Message from the Head of Department
It gives me great pleasure that the students of Bachelor’s degree of Electronics and C...
Message from the President
I am really glad to know about the continuity of ZERONE, an annual
technical journal, published...
ZERONE
An annual technical journal published by the students of
Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering,
Pulcho...
Table of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of Contents
Cutting Edge Technologies
Chemical C...
RFID ........................................................................................................................
CHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTING
A New Era in Technology
Cutting...
ZERONE 2010 7
Cutting-Edge Technologies
themanwhosoldtheworldimpossible. But modern theoretical analyses
shows sufficientl...
8 ZERONE 2010
Cutting-Edge Technologies
concentration is created, which is in effect an
answer. With a beaker full of thou...
ZERONE 2010 9
Cutting-Edge Technologies
4
G refers to the fourth generation of cellular
wireless and is a successor to 3G ...
10 ZERONE 2010
Cutting-Edge Technologies
• Access Schemes: Schemes like Orthogonal
FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier FDMA (SC-
...
ZERONE 2010 11
Cutting-Edge Technologies
T
o give users more flexibility and
interoperability, and enable more
interactive...
12 ZERONE 2010
Cutting-Edge Technologies
<?xml version="1.0"
encoding="UTF-8"?><html
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">...
ZERONE 2010 13
Cutting-Edge Technologies
A complementary audio element is also proposed.
Most of the attributes are common...
14 ZERONE 2010
Cutting-Edge Technologies
Menu and command
The menu element has actually been present in
HTML since at leas...
ZERONE 2010 15
Cutting-Edge Technologies
1.www.en.wikipedia.org
2.www.w3.org
3.www.whatwg.org
1. www.en.wikipedia.org
2. w...
16 ZERONE 2010
Cutting-Edge Technologies
T
eleportation is the name given by science
fiction writers to the feat of making...
ZERONE 2010 17
Cutting-Edge Technologies
for distances no bigger than an atom, but over
kilometers?
The researchers set up...
18 ZERONE 2010
Cutting-Edge Technologies
of 16 km (10 miles), much further than the few
hundred meters previously achieved...
ZERONE 2010 19
Contemporary Technologies
C
loud computing is a model for enabling
convenient, on-demand network access to
...
Introduction to cloud computing
Cloud computing infrastructures can allow
enterprises to achieve more efficient use of the...
ZERONE 2010 21
Contemporary Technologies
of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples
of PaaS. Developers need to know t...
Contemporary Technologies
22 ZERONE 2010
Cloud computing system is divided it into two
sections: the front end and the bac...
ZERONE 2010 23
Contemporary Technologies
iDisk, Nirvanix CloudNAS),Synchronization
(Live Mesh Live Desktop component, Mobi...
Contemporary Technologies
24 ZERONE 2010
• Persistent storage (powered by Bigtable and GFS
with queries, sorting, and tran...
ZERONE 2010 25
Contemporary Technologies
L
et’s get started with a familiar scenario. Let’s
suppose a XYZ bank has its cen...
Contemporary Technologies
26 ZERONE 2010
and every part of the world. Hence, instead of
using dedicated leased lines(Wired...
ZERONE 2010 27
Contemporary Technologies
key and a public key. The private key is kept
secret, while the public key may be...
Contemporary Technologies
28 ZERONE 2010
M
ATLAB is a high-performance language
for technical computation of complex
algor...
ZERONE 2010 29
Contemporary Technologies
Normally there is one parallel port LPT1 in our
pc but you can check for your pc ...
Contemporary Technologies
30 ZERONE 2010
P
hotovoltaic (PV) system converts sunlight
into electricity. Sunlight energy gen...
ZERONE 2010 31
Contemporary Technologies
devices. All matters are composed of atoms.
Positive protons and neutral neutrons...
Contemporary Technologies
32 ZERONE 2010
power, and so on. In this way, PV system can be
built to meet almost any power ne...
ZERONE 2010 33
Contemporary Technologies
E
lectromagnetic interference (EMI), also
termedas radiofrequency interference(RF...
Contemporary Technologies
34 ZERONE 2010
if these measures can’t reduce EMI to the
permissible level, shielding technique ...
ZERONE 2010 35
Contemporary Technologies
T
he world changed tremendously over the
last 10-20 years as the result of the gr...
Contemporary Technologies
36 ZERONE 2010
R (config) #ipv6 unicast-routing
R (config) #interface fast Ethernet
0/0
R (confi...
ZERONE 2010 37
Contemporary Technologies
The design concern of NAT is to save the IP
address.So, if we use one to one func...
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal

6,398 views

Published on

ZERONE 2010 is the sixth annual technical journal published by the students in the Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk, Nepal.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,398
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

ZERONE 2010 - Annual Technical Journal, IOE, Nepal

  1. 1. Message from the Head of Department It gives me great pleasure that the students of Bachelor’s degree of Electronics and Computer Engineering are bringing out yet again another issue of “ZERONE”, an annual technological journal. ZERONE contains academic, engineering articles and latest developments in field of digital engineering. I am very much impressed with the quality of articles. I would like to thank the contributors and members of ZERONE committee for compiling and editing such wonderful array of articles. The effect of ZERONE may be small, but small differences do bring large changes. I am assured that readers will get inspired from the articles and contribute further to the field of “Information Technology”, which Nepal desperately needs to excel in. Lastly, I would like to congratulate the ZERONE editorial board for their active and sincere effort for this technological journal. This type of academic enhancing work is what Institute of Engineering thrives for and will always be appreciated and encouraged by our Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering. I hope readers will enjoy the articles and find them useful. _____________ __________ Shashidhar Ram Joshi, Ph.D. Professor and Head of Department
  2. 2. Message from the President I am really glad to know about the continuity of ZERONE, an annual technical journal, published by the students of the Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Pulchowk Campus. New technologies play a key role in the development of the country. As the field of science and technology is ever changing, it is indispensable for the students to keep themselves updated with fast changing technologies. A technical journal of this kind provides students with informative news about the new faces of the changing world and creates enthusiasm among students in their related fields. Lastly, my hearty congratulations to the ZERONE team for their excellent work in bringing out this issue. _____________________ Prakash Sapkota President, FSU
  3. 3. ZERONE An annual technical journal published by the students of Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Pulchowk Campus Institute of Engineering Volume 6•2067/2010 http://www.ioe.edu.np/zerone Advisors Dr. Shashidhar Ram Joshi Dr. Subarna Shakya Chief Shristi Nhuchhe Pradhan Co-ordinator Nar Kaji Gurung Editors Bikram Adhikari Presha Joshi Ruchin Singh Vandana Dhakal Layout & Design Saurab Rajkarnikar Nar Kaji Gurung Kailash Budhathoki Printed at Rajmati Press Nakabahil, Lalitpur G.P.O. Box: 2512 Tel: 5534527 few words... The ZERONE team is delighted to bring out the sixth issue of the journal on the hands of its keen readers. Even though the leadership has been handed down from one batch to another, we have persistently tried to maintain the quality and the standards of the issues. This issue brings forward an array of information rich articles. There are articles based on nascent technologies like the Chemical Computing and 4G Mobile Technology. Contemporary technologies, as for example, the Cloud Computing, Photovol- taic, Migration to IPV6 have been included. There is an interesting article based on building a hu- manoid robot with LEGO Mindstorms. Likewise, we have focused on articles giving useful insight to exciting projects which was undertaken suc- cessfully by the students. These kind of technical journals definitely help and encourage the students to undertake the on- going researches and innovate new ideas. The team would like to thank all the organizations for providing us with the financial support needed to publish a freely distributed journal of this scale. We would like to extend our gratitude towards our colleagues and our teachers who have supported Zerone through articles and valuable suggestions. Without you all, Zerone wouldn’t exist at all. Finally, we would like to wish a very best for the new team. Keep the spirit alive!
  4. 4. Table of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of ContentsTable of Contents Cutting Edge Technologies Chemical Computing: A New Era in Technology....................................................................... 1 Prabhat Dahal, 2062 Electronics 4G Mobile Technology ................................................................................................................. 4 Sudha Lohani, 2063 Electronics Be Ready! HTML 5 is coming ...................................................................................................... 6 Ganesh Tiwari, 2063 Computer Quantum Teleportation: The Promises It Holds ..................................................................... 11 Barsha Paudel, 2063 Electronics Contemporary Technologies Cloud Computing ...................................................................................................................... 14 Nar Kaji Gurung, 2063 Computer VPN - Solution to Remotely Connected Intranet ..................................................................... 20 Ranjan Shrestha, 2062 Electronics Connecting to Matlab................................................................................................................ 23 Sugan Shakya, 2062 Electronics Photovoltaic ................................................................................................................................ 25 Dipendra Kumar Deo, 2062 Electronics Electromagnetic Interference ................................................................................................... 28 Rupendra Maharjan, 2062 Electronics Migration to IPV6....................................................................................................................... 30 Mithlesh Chaudhary, 2062 Electronics Magnetic Stripe Cards .............................................................................................................. 33 Pushkar Shakya, 2063 Computer Robotics My First Humanoid Robot: An Experience worth Sharing with Freshman and Sophomore ........................................... 36 Bikram Adhikari, DOECE, Pulchowk Campus Project Ideas Spectrum Analysis and its Benefits ........................................................................................ 41 Prajay Singh Silwal, 2062 Electronics SIMULINK Model of an Inverted Pendulum System Using a RBF Neural Network Controller ............................................................................... 44 Bikram Adhikari, DOECE, Pulchowk Campus IRIS Regognition and Identification System........................................................................... 50 Ruchin Singh / Sanjana Bajracharya / Saurab Rajkarnikar, 2062 Computer
  5. 5. RFID ........................................................................................................................................... 53 Ashish Shrestha, 2062 Electronics Symphony and MVC Architecture........................................................................................... 56 Suraj Maharjan / Ram Kasula / Prasanna Man Bajracharya, 2062 Computer Computer Operation & Programming How to create a Symbian Installation Source using Visual C++ 6.0 .................................. 61 Kishoj Bajracharya, 2062 Computer Implementing Virtual Hosting .................................................................................................. 64 Ganesh Tiwari / Biraj Upadhyaya, 2063 Computer
  6. 6. CHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTINGCHEMICAL COMPUTING A New Era in Technology Cutting-Edge TechnologiesCutting-Edge TechnologiesCutting-Edge TechnologiesCutting-Edge TechnologiesCutting-Edge Technologies A ll known life forms process information on a bio-molecular level. Examples are: signal processing in bacteria (e.g., chemotaxis), gene expression and morphogenesis, defense coordination and adaptation in the immune system, broadcasting information by the endocrine system, or finding a short route to a food source by an ant colony. This kind of information processing is known to be robust, self-organizing, adaptive, decentralized, asynchronous, fault-tolerant, and evolvable. Computation emerges out of an orchestrated interplay of many decentralized relatively simple components (molecules).We now expect to make available a technology that allows to create computational systems with the properties of their biological counterpart. A couple of approaches are already using the chemical metaphor (e.g., Gamma, MGS, amorphous computing, and reaction-diffusion processors). A chemical computer, also called reaction- diffusion computer, BZ (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) computer or gooware computer is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical "soup" where data is represented by varying concentrations of chemicals. The computations are performed by naturally occurring chemical reactions. So far it is still in a very early experimental stage, but may have great potential for the computer industry. The simplicity of this technology is one of the main reasons why it in the future could turn into a serious competitor to machines based on conventional hardware. A modern microprocessor is an incredibly complicated device that can be destroyed during production by no more than a single airborne microscopic particle. In contrast, a cup of chemicals is a simple and stable component that is cheap to produce. In a conventional microprocessor, the bits behave much like cars in city traffic; they can only use certain roads, they have to slow down and wait for each other in crossing traffic, and only one driving field at once can be used. In a BZ solution, the waves are moving in all thinkable directions in all dimensions, across, away and against each other. These properties might make a chemical computer able to handle billions of times more data than a traditional computer. An analogy would be the brain; even if a microprocessor can transfer information much faster than a neuron, the brain is still much more effective for some tasks because it can work with much higher amount of data at the same time. Historical background Originally chemical reactions were seen as a simple move towards a stable equilibrium which was not very promising for computation. This was changed by a discovery made by Boris Belousov, a Soviet scientist, in the 1950s. He created a chemical reaction between different salts and acids that swing back and forth between being yellow and clear because the concentration of the different components changes up and down in a cyclic way. He noted that in a mix of potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, propanedioic acid and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid, the ratio of concentration of the cerium(IV) and cerium(III) ions oscillated, causing the colour of the solution to oscillate between a yellow solution and a colorless solution. This is due to thecerium(IV)ionsbeing reduced bypropanedioic acid to cerium(III) ions, which are then oxidized back to cerium(IV) ions by bromate(V) ions. At the time this was considered impossible because it seemed to go against the second law of thermodynamics, which states that in a closed system the entropy will only increase over time, causing the components in the mixture to distribute themselves till equilibrium is gained and making any changes in the concentration 062 Electronics Prabhat Dahal
  7. 7. ZERONE 2010 7 Cutting-Edge Technologies themanwhosoldtheworldimpossible. But modern theoretical analyses shows sufficiently complicated reactions can indeed comprise wave phenomena without breaking the laws of nature. (A convincing directly visible demonstration was achieved by Anatol Zhabotinsky with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction showing spiraling colored waves.) Basic principles The wave properties of the BZ reaction means it can move information in the same way as all other waves. This still leaves the need for computation performed by conventional microchips using the binary code transmitting and changing ones and zeros through a complicated system of logic gates. To perform any conceivable computation, it is sufficient to have NAND gates. (A NAND gate has two bits input. Its output is 0 if both bits are 1, otherwise it's 1). In the chemical computer version, logic gates are implemented by concentration waves blocking or amplifying each other in different ways. Current research Chemical computers can exploit several different kinds of reaction to carry out the computation. For example, so-called conformation computers use polymer molecules that change shape in response to a particular input. Metabolic computing exploits the kinds of reactions typically found inside a living cell. In 1989, how the light-sensitive chemical reactions could perform image processing was demonstrated. This led to an upsurge in the field of chemical computing. Andrew Adamatzky at the University of the West of England demonstrated simple logic gates using reaction-diffusion processes. Furthermore he had theoretically shown how a hypothetical "2+ medium" modeled as a cellular automaton can perform computation. The breakthrough came when he read a theoretical article of two scientists who illustrated how to make logic gates to a computer by using the balls on a billiard table as an example. Like in the case with the AND-gate, two balls represent two different bits. If a single ball shoots towards a common colliding point, the bit is 1. If not, it is 0. A collision will only occur if bothballs are sent toward the point, which then is registered in the same way as when two electronic 1's gives a new and single 1. In this way the balls work together like an AND-gate. Adamatzkys' greatachievement wasto transfer this principle to the BZ-chemical reaction and replace the billiard balls with waves. If it occurs, two waves in the solution will meet and create a third wave which is registered as a 1. He has tested the theory in practice and has already documented that it works. For the moment, he is cooperating with some other scientists in producing some thousand chemical versions of logic gates that is going to become a form of chemical pocket calculator. One of the problems with the present version of this technology is the speed of the waves; they only spread at a rate of a few millimeters per minute. According to Adamatzky, this problem can be eliminated by placing the gates very close to each other, to make sure the signals are transferred quickly. Another possibility could be new chemical reactions where waves propagate much faster. If these teething problems are overcome, a chemical computer will offer clear advantages over an electronic computer. Latest advancements 1. Reaction-diffusion computing This type ofcomputation exploits waves travelling through a beaker of chemicals to carry out useful calculations. These waves are the information carriers in the computer. They are created by triggeringchemical reactions in thesoup atspecific points. As waves propagate from different areas they collide and interact - effectively processing the information they hold. At the site of their interaction a point with a new chemical
  8. 8. 8 ZERONE 2010 Cutting-Edge Technologies concentration is created, which is in effect an answer. With a beaker full of thousands of waves travelling and interacting witheach other, complex computational problems can be solved. An increasing number of individuals in the computer industry are starting to realise the potential of this technology. IBM is at the moment testing out new ideas in the field of microprocessing with many similarities to the basic principles of a chemical computer. 2. Robot gel Although the process sounds complicated and esoteric it can be applied to almost all computational problems. According to Dr Adamatzky, Reaction-diffusion processors are universal computers and they can solve all types of problems. As a result, computer giant IBM is already interested in the technology. Although slower than silicon, its key advantage is that it is cheap to produce and incredibly robust. Working with chemist Ben De Lacy Costello, Dr Adamatzky hasalready produced logic gates using the technique that can be used to make chemical "circuitry". Here is an excerpt from news in Chemical Computing that made a sensation in BBC sometime back where Dr. Adamatzy says- "Ultimately, we will produce a general purpose chemical chip. The chip would be capable of mathematical operations such as adding and multiplying numbers. I believe we can take the research even further to create intelligent, amorphous robots. In these, silicon circuitry would be of no use. Assume we have fabricated an artificial amoeba, gel-based robot, without any fixed shape, and capable for splitting into several smaller robots. Cornventional silicon circuits will not work because they have rigid architecture. But as chemical computers are an amorphous blob they could be cut in half and both would continue functioning independently. You can not cut your laptop in half and expect both parts to function properly; you can do this with reaction-diffusion processors." 3. Nano-chemical computation Scientists have achieved the goal of creating a nano-scale “chemical brain” that can transmit instructions to multiple (at present as many as 16) molecular “machines” simultaneously. The new molecular processor means that nano- chemical computation may soon be possible, ushering in a new era in super-light, super-fast, more versatile computer processing capabilities and, by extension, robotics. The BBC reports that: The machine is made from 17 molecules of the chemical duroquinone. Each one is known as a “logic device”. They each resemble a ring with four protruding spokes that can be independently rotated to represent four different states. One duroquinone molecule sits at the centre of a ring formed by the remaining 16. All are connected by chemical bonds, known as hydrogen bonds. The structure is just 2 nanometers in diameter, and can produce 4 billion different permutations of chemical transmission of “information”. This allows for a far more efficient distribution of information than a traditional binary circuit. The researchers say the structure of the “chemical brain” was inspired by the activity of glial cells in the human brain. Glial cells are non-neuronal “glue” or connective cells. In the brain, they are estimated to outnumber neurons by 10 to 1 and assist in chemical transmission of neural signals. Their ability to transmit signals in parallel, or to multiple tangent cells at once, reportedly gave rise to the 17-molecule duroquinone design. In recent years, the inability of research teams and engineers to keep pace with “Moore’s law” — which predicts that computing speed (by way of the reduction in size of processing units or the increasing density of circuits possible in a given space) will double roughly every 18 months— has been tested, due to heat-diffusion constraints and the related energy bleed. Nano-chemical processors would enable an entirely new structure for the smallest-scale computing circuits, and could lead to serious advances in the nature and capabilities of microprocessors, which are far larger in size and could therefore contain many times more circuits than at present. The researchers have reportedly already moved beyond the initial 17-molecule design, capable of processing 16 instructions simultaneously, to devices capable of 256 simultaneous transmissions. They are also designing a molecular device that would be capable of up to 1024 simultaneous transmissions.
  9. 9. ZERONE 2010 9 Cutting-Edge Technologies 4 G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless and is a successor to 3G and 2G standards. Though different regions have diversified approaches towards the next generation mobile communication technology (called 4th generation mobile, or 4G Mobile), the future trend is same: Convergence among fixed, mobile and wireless communications. A 4G system is expected to upgrade existing communication networks and is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure IP based solution where facilities such as voice, data and streamed multimedia will be provided to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis and at much higher data rates compared to previous generations. Currently, the 3G mobile service is available in the world. In the next stage, from around 2010, Japanese mobile operators will upgrade to "Long Term Evolution (LTE)" services. LTE technology is sometimes also termed 3.9G or Super-3G. 4G technologies enable still higher data speeds, and are currently under development and testing. It is currently not possible to predict when exactly 4G services will be introduced to the markets, however it could be around 2015 or later. Objectives • 4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS (Quality of Service) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, High Definition Television(HDTV) content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). • A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site). • High network capacity, more simultaneous users per cell. • Reduce blips in transmission when a device moves between areas covered by different networks. • A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world. •Smooth handoff (handover) across heterogeneous networks. An instance of handover is, when the phone is moving away from the area covered by one cell and entering the area covered by another cell, the call is transferred to the second cell in order to avoid call termination when the phone gets outside the range of the first cell. • Compatible operation with existing wireless standards. Key 4G technologies • Modulation can also be employed as a multiple accesstechnology (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access; OFDMA). In this case, each OFDM symbol can transmit information to/from several users using a different set of sub-carriers (sub-channels). • MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output to attain ultra high spectral efficiency. MIMO uses signal multiplexing between multiple transmitting antennas (space multiplex) and time or frequency. • Adaptive Radio Interface: There will be two radio processor modules, connected by digital interconnection system to conform to a predetermined radio communications channel patching arrangement. • Modulation, spatial processing including multi- antenna and multi-user MIMO. • The cooperative relaying concept, which exploits the inherent spatial diversity of the relay channel by allowing mobile terminals to co- operate. Sudha Lohani 063 Electronics 4G Mobile4G Mobile4G Mobile4G Mobile4G Mobile TTTTTechnologyechnologyechnologyechnologyechnology
  10. 10. 10 ZERONE 2010 Cutting-Edge Technologies • Access Schemes: Schemes like Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier FDMA (SC- FDMA), Interleaved FDMA and Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. For the next generation UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), OFDMA is being considered for the downlink. By contrast, IFDMA is being considered for the uplink. • Multimedia service delivery, service adaptation and robust transmission: Audio and video coding are scalable. For instance, a video flow can be split into three flows which can be transported independently. The first flowprovides availability, the other two quality and definition. Advantages • In the 4G mobile era, the access to the mobile services will be evolved to an open Mobile Cloud and will be fully open to any developers and providers. Thus, any non-wireless industries, such as Google, Microsoft, Oracle can provide services for their mobile users. • The mobile device system architecture will be open in order to converge multiple RTTs (radio transmission technologies) in one same device. Like laptop computer, the future Smartphone will be based on open wireless architecture (OWA) technology which means, when you change the wireless standards, you do not need to change phone. It is totally different from current multi- standards phone which is in closed system architecture, and users can not remove the unused RTT modules. In the OWA system, RTT card can be changed to switch wireless standards, or multiple wireless standards can be integrated in one RTT SIM card. Based on this OWA platform, you can integrate home phone, office phone and mobile phone into one common Personal device - it is more than just a phone. In fact, this 4G mobile device is a system to bring the world in the hand, can be called iHand - the World in Hand. • Any portable consumer electronics device can be a mobile phone by inserting the OWA-powered mobile RTT(s) card. This approach is truly converging the mobile wireless technology with the computer technology. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on October 1, 2001 and slowly it spread over the world, while the technology arrived in Nepal in 2007, May 17th. The 4G is expected to be in market by 2015.But it seems we will have to wait for a while before we will get to enjoy the service.
  11. 11. ZERONE 2010 11 Cutting-Edge Technologies T o give users more flexibility and interoperability, and enable more interactive and exciting websites and applications, HTML 5 introduces and enhances a wide range of features including form controls, APIs, multimedia, structure, and semantics. HTML 5 is said to become a game-changer in Web application development, one that might even make obsolete such plug-in-based rich Internet application (RIA) technologies as Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, and Sun JavaFX. Work on HTML 5, originally referred to as Web Applications 1.0, was initiated in 2004 and is currently being carried out in a jointeffortbetween the W3C HTML WG (Work Group) and the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG). Many key players are participating in the W3C effort including representatives from the four major browser vendors: Apple, Mozilla, Opera, and Microsoft; and a range of other organizationsand individuals. Specification is still a work in progress has quite a long way from completion. In addition to specifying markup, HTML 5 introduces a number of APIs that help in creating Web applications. These can be used together with the new elements introduced for applications: • 2D drawing API which can be used with the new canvas element. • API for playing of video and audio which can be used with the new video and audio elements. • An API that enables offline Web applications. • An API that allows a Web application to register itself for certain protocols or media types. • Editing API in combination with a new global content editable attribute. • Drag & drop API in combination with a draggable attribute. • API that exposes the history and allows pages to add to it to prevent breaking the back button. • Cross-document messaging Existing DocumentObject Model (DOM) interfaces are extended and de facto features documented. HTML 5 is defined in a way that it is backwards compatible with the way user agents handle deployed content. To keep the authoring language relatively simple for authors several elements and attributes are not included as outlined in the other sections of this document, such as presentational elements that are better dealt with using CSS. 1. Structure The HTML serialization refers to the syntax that is inspired by the SGML syntax from earlier versions of HTML, but defined to be more compatible with the way browsers actually handle HTML in practice. Example document that conforms to the HTML5 syntax: <!doctype html> <html> <head> <meta charset="UTF-8"> <title>Example document</title> </head> <body> <p>Example paragraph</p> </body> </html> The XML serialisation refers to the syntax using XML 1.0 and namespaces, just like XHTML 1.0. Example document that conforms to the XML syntax of HTML 5 : Be Ready !Be Ready !Be Ready !Be Ready !Be Ready ! HTML5 is coming Ganesh Tiwari 063 Computer
  12. 12. 12 ZERONE 2010 Cutting-Edge Technologies <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <title>Example document </title> </head> <body><p>Example paragraph</p> </body> </html> 2. Replacement of <div> tag The use of div elements is largely because current versions of HTML 4 but lack the necessary semantics for describing these parts more specifically. HTML 5 addresses this issue by introducing new elements for representing each of these different sections. The div elements can be replaced with the new elements: header, nav, section, article, aside, and footer. The markup for the above document could look like the following: <body> <header>...</header> <nav>...</nav> <article> <section> ... </section> </article> <aside>...</aside> <footer>...</footer> </body> 3. Embedded media Video on the Web is booming, but it's almost all proprietary. YouTube uses Flash, Microsoft uses Windows Media®, and Apple uses QuickTime. HTML currently lacks the necessary means to successfully embed and control multimedia itself. Whether any one format and codec will be preferred is still under debate. Probably Ogg Theora support at least will be strongly recommended, if not required. Support for proprietary formats patent-encumbered formats will be optional. The simplest way to embed a video is to use a video element and allow the browser to provide a default user interface. The controls attribute is a boolean attribute that indicates whether or not the author wants this UI on or off by default. The optional poster attribute can be used to specify an image which will be displayed in place of the video before the video has begun playing. <video src="video.ogg" id="video" controls="true" poster="poster.jpg"> </video><p> <button type="button" onclick="video.play();"> Play</button> <button type="button" onclick="video.pause();"> Pause</button> <button type="button" onclick="video.currentTime = 0;"><< Rewind</button> HTML4 Structure HTML5 Structure
  13. 13. ZERONE 2010 13 Cutting-Edge Technologies A complementary audio element is also proposed. Most of the attributes are common between the video and audio elements, although for obvious reasons, the audio element lacks the width, height, and poster attributes. <audio src="music.mp3" controls=”true” autoplay="autoplay"> <a href="music.mp3">Download song</a> </audio> Figure can be used to associate a caption together with some embedded content, such as a graphic or video. <figure> <img src="pic.png"> <legend>Example</legend> </figure> 4. Canvas Canvas is used for dynamic scriptable rendering of bitmap graphics on the fly. It was initially introduced by Apple for use inside their own Mac OX WebKit component, powering components like Dashboard widgets and the Safari browser. Some browsers already support the <canvas> tag, like Firefox and Opera. The <canvas> tag is only a container for graphics; you must use a script to actually paint graphics. Canvas consists of drawable region defined in html code with height and width attributes. <canvas id=”a_canvas” width=”400” height=”300”> </canvas> JavaScript code may access the area through full set of draing function similar to other common 2D APIs, thus allowing for dynamically generated graphics. 2D and 3D graphics both will be possible with the help of API, which is expected to be popular for online gaming, animations and image composition. 5. MathML and SVG The HTML syntax of HTML 5 allows for MathML and SVG elements to be used inside a document. E.g. a very simple document using some of the minimal syntax features could look like: <!doctype html> <title>SVG in text/html</title> <p> A green circle:<svg> <circle r="50"cx="50" cy="50" fill="green"/> </svg> </p> 6. Interactivity HTML 5 also goes under the rubric of Web Applications 1.0. Several new elements are focused on more interactive experiences for Web pages: • details • datagrid • menu • command These elements all have the potential to change what is displayed based on user action and choice without loading a new page from the server. datagrid The datagrid element serves the role of a grid control. It's intended for trees, lists, and tables that can be updated by both the user and scripts. By contrast, traditional tables are mostly intended for static data. <datagrid> <table> <tr><td>Jones</td><td>Allison</ td><td>A-</td><td>B+</td><td>A</ td></tr> <tr><td>Smith</td><td>Johnny</ td><td>A</td><td>C+</td><td>A</ td></tr> ... </table> </datagrid> What distinguishes this from a regular table is that the user can select rows, columns, and cells; collapse rows, columns, and cells; edit cells; delete rows, columns, and cells; sort the grid; and otherwise interact with the data directly in the browser on the client. The JavaScript code may monitor the updates.
  14. 14. 14 ZERONE 2010 Cutting-Edge Technologies Menu and command The menu element has actually been present in HTML since at least version 2. It was deprecated in HTML 4, but it comes roaring back with new significance in HTML 5. In HTML 5, a menu containscommand elements,eachofwhichcauses an immediate action. For example, The label attribute gives a title for the menu. For example, <menu type="popup" label="Edit"> <command onclick="undo()" label="Undo"/> <command onclick="redo()" label="Redo"/> <command onclick="cut()" label="Cut"/> <command onclick="copy()" label="Copy"/> <command onclick="paste()" label="Paste"/> <command onclick="delete()" label="Clear"/> </menu> Menus can be nested inside other menus to create hierarchical menus. 7. Web forms 2 Web forms 2 specification adds lots of features for authoring forms for basic client side validation, new input types, and repetition blocks. Several JavaScript implementations are under development. Some examples of web form 2 are: <input type="email” value="a@b"> <input pattern="[1- ]{10}"value="1234567891"> <input type="number" min="7" max="25" step="2"> </label> <input type="date” required> Other elements The following elements have been introduced for better structure: • dialog can be used to mark up a conversation like this: <dialog> <dt> hello, how r u <dd> fine and you? <dt> mee to good </dialog> • embed is used for plugin content. • mark represents a run of marked (highlighted) text. It is not similar as <em> tag. You searched for <m>marker</m> • meter represents a measurement, such as disk usage, user ratings. Rating: <meter min=“0” max=“5”value=“3”> • progress represents a completion of a task, such as downloading or when performing a series of expensive operations. We can use the progress element to display the progress of a time consuming function in JavaScript. <progress value=“128” max=“1024”>72.5%</progress> • time represents a date and/or time, which solves Accessibility Issue. It can be used in Microformats like hCalendar <time datetime="2007-08-02T23:30Z"> Fri, Aug 03 2007 at 09:30</time> • details represents additional information or controls which the user can obtain on demand. • datalist together with the a new list attribute for input is used to make comboboxes: <input list="browsers"> <datalist id="browsers"> <option value="Safari"> <option value="Internet Explorer"> <option value="Opera"> <option value="Firefox"> </datalist> • keygen represents control for key pair generation. • bb represents a user agent command that the user can invoke. • output represents some type of output, such as from a calculation done through scripting.
  15. 15. ZERONE 2010 15 Cutting-Edge Technologies 1.www.en.wikipedia.org 2.www.w3.org 3.www.whatwg.org 1. www.en.wikipedia.org 2. www.w3.org 3. www.whatwg.org References • ruby, rt and rp allow for marking up ruby annotations. The input element's type attribute now has the following new values: datetime, datetime-local, date, month, week, time, number, range, email, url, search, color The idea of these new types is that the user agent can provide the user interface, such as a calendar date picker or integration with the user's address book, and submit a defined format to the server. It gives the user a better experience as his input is checked before sending it to the server meaning there is less time to wait for feedback.. At last Work on HTML 5 is rapidly progressing, yet it is still expected to continue for several years. Due to the requirement to produce test cases and achieve interoperable implementations, current estimates have work finishing in around ten to fifteen years. During this process, feedback from a wide range of people including web designers and developers, CMS and authoring tool vendors and browser vendors is vital to ensure its success. Everyone is not only welcome, but actively encouraged to contribute feedback on HTML 5. There are numerous venues through which you may contribute. You may join the W3C’s HTML WG and subscribe/contribute to the HTML WG mailing lists, WHATWG mailing lists, or wiki.
  16. 16. 16 ZERONE 2010 Cutting-Edge Technologies T eleportation is the name given by science fiction writers to the feat of making an object or person disintegrate in one place while a perfect replica appears somewhere else. Teleportation involves de-materializing an object at one point, and sending the details of that object's precise atomic configuration to another location, where it will be reconstructed. What this means is that time and space could be eliminated from travel - we could be transported to any location instantly, without actually crossing a physical distance. This, until now, has only been available to read in si-fi novels and watch with thrill and excitement over si-fi movies. Imagination leads to great innovations and so there are scientists working right now on such a method of travel to convert this imagination into reality by combining properties of telecommunications and transportation to achieve a system called teleportation. But, Quantum teleportation is not the same as the teleportation most of us know from science fiction, where an object (or person) in one place is “beamed up” to another place where a perfect copy is replicated. In quantum teleportation two photons or ions (for example) are entangled in such a way that when the quantum state of one is changed the state of the other also changes, as if the two were still connected. This enables quantum information to be teleported if one of the photons/ions is sent some distance away. It works by entangling two objects, like photons or ions. The first teleportation experiments involved beams of light. Once the objects are entangled, they're connected by an invisible wave, like a thread or umbilical cord. That means when something is done to one object, it immediately happens to the other object, too. Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance." Although the first proof-of-principle demonstration was reported in 1997 by the Innsbruck and Rome groups, long-distance teleportation had so far only been realized in fibre with lengths of hundreds of metres apart until this recent experiment. And those distances have been accomplished with fiber channels, which help preserve the photons' state. But the ongoing vast research and experiments have continuously tried bringing this quantum teleportaion concept to a whole new level now. Recently in what promises to be a milestone experiment led by Jian-Wei Pan and Cheng-Zhi Peng at the University of Science and Technology of China and Tsinghua University (Beijing, China), quantum information was ‘transmitted’ through the open air between two stations 16 kilometers (10 miles) apart. The previous record was a few hundred meters using fiber optic cable. At the distance of 10 or more kilometers, this almost mysterious form of communication, called “spooky action at a distance” by Einstein, becomes possible for Earth to orbiting satellites. What’s so spooky is the nature of quantum entanglement, how separated particles can share quantum properties as if they were one particle. Entangled photon pairs were generated for this experiment at the teleportation site using a semiconductor, a blue laser beam, and a crystal of beta-barium borate (BBO). The pairs of photons were entangled in the spatial modes of photon 1 and polarization modes of photon 2. The research team designed two types of telescopes to serve as optical transmitting and receiving antennas. It’s one thing to imagine this kind of 2=1 condition Barsha Paudel 063 Electronics “Once the objects are entangled, they're connected by an invisible wave, like a thread or umbilical cord.” QuantumTeleportation! The Promises it Holds
  17. 17. ZERONE 2010 17 Cutting-Edge Technologies for distances no bigger than an atom, but over kilometers? The researchers set up two ‘stations:’ “Alice” located in a suburb of Beijing and 16 kilometers away on the other side of a reservoir was “Bob.” Alice and Bob each received one of a pair of entangled photons. Photons, the equivalent of electrons for light, are often used for entanglement experiments as they are good for transmission and can be manipulated by specialized lasers. At the Alice station, one entangled photon was measured in combination with an unknown qubit (a quantum unit of information), in a sense was charged-up by a maximally applied entangling force with both spatial and polarization (laser) methods. The result, a more highly entangled particle, was sent via telescope to Bob. At the Bob station, that photon then also projected the status of the unknown qubit as did Alice. The mumbo jumbo means that the state of one photon (Alice) instantly reflected is the state of the other entangled photon (Bob). These researchers found that even at this distance the photon at the receiving end still responded to changes in state of the photon remaining behind. The qubit is the piece of quantum information that is passed, so this is a form of communication. This experiment required a great deal of groundbreaking work, including specialized telescopes designed for the open air transfer, active feedback control for transmission stability, and synchronized real-time information transfer. The result was information fidelity approaching 89%, good enough for a lot of quantum jazz. That does not mean this is ready for real-world applications. It does mean that practical applications can be envisioned. Between now and the time when quantum teleportation is used for communication, there needs to be a lot of work done with the size, cost, and reliability of the equipment needed to generate and control the entanglement effect. The entangled photons will need better control. Charged electrons – ions – are easier to manipulate, for example to create encryption patterns; but something will be needed to achieve a similar level of manipulation for photons. Nevertheless, this is a mind-opening achievement. Now, why is this a big deal? Well, in the past scientists have only been able to teleport information across a small span of a few meters and even then they had to do so through some kind of conduit like a fiber optic cable. What happened recently was an open-air quantum teleportation from across ten miles. An optical free-space link is highly desirable for extending the transfer distance, because of its low atmospheric absorption for certain ranges of wavelength. Scientists in China have succeeded in teleporting information between photons further than ever before. They transported quantum information over a free space distance
  18. 18. 18 ZERONE 2010 Cutting-Edge Technologies of 16 km (10 miles), much further than the few hundred meters previously achieved, which brings us closer to transmitting information over long distances without the need for a traditional signal. This thus has proved itself to be an unprecedented achievement. Quantum teleportation is central to the practical realization of quantum communication and with the distance of 16 km which is greater than the effective aerosphere thickness of 5-10 km, the group's success could pave the way for experiments between a ground station and a satellite, or two ground stations with a satellite acting as a relay. The experiments confirm the feasibility of space-based quantum teleportation, and represent a giant leap forward in the development of quantum communication applications. This means quantum communication applications could be possible on a global scale in the near future. This result confirms the feasibility of space-based experiments, and is an important step towards quantum-communication applications on a global scale. So the promises of quantum teleportation is huge and hard to miss. We never know, soon walking could be so 2010. 1. www.physorg.com/news193551675.html 2 . w w w . e n . w i k i p e d i a . o r g / w i k i / Quantum_teleportation 3. www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v4/n6/ full/nphoton.2010.87.html 4. www.scitechstory.com/2010/05/20/quantum- teleportation-over-16-km-in-open-air/ References An umbrella that lets you surf the Internet while walking in the rain takes mobile electronics to a new level. Called Pileus, the Internet umbrella sports a large screen, which drapes across the inside of the umbrella, and a camera, digital compass, GPS, and motion sensor, all located in the umbrella’s handle. So far, the umbrella, which is only in prototype form, has two capabilities: photo-sharing through Flickr and 3-D map navigation. To operate this handheld electronic umbrella, you just rotate the grip of the handle. The umbrella was created at Keio University by Takashi Matsumoto and Sho Hashimota, who have now co-founded the company Pileus LLC. [Source: www.technewsdaily.com] Ordinary Things Turned Hi-Tech! The Internet Umbrella
  19. 19. ZERONE 2010 19 Contemporary Technologies C loud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three delivery models, and four deployment models. In another way, Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. A user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service are fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but an IP enabled devices (PC, laptop, cell phone and Internet access). Cloud computing supportGrid computing ("a form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks") by quickly providing physical and virtual servers on which the grid applications can run. It also supports non grid environments, such as a three-tier Web architecture running standard or Web 2.0 applications. Cloud computing can be confused with utility computing (the "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity") and autonomic computing ("computer systems capable of self- management"). CloudComputing Nar Kaji Gurung 063 Computer Contemporary TechnologiesContemporary TechnologiesContemporary TechnologiesContemporary TechnologiesContemporary Technologies Some vendors supplying cloud computing
  20. 20. Introduction to cloud computing Cloud computing infrastructures can allow enterprises to achieve more efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments. Cloud computing is an example of an ultimately virtualized system, and a natural evolution for data centers that employ automated systems management, workload balancing, and virtualization technologies. The Cloud makes it possible to launch Web 2.0 applications quickly and to scale up applications as much as needed when needed. The platform supports traditional Java™ and Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack-based applications as well as new architectures such as Map Reduce © IBM Corporation 2007 Cloud Computing 5 and the Google File System, which provide a means to scale applications across thousands of servers instantly. Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware, software, and services when they pay a provider only for what they use. Consumption is billed on a utility (e.g. resources consumed, like electricity, telephone) or Subscription (e.g. time based, like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry, shared infrastructure and costs, low management overhead, and immediate access to a broad range of applications. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements (SLAs) with financial penalties. Essential characteristics On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and networkstorage, as needed automaticallywithoutrequiringhuman interaction with each service’s provider. Ubiquitous network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs). Location independent resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve all consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up and rapidly released to quickly scale down. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Measured Service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g, storage,Processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. Note: Cloud software takes full advantage of the cloud paradigm by being service oriented with a focus on statelessness, low coupling, modularity, and semantic interoperability. Delivery models of cloud computing Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure and accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a Web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings. In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS): Platform- as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals or gateway software installed on the customer's computer. Force.com, (an outgrowth
  21. 21. ZERONE 2010 21 Contemporary Technologies of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform. Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly select networking components (e.g., firewalls, load balancers). Deployment models (types of cloud) Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Private clouds are a good option for companies dealing with data protection and service-level issues. Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Public cloud: Public clouds are run by third parties and jobs from many different customers may be mixed together on the servers, storage systems, and other infrastructure within the cloud. End users don’t know who else’s job may be running on the same server, network, or disk as their own jobs. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. Hybrid cloud: Hybrid clouds combine the public and private and community cloud models.. Hybrid clouds offer the promise of on-demand, externally provisioned scale, but add the complexity of determining how to distribute applications across these different environments. Architecture of cloud computing It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. Cloud computing types
  22. 22. Contemporary Technologies 22 ZERONE 2010 Cloud computing system is divided it into two sections: the front end and the back end. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. Most of the time, servers don't run at full capacity. That means there's unused processing power going to waste. It's possible to fool a physical server into thinking it's actually multiple servers, each running with its own independent operating system. The technique is called server virtualization. By maximizing the output of individual servers, server virtualization reduces the need for more physical machines. On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. A central server, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a protocol and uses a special kind of software called middleware which allows networked computers to communicate with each other. If a cloud computing there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Cloud computing systems need at least twice copy of storage devices (redundancy).It supports RAID architecture. Layers of the cloud computing 1. Application: A cloud application leverages the Cloud in software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer, thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support. For example: Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (Bit torrent, BOINC Projects, Skype),Web application (Facebook),Software as a service (Google Apps, SAP and Salesforce),Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services) 2. Client: A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or whichis specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and which, in either case, is essentially useless without it. For example: Mobile (Android, iPhone, Windows Mobile),Thin client (CherryPal, Zonbu, gOS-based systems),Thick client / Web browser (Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox) 3. Infrastructure: Cloud infrastructure, typically a platform virtualization environment, as a service. For example: Full virtualization (GoGrid, Skytap),Grid computing (Sun Grid),Management (RightScale),Compute (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud),Platform (Force.com) 4. Platform: A cloud platform, such as Platform as a service, the delivery of a computing platform, and/or solution stack as a service, facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexityofbuyingand managing theunderlying hardware and software layers. For example: Web application frameworks (Java Google Web Toolkit (Google App Engine),Python Django (Google App Engine),Ruby on Rails (Heroku),.NET (Azure Services Platform),Web hosting (Mosso),Proprietary (Force.com) ) 5. Service: A cloud service includes "products, services and solutions that are delivered and consumed in real-time over the Internet". For example, Web Services which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software, e.g., Software plus services, or end users directly. Specific examples include: Identity (OAuth, OpenID), Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service, Google Checkout, and PayPal), Mapping (Google Maps, Yahoo! Maps), and Search (Alexa, Google Custom Search, and Yahoo! BOSS) 6. Storage: Cloud storage involves the delivery of data storage as a service, including database- like services, often billed on a utility computing basis, e.g., per gigabyte per month. For example: Database ( Google App Engine's BigTable datastore),Network attached storage (MobileMe Cloud computing sample architecture
  23. 23. ZERONE 2010 23 Contemporary Technologies iDisk, Nirvanix CloudNAS),Synchronization (Live Mesh Live Desktop component, MobileMe push functions),Web service (Amazon Simple Storage Service, Nirvanix SDN) Backup (Backup Direct, Iron Mountain Inc services) Cloud storage can be delivered as a service to cloud computing, or can be delivered to end points directly. Cloud computing applications The applications of cloud computing are practically limitless. Why would anyone want to rely on another computer system to run programs and store data? Here are just a few reasons: • Clients would be able to access their applications and data from anywhere at any time. • It could bring hardware costs down. Cloud computing systems would reduce the need for advanced hardware on the client side. • Cloud computing systems give these organizations company-wide access to computer applications. The companies don't have to buy a set of software or software licenses for every employee. • Servers and digital storage devices take up space. Some companies rent physical space to store servers and databases because they don't have it available on site. Cloud computing gives these companies the option of storing data on someone else's hardware, removing the need for physical space on the front end. • Corporations might save money on IT support. Streamlined hardware would, in theory, have fewer problems than a network of heterogeneous machines and operating systems. • If the cloud computing system's back end is a grid computing system, then the client could take advantage of the entire network's processing power. The cloud system would tap into the processing power of all available computers on the back end, significantly speeding up the calculation. Criticism and disadvantages of cloud computing • Since cloud computing does not allow users to physically possess the storage of their data (the exception being the possibility that data can be backed up to a user-owned storage device, such as a USB flash drive or hard disk) it does leave responsibility of data storage and control in the hands of the provider. • Cloud computing has been criticized for limiting the freedom of users and making them dependent on the cloud computing provider, and some critics have alleged that is only possible to use applications or services that the provider is willing to offer. Thus, The London Times compares cloud computing to centralized systems of the 1950s and 60s, by which users connected through "dumb" terminals to mainframe computers. Typically, users had no freedom to install new applications and needed approval from administrators to achieve certain tasks. Overall, it limited both freedom and creativity. The Times argues that cloud computing is a regression to that time. • Similarly, Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation, believes that cloud computing endangers liberties because users sacrifice their privacy and personal data to a third party. He stated that cloud computing is "simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked, proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time." Companies using cloud computing Google: Google has opened its cloud to outside developers. Google's Application Engine is a free service that lets anyone build and run web applications on Google's very own distributed infrastructure. "Google Application Engine gives you access to the same building blocks that Google uses for its own applications, making it easier to build an application that runs reliably, even under heavy load and with large amounts of data.” In particular, the platform offers: • Dynamic web serving, with full support of common web technologies “Cloud computing infrastructures are next generation platforms that can provide tremendous value to companies of any size.”
  24. 24. Contemporary Technologies 24 ZERONE 2010 • Persistent storage (powered by Bigtable and GFS with queries, sorting, and transactions) • Automatic scaling and load balancing • Google APIs for authenticating users and sending email • Fully featured local development environment Amazon.com: Amazon.com offers the Amazon Web Services, including its Elastic Computing Cloud (for processing power), Simple Storage Service (for storage), and SimpleDB (for database queries) Microsoft: Microsoft has offered developers a quick peek at an unreleased Windows Mobile client for its fledgling "Live Mesh" service. Live Mesh has been described as a "software-plus- service platform." Intended to integrate desktop and mobile operating systems, it provides synchronization and remote access services similar to those offered by products. Conclusion In today's global competitive market, companies must innovate and get the most from its resources to succeed. This requires enabling its employees, business partners, and users with the platforms and collaboration tools that promote innovation. Cloud computing infrastructures are next generation platforms that can provide tremendous value to companies of any size. They can help companies achieve more efficient use of their IT hardware and software investments and provide 1. wikipedia.org/wiki/cloud_computing 2. Cloud Computing, Andy Bechtolsheim, Chairman & Co-founder, Arista Networks November 12th, 2008 3. Cloud computing primer, Sun Microsystem. 4. Cloud computing, Greg Boss, Padma Malladi, Dennis Quan, Linda Legregni, Harold Hall 5. Application architecture for cloud computing, info.rpath.com 6. Cloud computing for science and engineering, CSIDC, www.computer.org References a means to accelerate the adoption of innovations. Cloud computing increases profitability by improving resource utilization. Costs are driven down by delivering appropriate resources only for the time those resources are needed. Cloud computing has enabled teams and organizations to streamline lengthy procurement processes. Cloud computing enables innovation by alleviating the need of innovators to find resources to develop, test, and make their innovations available to the user community. Innovators are free to focus on the innovation rather than the logistics of finding and managing resources that enable the innovation. Source: www.xkcd.com
  25. 25. ZERONE 2010 25 Contemporary Technologies L et’s get started with a familiar scenario. Let’s suppose a XYZ bank has its central office in Kathmandu (for obvious reasons). Its branch offices are located at different major cities all over Nepal. Whenever you carry out transactions from any of the offices, all branch offices get informed about it and the database is updated accordingly. But how? You may answer, there is connectivity between these branch offices or all branch offices communicate with central office. Yes, that is obvious. The connectivity could be Wired or Wireless. In Wired connectivity, it could be dedicated Leased line to create private Wide Area Network (WAN). It provides better quality, reliability and speed. But, it would cost a huge amount for the bank to use optical fibers or other kinds of wires like coaxial, twisted cable (for ISDN) which wouldn’t be a wise decision. Also, another alternative is Wireless connectivity. It can use transmitters and receivers (using antenna) following the principles of Line of Sight (direct)/indirect to create private WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network) to connect all the offices. But wireless communication isn’t much reliable. The radio/micro waves would interfere much with the noisy (unwanted signals) environment and distort the original signals. Also, the inappropriate weather conditions would degrade the quality and speed. Also, the installation of Wireless systems would cost much. For a large company, the capital mayn’t be a problem though there are other technical difficulties. But, we have a much better approach which we can access at a cheap rate. The concept is VPN which is an acronym for Virtual Private Network. We all know about Internet which is expanding rapidly. The Internet is more like an infrastructure. Most parts of the country/world have a global reach through Internet. The dedicated communication satellites have global reachto each VPNVPNVPNVPNVPN Ranjan Shrestha 062 Electronics Solution to remotely connected intranetSolution to remotely connected intranetSolution to remotely connected intranetSolution to remotely connected intranetSolution to remotely connected intranet
  26. 26. Contemporary Technologies 26 ZERONE 2010 and every part of the world. Hence, instead of using dedicated leased lines(Wired)/Wireless over a large geographic area, VPN uses cheap public network, such as the Internet as a backbone to create a virtually circuited private network for the company to stay connected with its branch offices (here bank). Also, a well designed VPN can reduce operational cost, increase in security, extend to much larger geographic area, builds a concept of global networking (assume branch offices in other countries), connect to extranet (connecting with other company’s private networks). Types of VPN 1. Remote access VPN It is a user to LAN connection used by company that has employees who need to connect to the private network from various remote locations. Generally, Enterprise Service Provider (ESP) sets up a Network Access Server (NAS) and provides remote users with client softwares. Then, the remote users can communicate with the corporate network through NAS using the client software. The Remote Access VPN permit secure, encrypted connections between a company’sprivate network and remote users through a third party service provider. 2. Site to site VPN With the use of dedicated equipments and encryption algorithms, a company can connect to multiple fixed sites over a public network such as the internet. The Site to Site VPN can of the following types. Intranet based If a company has one or more remote locations that they wish to join in a single private network, they can create an intranet VPN to connect LAN to LAN. Extranet based When the network of a company wants to communicate with network of another company (may be a partner, supplier, and customer), they can build an extranet VPN that connects LAN to LAN and that allows various companies to work in a shared environment. Tunneling concept Most VPNs rely on tunneling to communicate with private networks that reach across the Internet. The tunneling protocol provides a secure path through an untrusted network. It is the process of placing entire packet within another packet and sending it over a network. This means the actual packet (information) isn’t disclosed in the public network. The tunneling uses three different protocols: Carrier protocol used by the network that the information is travelling over, Encapsulating protocol uses Generic Routing Encapsulation(GRE), IPSec, etc that is wrapped around the original information and Passenger protocol process on original data(IPX, IP) being carried. Security implementation in VPN The VPN networks are designed using internet resources. We all know the public network; the internet is not much secure. Hence, a well designed VPN uses several methods for keeping the connection and data secure. 1. Firewall A firewall is a part of computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communication. It can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of both. The gateway (routes packets to outside of local network) can be configured to permit/deny access certain ports. A Cisco’s 1700 series routers can be upgraded with appropriate IOS (Internetwork Operating System) to include firewall capabilities. 2. Encryption It is the process of transforming information using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those processing special knowledge usually referred to as a key. It is used to protect data in transit. Most encryption systems belong to one of the two categories: Symmetric-key encryption and Public-key encryption. In Symmetric-key encryption, each computer has a secret key that it can use to encrypt a packet of information before it is sent over the network to another computer. Both the communicating partners must know the key used for encryption and decryption. In Public- key encryption, it uses a combination of a private "a well designed VPN can reduce operational cost, increase in security, extend to much larger geographic area, builds a concept of global networking , connect to extranet etc..”
  27. 27. ZERONE 2010 27 Contemporary Technologies key and a public key. The private key is kept secret, while the public key may be distributed widely. The messages are encrypted with the recipient’s public key and can only be decrypted with the corresponding private key. The keys are related mathematically but the private key can’t be easily derived from the public key. 3. IPSec The Internet Protocol Security is a protocol that is used to secure IP communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a data stream. The two encryption modes are Tunnel and Transport. IPSec can be used to protect (encrypt) data flow between PC to router, PC to server, between gateways, firewall to gateway. IPSec has a dual mode, end-to-end, security scheme operating at OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model Layer 3(Network layer). 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VPN 2. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ vpn.htm 3. Image by Cisco Systems, Inc. References 4. AAA server The AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) servers are used for more secure access in VPN environment. Before a session is established, the request is proxied to AAA server. Then, it authenticates (knows who is trying to access), authorizes (provides access in accordance to the predefined settings), accounts (security auditing, billing or reporting).
  28. 28. Contemporary Technologies 28 ZERONE 2010 M ATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computation of complex algorithm. This provide easy mean to implement of algorithm on digital signal processing, image processing, signal and communication model etc. Today all the circuits designs arecarried out on µC and FPGA and they are usually digital computations. for these types of computations on computer matlab is a powerful tool.While performing the digital I/p and o/p we always preferred to use microcontroller (µC)(ie, cheap and easy).But when speed and parallel computing are of chief issue, FPGAs are the best alternative(though expensive and complex).But computer interface still find its own worth when you are performing complex algorithm, which will be tedious to implement in µC and FPGA. Accessing matlab through matlab is justified for the projects which perform complex algorithm on digital data. How to connect to the hardware port of computer using MATLAB 1. Create a digital IO (DIO) object 2. All lines to it (we may treat device object as a container for lines) 3. Line and Port Characterization (to specify whether it is input or output or bidirectional). Parallel port It is a 25 pin (also available as 36 pin) intended for 8 bits parallel data transmission in TTL logic. • 8 output pins accessed via the DATA Port • 5 input pins (one inverted) accessed via the STATUS Port • 4 output pins (three inverted) accessed via the CONTROL Port • 8 grounds pins The PC supports up to three parallel ports that are assigned the labels LPT1, LPT2, and LPT3 With addresses (in hex) 378, 278, and 3BC, respectively. The addresses of the ports are Printer Data Port Status Control LPT1 0x0378 0x0379 0x037a LPT2 0x0278 0x0279 0x027a LPT3 0x03bc 0x03bd 0x03be CONNECTING TO MATLAB Sugan Shakya 062 Electronics
  29. 29. ZERONE 2010 29 Contemporary Technologies Normally there is one parallel port LPT1 in our pc but you can check for your pc using device manager. We can access the parallel port through MATLAB using following code: parallelPort= digitalio('parallel','LPT1'); hwlines = addline(parallelPort,0:7,'out'); (or, hwlines = addline(parallelPort,0:7,'in'); (or, addline (dio,0:7,{'in','in','in','in','out','out','out','out'}); Line specification is as per our requirement. We can write or read value to the port as follows: Write: val=12 putvalue(parallelPort,val) Read: valbin=getvalue(parallelPort) % it is binary vector val=binvec2dec(valbin) MATLAB also has facility to implement a timer.Suppose we need to monitor the value at port every 5 seconds for 1hour duration. portTimer.m parallelPort = digitalio('parallel',’LPT1’); addline(parallelPort,0:7,'in'); set(parallelPort,'TimerFcn',@findvalue); set(parallelPort,'TimerPeriod',5.0); start(parallelPort) pause(60) delete(parallelPort) clear parallelPort findValue.m function y=findsum(obj,event) %find sum of array; val=getvalue(obj) Serial port Serial ports consist of two signal types: data signals and control signals. To support these signal types, as well as the signal ground, the RS-232 standard defines a 25-pin connection. However, most PC's and UNIX platforms use a 9- pin connection. In fact, only three pins are required for serial port communications: one for receiving data, one for transmitting data, and one for the signal ground. The logic level for serial port is defined by RS 232 standard and is not TTL compatible. The serial data format includes one start bit, between five and eight data bits, and one stop bit. Usually there is one serial port at the rear part of computer with label COM1 and address 03F8 in hex. To display all properties and their current values: s = serial('COM1'); get(s) Before you can write or read data, both the serial port object and the device must have identical communication settings. Configuring serial port communications involves specifying values for following properties: s = serial('COM1'); %create a serial port object set(s,'BaudRate',19200) %configuring port for its baud rate fopen(s) %connect to the device connected to the port %reading data and %writing data fclose(s) delete(s) clear s We can write a binary data using fwrite function. We can read a binary data using fread function. We can write a text using fprintf function. We can read a text using fscanf function.
  30. 30. Contemporary Technologies 30 ZERONE 2010 P hotovoltaic (PV) system converts sunlight into electricity. Sunlight energy generates free electrons in a semiconductors device to produce electricity.The sun supplies all the energy that drives natural global systems and cycles. Each wavelength in the solar spectrum corresponds to a frequency and an energy; shorter the wavelength, higher the frequency and greater the energy. The great majority of energy is in the visible region (wavelength range from about 0.2µm to 4µm). An average of 1367w of solar energy strikes each square meter of the Earth’s outer atmosphere. Although the atmosphere absorbs and reflects this radiation, a vast amount still reaches the Earth’s surface. The amount of sunlight striking the Earth varies by region, season, time of day, climate and measure of air pollution. The amount of electricity produced by PV devices depends on the incident sunlight and the device efficiency. Characteristics of PV system: • They rely on sunlight. • They generate electricity with little impact on the environment. • They have no moving parts to wear out. • They are modular, which means they can be matched to a need for power at any scale. • They can be used as independent power sources, or in combinations with other sources. • They are reliable and long-lived. • They are solid-state technology and are easily mass-produced and installed. Knowing how the PV effect works in crystalline silicon helps us understand how it works in all Photovoltaic Dipendra Kumar Deo 062 Electronics Sun with solar cell
  31. 31. ZERONE 2010 31 Contemporary Technologies devices. All matters are composed of atoms. Positive protons and neutral neutrons comprise the nucleus of the atom. Negative electrons lie in the orbits which are at different distances depending on their energy levels. Outermost or valence electrons determine the way solid structures are formed. Four of silicon’s 14 electrons are valence electrons. In a crystalline solid a silicon atom share each of its four valence electrons with four valence electrons of other silicon atom. Light of sufficient energy can dislodge an electron from its bond in the crystal, creating a hole. These negative and positive charges (free electrons and holes) are the constituents of electricity. PV cells contain an electric field that forces free negative and positive charges in opposite directions, driving an electric current. To form the electric field, the silicon crystal is doped to alter the crystal’s electrical properties. Doping the crystal with phosphorus adds extra, unbounded electrons to the crystal, producing n-type material. Doping the crystal with boron leaves holes (bonds missing electrons act as possible charges) in the crystal, producing p- type material. In p-type material, holes, which are more numerous than free electrons, are the majority charge carriers. In n-type material, free electrons, which are more numerous than holes, are the majority charge carriers. The majority carriers respond physically to an electric field. When n-type and p-type material come in contact, an electric field forms at the junction (known as p-n junction). Once the materials are in contact, the majority carriers diffuse across the junction. This creates (in the immediate vicinity of the junction) excess electrons on the p-side and excess holes on the n-side. At equilibrium there is a net concentration of opposite charges on either side of the junction, which creates an electric field across the junction. Photons absorbed by a cell createelectron-hole pairs. Theelectric field attracts photo generated minority carriers across the interface and repels photo generated majority carriers. This sorting out of the photo generated electrons and holes by the electric field are what drive the charge in an electric circuit. Attaching an external circuit (eg: bulb) allows electrons to flow from the n-layer through a load and back to the p-layer. The band-gap energy is the amount of energy required of a photon to move an electron from valence band to conduction band. Band-gap energies of PV material range from about 1 to 3.33eV; crystalline silicon’s band-gap energy is 1.1eV. Photons with too light energy pass through the material or create heat; photons with too much energy create charge carriers, but also heat up the cell. Material with lower band-gap energies creates greater current: material with higher band-gap energies have higher voltages. The electric power produced by a PV cell is I*V, the product of the current and voltages. The PV cell is the basic unit in a PV system. An individual PV cell typically produces between 1 and 2W, hardly enough power for the great majority of applications. But the power can be increased by connecting cells together to form larger units called modules. Modules, in turns, can be connected to form even large units known as arrays, which can be interconnected for more Cell, Module, Array
  32. 32. Contemporary Technologies 32 ZERONE 2010 power, and so on. In this way, PV system can be built to meet almost any power need, no matter how small or great. This can be implemented in the Grid system, as the grid connected photovoltaic power system is connected to the commercial electric grid. These are generally small and 3kW for private resistance, 20kW for multiple dwelling, 100-200kW for school and factories. The operation of such system is based on the principle of feeding power in to grid when the solar generation exceeds the load demand (during day time) and taking power from the grid during the night. These systems do not require storage of energy but require additional components to regulate voltage, frequency, and waveform to meet the stringent requirements of feeding the power into the grid. Application of photovoltaic system Telecommunications: The power consumption oftelecommunication equipmenthas considerably reduced due to use of solid devices. Transmitters and relays stations now consume 50-100W. These stations are often located in remote and difficult to access areas like mountain tops and deserts. Cathodic protection: Various metallic structures like pipe lines, well heads, bridges etc. are protected from corrosion by cathodic protection system. In this technique a small direct current is impressed on the structure at regular intervals to prevent electrochemical corrosion. Small PV panels may be used to provide this current very efficiently. Navigational aids: Marine beacons and navigational lights on buoys around the world are now-a-days being powered reliably and cost effectively by simple PV generators, which were earlier powered by kerosene or batteries with several maintenance problems. Remote aircraft beacons: Remote radio and beacons near the airports may be powered economically by solar PV. One of the earliest examples of powering light beacons by PV is seven mountain peaks near Medina airport in Saudi Arabia. Alarm systems: PV systems are beings used to power railway signals, alarm system, fog, fire and flood hazard warning, traffic lights and highway telephones. Automatic meteorological stations: For precise weather forecasting it is necessary to collect meteorological at fixed time of intervals at several locations and then transmit them to a weather stations for analysis.Solar powered meteorological stations are reliable, economical and relatively free of maintenance problems. Defence equipment: Many defence equipments like mobile telephones, remote instrumentations, radar, water purifier etc may be effectively powered by PV. Emergency equipment: Battery charging on life boats and rafts. Providing essential services after earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters may be done efficiently by PV system. Providing electric power to remote villages and islands specially in developing countries by PV systems where large number of villages remain unconnected to main grid. Set of arrays of solar cell Set of arrays of solar cell in each roof of house
  33. 33. ZERONE 2010 33 Contemporary Technologies E lectromagnetic interference (EMI), also termedas radiofrequency interference(RFI), is any undesirable electromagnetic emission or any electrical or electronic disturbance, man- made or natural, which causes an undesirable response, malfunctioning or degradation in the performance of electrical equipment. The disturbance may interrupt, obstruct, or otherwise degrade or limit the effective performance of the circuit. The source may be any object, artificial or natural, that carries rapidly changing electrical currents such as an electrical circuit, the Sun or the Northern Lights. Radiated RFI is most often found in the frequency range from 30MHz to 10GHz. Types EMI can broadly be divided into two types: narrowband and broadband. Narrowband interference: arises from intentional transmissions such as radio and TV stations, pager transmitters, cell phones, etc. Broadband interference: arises from incidental radio frequency emitters which include electric power transmission lines, electric motors, thermostats, microprocessors, etc. Anywhere electrical power is being turned off and on rapidly is a potential source. The spectra of these sources generally resemble to that of synchrotron sources, stronger at lower frequencies and diminishing at higher frequencies, though this noise is often modulated, or varied, by creating device in some way. These sources include computers and other digital equipments such as televisions, mobiles etc. The rich harmonic content of these devices means that they can interfere over a very broad spectrum. Characteristic of broadband RFI is an inability to filter it effectively once it has entered the receiver chain. EMI in ICs ICs are often a source of EMI, but they must usually couple their energy to larger objects such as heatsinks, circuit board planes and cables to radiate significantly.On ICs, EMI are usually reduced by usage of bypass or decoupling capacitors on each active device, rise time control of high speed signals using series resistors, and power Vcc filtering. However, shielding is a last option after all other techniques have failed. At lower frequencies, radiation is almost exclusively via input/output cables; RF noise gets onto the power planes and is coupled to the line drivers via the VCC and ground pins. The RF is then coupled to the cable through the line driver as common mode noise. Common Mode Noise is a noise signal which is found in phase on both the line and neutral conductors with respect to ground. Common mode noise also typically has equal amplitude on both line and neutral conductors. So, one of the ways to deduce its effect is to use choke or braid-breaker. At higher frequencies, traces get electrically longer and higher above the plane. So, two techniques are used: wave shaping with series resistors and embedding the traces between two planes. Even ElectrElectrElectrElectrElectromagnetic Interferomagnetic Interferomagnetic Interferomagnetic Interferomagnetic Interferenceenceenceenceence Rupendra Maharjan 062 Electronics Electromagnetic interference
  34. 34. Contemporary Technologies 34 ZERONE 2010 if these measures can’t reduce EMI to the permissible level, shielding technique such as RF gadgets and copper tape can be used. Necessity of regulation of EMI Because these EMIs are unwanted potentials, they are regulated to allow today’s sensitive equipment to function properly without suffering degradation in performance due to interference generated by other electronic devices. The EMI spectrum is a limited natural resource that must be maintained to allow reliable radio frequency communications. The successful regulation of EMI will allow future electronic devices to operate as defined, in the intended environment, without suffering any degradation in performance due to interference, and without disrupting the performance of other equipment. EMI filter An EMI filter is a passive electronic device used to suppress conducted interference present on any power or signal line. It may be used to suppress the interference generated by the device itself as well as to suppress the interference generated by other equipment to improve the immunity of a device to the EMI signals present within its electromagnetic environment. Most EMI filters include components to suppress both common anddifferential modeinterference.Filters can also be designed with added devices to provide transient voltage and surge protection as well as battery backup. An EMI filter has a high reactive component to its impedance. That means the filter looks like a much higher resistance to higher frequency signals. This high impedance attenuates or reduced the strength of these signals so they will have less of an effect on other devices. 1. http://en.wikipedia.org 2. http://www.jmk.filters.com 3. http://www.pcguide.com 4. http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/ sDefinition/0,,sid40_gci213940,00.html References Use The Best... Linux for Servers Mac for Graphics Palm for Mobility Windows for Solitaire - T-Shirt The Horror,The Heartbreak: Facebook is under major revision.The site will be online after few weeks Credit: Ruchin Singh ruchin 2010
  35. 35. ZERONE 2010 35 Contemporary Technologies T he world changed tremendously over the last 10-20 years as the result of the growth and maturation of the internet and networking technologies in general. Twenty years ago, no global network existed to which the general population could easily connect. Ten year age, the public internet had grown to the point where people in the most part of the world could connect to him Internet. Today, practically everyone seems to have access, through their PCs, handheld devices and phones. The original design for the Internet required unique IP addresses thatare connected in network. The peopleadministrating the program ensure that none of the IP address was reused. Internet was growing so fast that there arises the lack of IP address. Its reality that number of people and devices that get connected to networks increase each and every day. That’s not a bad thing at all- we are finding new and exciting way to communicate to more people all the time, and that’s good thing. Infact, it’s a basic human need. IPv4 has only about 4.3 billions addresses available- in theory, and we know that we don’t even get to use all of those. There really are only about 250 million addresses that can be assigned to devices. China is barely online, and we know that there’s a huge population of people and corporations there that surely want to be. Moreover, it’s estimated that just over 10% of populationis connected to internet. The above statistics revels the ugly truth of IPV4’s capacity. So, we have to do something before we run out of addresses and lose the ability to connect with each other. The main long term solution was to increase the size of IP address. So, IPV6 came. The problem is that most of the Cisco’s router and switches that are using in IPV4 do not support IPV6. XP doesn’t support IPV6. Even most of ISPs doesn’t have sufficient infrastructure to support IPV6. For IPV6, it must have hardware support and software support. Many short term solutions to the addressing problem were suggested. Some of them are discussed here: 1. Dual stacking The term dual stacks mean that the host or routers uses both IPV6 and IPV4 at the same time. Hosts have both IPV4 and IPV6 addresses. This means that host can send IPV4 packets to other IPV4 hosts and that the host can send IPV6 packets to other IPV6 hosts. Configuration of dual stack: MIGRATIONTOIPV6 Mithlesh Chaudhary 062 Electronics
  36. 36. Contemporary Technologies 36 ZERONE 2010 R (config) #ipv6 unicast-routing R (config) #interface fast Ethernet 0/0 R (config_if) #ipv6 addresses 2001:db8:3c4d:1::/64 eui-64 R (config-if) #ip address 192.168.255.2 255.255.255.0 2. Tunneling Tunnel function is generally to take IPV6 packet sent by a host and encapsulates it inside an IPV4 packet. The IPV6 packets can then be forward over an existing IPV4 internetwork. The other device then removes the IPV4 header, reveling the original IPV6 packet. Fig shows IPV6 to IPV4 (6 to 4) tunnel (meaning IPV6 inside IPV4). In the fig, we need two encapsulates or tunnel the IPV6 packet into new IPV4 header, with destination address (IPV4) of router R4. R2 and R3 easily forward the packet, while R4 de-encapsulates the original IPV6 packets, forwarding it to IPV6 pc2. Configuration 6 to 4 tunneling Router1 (config) # int tunnel 0 Router1 (config-if) #ipv6 address 2001:db8:1:1::1/64 Router1 (config-if) #tunnel source 192.168.30.1 Router1 (config-if) #tunnel destination192.168.40.1 Router1 (config-if) #tunnel mode ipv6ip Router2 (config) #int tunnel 0 Router2 (config-if) #ipv6 address 2001:db6:2:2::1/64 Router2 (config-if) #tunnel source 192.168.40.1 Router2 (config-if) #tunnel destination 192.168.30.1 Router2 (config-if) #tunnel mode ipv6ip 3. Network Address Translation (NAT) NAT is the protocols that are used to reduce the demands of number of ipv4.NAT function changes the private IP addresses to publicly registered IP addresses inside each packet. Router (performing NAT),changesthe packet’s source IP address when packet leaves the private organization. The router (performing NAT) also changes the destination address in each packet that is forwarded back into private network. Cisco IOS software supports several variations of NAT. There are generally three types of NAT: a. Static NAT b. Dynamic NAT c. Port address translation (PAT) a. Static NAT It is one to one mapping of IP address i.e. the NAT router simple configures a one to one mapping between private address and registered address. IP V4 Network Internet
  37. 37. ZERONE 2010 37 Contemporary Technologies The design concern of NAT is to save the IP address.So, if we use one to one function of inside local and global than Nat aim can’t be archived. Static NAT configuration Router (config) #ip Nat inside source static 192.168.10.2 202.16.52.140 Router (config) #int f0 Router (config-if) #ip Nat inside Router (config) #int S0 Router (config-if) #ip Nat outside Here 192.168.10.2 is inside local address and 202.16.52.140 is inside global address.Also, f0 is the inside interface and S0 is outside interface. After creating the static NAT entries, the router needs to know which interfaces are “inside” and which interfaces are “outside”. The ‘ip Nat inside’ and ‘ip Nat outside’ interface subcommands identify each interface appropriately. b. Dynamic NAT Like static, Dynamic NAT also creates a one to one mapping between inside local and inside global address. However, mapping of an inside local address to an inside global address happens dynamically. Dynamic NAT sets up a pool of possible inside global address and defines matching criteria to determine which inside local IP addresses should be translated with NAT. Nat can be configured with more IP addresses in the inside local address list than in inside global address pool. If all the ip address of the NAT pool are in used and if at this time, new packet arrive at router, the router simply discards the packet. The user must try again until there would be an ip address in NAT pool. Dynamic NAT configuration Dynamic NAT configuration requires identifies as either inside or outside interface. It uses an access control list (ACL) to identify which inside local IP address need to have their address translated. Router (config) #int F0 Router (config-if) #ip Nat inside Router (config) #int S0 Router (config-if) #ip Nat outside Router (config) # access-list 1 permit 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 Router (config) #ip Nat pool ioe 202.16.52.140 202.168.52.149 netmask 255.255.255.0 Router (config) #ip Nat inside source list 1 pool ioe c. Port address translation (PAT) Dynamic NAT lessens the problem of static NAT by some degree because every single host in an internet work should seldom need to communicate with the internet at the same time. However, large percent of IP hosts in a network will need Internet access throughout that company’s in normal business hours. So the NAT still requires a large number of registered IP addresses, again failing to reduce ipv4 address consumption. When PAT creates the dynamic mapping, it selects not only an inside global IP address but also unique port number. The NAT router keeps a NAT table entry for every unique combination of inside global address and a unique port number associate with the inside global address. And because port number field has 16 bits, NAT overload can use more than 65,000 port numbers, allowing it to scale well without needing many registered IP addresses. Port address translation (PAT) configuration Router (config) #int F0 Router (config-if) #ip Nat inside Router (config) #int S0 Router (config-if) #ip Nat outside Router (config) # access-list 1 permit 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 Router (config) #ip Nat pool ioe 202.16.52.140 202.168.52.149 netmask 255.255.255.0 Router (config) #ip Nat inside source list 1 pool ioe overload For PAT, we generally need only one IP address in the pool. For this, we have a command: Router (config) #ip Nat pool ioe 170.168.2.1 170.168.2.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 Note that for ip pool we use global address and for access-list we use local address.

×