. Consumer behaviour will not necessarily be consistentacross different product types, and particular market segments may respond tocertain issues on the green agenda but not others.R emember, the validity of a piece of market research is not related to thedegree to which it supports your preferred option.E xplore the context from which market research data comes. Be clear on thenature of the sample used, the questions asked, the way i n which responses wererecorded and the time and place from which the responses come.E nsure that where market research is crossing international borderlines, that theterminology and interpretation remains consistent. Terms like µ environment¶,µgreen¶ and µconservation¶ do not always translate precisely between languages.N eutrality is important. Ensure that when you pose questions to consumers, thatthey can make any response without being made to feel guilty or uncomfortable,and ensure that your own preconceptions about the green agenda (such as anassumption that green products will cost extra) are not encoded within thequestions.Internal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 26
  27. 27. GO GREEN INITIATIVE15. Conclusion y Different initiative have been taken to reduce the energy consumption by different corporate to become sustainable, but to achieve this success people have to be accountable in terms of the amount of energy utilized when they are not working. y Green culture need to develop within the organization so that people can come up with their ideas that suppo rt sustainability. y Government organization have to work with the private sector so find new ways to recycle the e-waste generated y As the companies are trying to reduce their carbon foot print, their focus is on effective energy utilization they also have to look into other aspect of their business, from supply chain to marketing. y Information technology companies have set the path in reducing their carbon foot print, and developed a green model which can be applied to other business sectors. y Companies with green product have to make the customer aware of their green product and initiative; they have to make the reports available to general public. y Companies have to increases their spending on green initiative so as to focus on their long term goals. y Companies also have to pressurize their suppliers to behave in a environmentally friendly way. y Companies should look at minimizing environmental harm, not necessarily eliminating it.16. Bibliography www.greenpeace.comInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 27
  28. 28. GO GREEN INITIATIVE www.greenmarketing.comInternal Purpose Only(IBA) ©Amit Dandapath Page 28