The Feminist Movement can be divided into threeThe Feminist Movement can be divided into three
theoretical “wavestheoretical “waves”
First Wave Feminism dealt with legal or officially mandated
inequalities toward women
(18th through early 20th century)
Second Wave Feminism dealt generally with unofficial, social and
cultural inequalities or injustices against women
Third Wave Feminism deals with less structured feminist initiatives,
and serves as a catch-all for contemporary gender inequalities that
were left unaddressed within second wave feminism
First Wave FeminismFirst Wave Feminism
(18th through early 20th Century)(18th through early 20th Century)
First Wave Feminism
-Until the early 20th century, the role of the woman was
generally as a secondary citizen within a male dominated
-During WWI, women began to emerge from their roles
within the household, and began to fill job positions while
men served as soldiers, creating some advancement for
women’s civil equality.
-Susan B. Anthony was a civil rights leader who actively
played a crucial role within the Women’s Rights
Movement, helping to introduce women’s suffrage into
the United States
-Anthony also strongly advocated marital equality, and
stated that a woman should be allowed to refuse sex with
her husband. (At this time, there was still no legal action
available to women against rape.)
-Women in the US finally gained the right to vote in 1920
(1919 in Canada.)
Second Wave FeminismSecond Wave Feminism
(1960’s through 1980’s)(1960’s through 1980’s)
Second Wave Feminism
During the 1950’s, women recognize their frustration with
inequality as their assumed role as housewives, and with
injustices in the work force, in terms of pay and job
During the 1960’s birth control pills are made available,
and sexual liberation becomes predominant.
Marital rape becomes prohibited, and divorce laws are
Also during the 1960’s many universities and colleges
adopted coeducation, formerly, strictly gender
“Bra Burning”era, Women’s rights protests
-Simone De Beauvoir was a pioneering feminist, who
wrote “The Second Sex”, in terms of women being
perceived as the “Other” within a patriarchal society.
This notion of the Woman as the “Other” was a myth
perpetuated by men as Women had the ability to get
pregnant, lactate, and menstruate, and is generally an
invalid excuse to deem woman as a lesser being, or
Simone De Beauvoir
Third Wave FeminismThird Wave Feminism
(early 1990’s - present)(early 1990’s - present)
Third Wave Feminism
Essentially, Third Wave Feminism is an all-encompassing postmodern Feminist movement that
strives to address issues not resolved by the First and Second waves.
Movement began during the early 1990’s, as a resurgence of equality-motivated Feminism
following Post-Feminism of the late 1980’s.
Post Feminism arose from the notions that Feminism was “man-hating”, sexist and gynocentric.
Post Feminist theory concluded that Feminists promoted and demanded preferential treatment of
women, and arose from the portrayal of females as victims.
Third wave feminism aims to incorporate a variety of equality-related ideologies, including;
queer theory, anti racism, womanism, transnationalism, and LGBT issues, which are vital to third
wave feminism, promoting the freedom of women and other marginalized identities from patriarchal
Some of the topics of protest and promotion within Third Wave Feminism:Some of the topics of protest and promotion within Third Wave Feminism:
Social activism; sex positivity, reproductive rights, such as contraception and
abortion, were publicized, as the Woman’s right to choose became a hot topic.
The reclaiming of derogatory female terms (ie. bitch, cunt, whore) all vital to the Third
The woman’s role within antiquated Power dynamics have been reclaimed, for
example, Pornography and Sex Trade work has been reconsidered, as these types of
work have been deemed by Second Wave Feminism as destructive to women, but
now reclaimed as empowering.
Feminist ArtistsFeminist Artists
Further Feminist CultureFurther Feminist Culture
(Books, Blogs, Films)(Books, Blogs, Films)
Wet by Mira Schor
The Bloody Chamber by Angela Carter
The Second Sex by Simone De Beauvoir
Feminist Films and Productions:
The Vagina Monologues
Thelma and Louise
The Stepford Wives
Semiotics of the Kitchen
Itty Bitty Titty Committee
How do you feel about categorizing artists who are
women as “women artists”? Do you feel that this
marginalizes females in the contemporary art world?
Can a man be a feminist?
Key ElementsKey Elements
Domestic abuse, also known as spousal abuse, occurs when one person in an
intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person.
Domestic abuse that includes physical violence is called domestic violence.
Domestic violence and abuse are used for one purpose and one purpose only: to gain
and maintain total control over you. An abuser doesn’t “play fair.” Abusers use fear,
guilt, shame, and intimidation to wear you down and keep you under their thumb.
Your abuser may also threaten you, hurt you, or hurt those around you.
Domestic violence and abuse do not discriminate. It happens among heterosexual
couples and in same-sex partnerships. It occurs within all age ranges, ethnic
backgrounds, and financial levels. And while women are more commonly victimized,
men are also abused—especially verbally and emotionally.
-Domestic abuse often escalates from threats and verbal abuse to physical violence
and even murder. And while physical injury may be the most obvious danger, the
emotional and psychological consequences of domestic abuse are also severe
1. Men who battered women were mentally ill and that women who
remained in violent relationships were also mentally ill.
2. Men battered because they learned this behaviour in their
3. Women suffered from a "learned helplessness" as a result of
repeated battering, which prevented them from resisting the
violence or leaving the relationship
4. Batterers follow a "cycle of violence" with intermittent violent and
During the 1960s, the women's
liberation movement began drawing
attention to violence committed against
women, and the battered women's
movement began to form.
At its core was the outrage of women
who argued that individual cases of
violence against women in the home
added up to an enormous and
unacceptable social problem.
By the end of the 1970s, statistics
proved that isolated cases of abuse
were part of a shocking national
problem. Victims became more visible;
so, too, did the inadequacy of society's
response. The battered women's
Domestic Violence in Canada-PowerDomestic Violence in Canada-Power
Men vs WomenMen vs Women
Estimates show that 248 of every 1,000 females and 76 of every 1,000 males are
victims of physical assault and/or rape committed by their spouses.
Canadian research suggests 51% of women experience at least one episode of
violence after the age of 16
A 1999 survey reported that 8% of women married or in common-law unions had
experienced violence from their partners within the previous 5 years and were abused
more severely and repeatedly than men
Spousal violence makes up the single largest category of convictions involving violent
offences in non-specialized adult courts in Canada over the five-year period 1997/98
to 2001/02. Over 90% of offenders were male.
Women are more likely to suffer abuse during pregnancy and following childbirth,
following relationship termination, during partner intoxication, and following other
stressful life events
One to two women are murdered by a current or former partner each week in
Physical and sexual abuse costs Canada over $4 billion each year (factoring into
account social services, criminal justice, lost employment days and health care
Who are the stakeholders?Who are the stakeholders?
Correctional Service of Canada
National Family Violence Prevention Programs
The Correctional Service of Canada's (CSC) National Family
Violence Prevention Programs are primarily focused on male
offenders who have been abusive in their intimate relationships with
female partners or ex-partners.
Two programs are delivered nationally; the High Intensity Family
Violence Prevention Program (HIFVPP) and the Moderate Intensity
Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP).
Offenders are referred to the programs based on their risk level and
demonstrated pattern of violence.
Predictions for the future?Predictions for the future?
Domestic violence is becoming less tolerated throughout Canada is
taking action and emphasizing more prevention programs
Evaluation of the High and Moderate Intensity Family Violence
In 2004, the BC Institute against Family Violence conducted a
comprehensive two-year evaluation of the Moderate and High
Intensity Family Violence Prevention Programs.
There were a number of converging indicators that the Moderate
and High Intensity Family Violence Prevention Programs are
achieving the goals of reducing violence and abusive
What are some possible solutions?What are some possible solutions?
Realizing what an abusive relationship is and seek help
• feel afraid of your partner much of the time?
• avoid certain topics out of fear of angering your partner?
• feel that you can’t do anything right for your partner?
• believe that you deserve to be hurt or mistreated?
• wonder if you’re the one who is crazy?
• feel emotionally numb or helpless?
Does your partner?
Does your partner:
• have a bad and unpredictable temper?
• hurt you, or threaten to hurt or kill you?
• threaten to take your children away or harm them?
• threaten to commit suicide if you leave?
• force you to have sex?
• destroy your belongings?
Different perspective-Women abusingDifferent perspective-Women abusing
Virtually all sociological data shows women
initiate domestic violence as often as men, that
women use weapons more than men, and that
38% of injured victims are men
3 common reasons why women abuse men:
1. My partner wasn't listening to me;
2. My partner wasn't being sensitive to my needs
3. I wished to gain my partner's attention.
(born 1943, Warsaw, Poland) has
been creating site-specific slide
and video projections both within
galleries and using architectural
facades and monuments as
backdrops for nearly thirty years.
These politically-charged works of
art, which have been shown in
over a dozen countries around the
world, speak to issues of human
rights, democracy, violence,
alienation, and inhumanity
These snapshot aesthetic images
depict drug use, violent,
aggressive couples and
Follows the story of Sam, who lost his sister as a result of DV, as he discovers the
realities of DV through personal interviews with survivors, politicians, DV advocates,
and others affected by the issue on a regular basis.
"Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America"
is a new documentary film about domestic abuse. The film offers a probing and
intimate exploration of the troubling persistence of violence against women in
Girl Traumatically Injured By Domestic Violence Yet Still Maintains a High Self Esteem
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6E7PYC7YnU part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YjYfeO8dNBY part 3
1. HOW DOES SOMEONE BECOME AN
2. WHY DON'T VICTIMS OF DOMESTIC
VIOLENCE JUST LEAVE?
LGBT: Progression of RightsLGBT: Progression of Rights
Stonewall RiotsStonewall Riots
On June 27th, 1969, frequently considered the first moment in American
history where the homosexual minority fought back against government
policies, the Stonewall Riots were the beginnings of the gay rights
They took place at the Stonewall Inn, a bar owned by the mafia.
Most establishments didn’t welcome out gay persons, and establishments
that had openly gay patrons were usually bars.
Police raids on such bars were a
common occurrence, but that night the
patrons of Stonewall had had enough
and they started a riot in the streets.
This riot became the catalyst for many
activist events, and within 6 months
two LGBT activist groups were formed
in New York – Gay Liberation Front
and Gay Activists Alliance - and three
newspapers were created to address
the issues of the gay community –
Gay, Gay Power and Come Out!
In June 28th, 1970, on Christopher Street Liberation Day, marked the first
anniversary of the Stonewall Riots and was the location of the very first gay
pride march. The following year Pride marches occurred in cities such as
Boston, Dallas, London and Paris. The year after that even more cities
began to participate in the marches.
White Night RiotsWhite Night Riots
A decade later, in San Francisco,
1979, the White Night riots
occurred due to the lenient
sentencing of Dan White, who
murdered the San Francisco
Mayor George Moscone and
Harvey Milk and was convicted of
voluntary manslaughter, the
lightest possible conviction that he
could have been granted for his
actions. Due to long standing
conflicts with the San Francisco
Police, the gay community had
even more issues with Dan White
being a former police officer.
Demonstrations began peacefully
in the city’s Castro district, but
after it arrived at city hall the
march quickly became violent.
After the riot had been broken up
(with injury on both the SFPD’s
side and the rioters), the SFPD
began to raid gay bars in the
Castro, making arrests and
beating the patrons in police gear.
Following that night, the gay rights
leaders refused to apologize for
property damage and other events
that had occurred, this definite
show of strength from the
community led to a gain in political
power and the re-election Dianne
Feistein, mayor, who appointed a
gay-friendly chief of police..
Mathew Shepherd ActMathew Shepherd Act
In October 7th, 1998, a student at
Wyoming University, Mathew
Shepherd was tortured and then
brutally murdered. Shortly after
midnight, outside of a lounge in
Laramie, Wyoming, Mathew
Shepherd accepted a ride in a car
from two men, Aaron McKinney
and Russell Henderson. Mathew
admitted to being gay, and
because of that he was then
robbed; pistol whipped, tortured
and then was tied to a fence in the
countryside, left to die. He was
discovered alive, but due to the
extent of his injuries, he died in
Based on the assumption that
Mathew Shepherd was
targeted due to his sexual
orientation, the murder led to a
new request on a change in
legislation that would address
hate crimes based of sexual
orientation, which was not
covered under United States
federal law or Wyoming state
law, as crimes regarding
orientation were not
prosecutable as hate crimes.
Despite these hostile attitudes, “justified” physical abuse and the
murders the LGBT community endured at its infancy (and even
now), the community has grown bolder and strong with the need to
protect themselves legally and physically. Most recent in these
victories, and unfortunately an achievement that came at the cost of
Mathew Shepherd’s life and acknowledgement of the abuse that
society frequently turns a blind eye towards, The Mathew Shepherd
act was adopted as an amendment on July 15th, 2009 and was
passed by the Senate on October 22nd, 2009 and was signed into
law on October 28th.
This act is another step forward to protecting the rights of individuals
who are abused on basis of sexual orientation and gender identity,
but they have unfortunately have come at a cost.
LGBT ArtistsLGBT Artists
Felix Partz, AA Bronson, Jorge Zontal: Canadian collective, they
comprised the group General Idea, 1987 – 1994 their work
Richard Fung, video artist whose work explores queer sexuality,
protocolonialism and diaspora of family/
Shawna Dempsey and Lorri Millan, performance artists who address
lesbian and feminist themes.
General Idea: Test Tube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=unXbPQBjJ24
AA Bronson: General Idea http://www.youtube.com/watch?
How far have LGBT rights actually come in the US?
What is a correlation between the feminist movement
and the LGBT movement?