Product project final (repaired)

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Product project final (repaired)

  1. 1. Introduction of Hydrogen Fuel byIndian Oil Corporation Limited in Andhra Pradesh Submitted to: Prof: Rajdeep Chakrabarti Submitted By: Riteeka Gupta Richa Baid Rohit Singh Shallabh Bhatia Shilpi Sarkal Shristi Bubna
  2. 2. Contents1. About The Hydrogen Fuel Industry ............................................................................... 4 1.1 Evolution ..................................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Hydrogen Industry in India .......................................................................................... 4 1.3 National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Technology Development: ................................ 5 3 Tier set -up ..................................................................................................................... 5 1.4 Hydrogen Energy Companies ...................................................................................... 5 1.4.1. Hydrogen Energy Research Institutes................................................................... 5 1.5 Hydrocarbon Vision India 2025: .................................................................................. 62. Pestel Analysis for the Hydrogen Fuel Industry ............................................................. 7 2.1 Political ....................................................................................................................... 7 2.2 Economic .................................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Socio/Cultural ............................................................................................................. 9 2.4 Technological .............................................................................................................. 9 2.5 Environmental ........................................................................................................... 11 2.6 Legal ......................................................................................................................... 113. Porter‟s Five Force Model ........................................................................................... 12 3.1 Threat of new Entrants............................................................................................... 12 3.2 Bargaining of Power of Buyers .................................................................................. 12 3.3 Bargaining Power of Suppliers .................................................................................. 12 3.4 Threat of Substitutes .................................................................................................. 13 3.5 Competitive Rivalry .................................................................................................. 13 3.6 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................... 134. Company Analysis – Indian Oil Corporation Limited. ................................................. 14 4.1 Evolution of the company ......................................................................................... 14 4.2 Market Share and Network ........................................................................................ 16 4.3 Products offered by Indian Oil at present are - ........................................................... 18 4.4 Competitors of Indian Oil .......................................................................................... 185. SWOT Analysis .......................................................................................................... 196. The Marketing Mix – 4 P‟s of Marketing ..................................................................... 21 6.1. Product .................................................................................................................... 21 6.1.1. Needs for the product ......................................................................................... 21 Page | 2
  3. 3. 6.1.2. Features of the product:...................................................................................... 22 6.1.3. How can customers use such green fuel ............................................................. 22 6.1.4. What is it to be called? ................................................................................... 23 6.1.5. How the product will be branded? .................................................................. 23 6.2. Place ..................................................................................................................... 24 6.3 Promotion.................................................................................................................. 25 6.3.1 Above the line promotion: .................................................................................. 25 6.3.2 Below the line promotion: ................................................................................... 25 6.4 Price .......................................................................................................................... 267. Need of Hydrogen Fuel ............................................................................................... 28 7.1 Data Collection .......................................................................................................... 28 7.1.1.Primary Sources:................................................................................................. 28 7.1.2 Secondary Sources: ............................................................................................. 28 7.2. Focus Group Discussion ........................................................................................... 28 7.2.1.Observations of Focus Group Discussion: ........................................................... 28 7.2.3 What‟s next?? ..................................................................................................... 29 7.2.4. TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (www.Eia.Doe.Gov/Oiaf/Ieo) ................. 29 7.3 Hydrogen Energy ...................................................................................................... 29 7.4 Hydrogen Production Technologies ........................................................................... 30 7.5 Why Indian Oil Corporation Limited? ....................................................................... 30 7.5.1. Hydrogen fuel: ................................................................................................... 30 7.5.2. Product feasibility .............................................................................................. 30 7.5.3Strong Research & Development Capabilities: ..................................................... 318. Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning ..................................................................... 32 8.1 Segmentation ............................................................................................................. 33 8.2 Targeting ................................................................................................................... 35 8.3 Positioning ................................................................................................................ 37 Positioning Map .......................................................................................................... 379. Future Prospects .......................................................................................................... 3810. References ................................................................................................................ 39 Page | 3
  4. 4. 1. About The Hydrogen Fuel Industry1.1 Evolution 1.2 Hydrogen Industry in IndiaIndian industry is producing hydrogen commercially for use in: Oil refineries, fertilizerplants, and chemical industry. Chlor-alkali industry produces hydrogen as a byproduct Over 3MMT per annum of hydrogen is currently produced in petroleum refineries and fertilizerplants Hydrogen Storage in pressurized cylinders is the most common method of commercialsupplyFor the development of hydrogen fuel, the National Hydrogen Energy Board has beenconstituted in October, 2003 with Hon‟bleMinister, of Non-Conventional Energy Sources asChairman. The board involves high level representation from Government, Industry,Research and Academia, Public Figures and other stakeholdersTwo major initiatives with goals and targets upto2020 A. Green Initiative for Future Transport (GIFT) B. Green Initiative for Power Generation (GIP)The National Hydrogen Energy Road Map (NHERM) for the country prepared in January2006 and keeping in view the broad directions provided in the NHERM, the Ministry hassupported four Mission Mode Projects in the areas of hydrogen production through biologicalroute, hydrogen storage in hydrides and carbon materials and development and demonstrationof hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engines for vehicles. Two Technologies MissionMode Project proposals relating to development of PEMFC and SOFC in collaboration withthe industry are under development and evaluation. Page | 4
  5. 5. 1.3 National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap TechnologyDevelopment:3 Tier set -up1.4 Hydrogen Energy CompaniesEden Energy Ltd.Eden Energy Ltd., through its wholly-owned subsidiary Hythane Company LLC, has beenselected by Indian Oil Corporation to install and supply the first public hydrogen fuelingstation in India. The $1 million retail outlet will be sited in the heart of Delhi at one of India‟sbusiest natural gas fuelling stations.1.4.1. Hydrogen Energy Research InstitutesDepartment of Energy Systems & EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology Bombay A fuel cell and hydrogen research centeris being planned in the department. The department will have a new building (approx80,000ft2 of built up area) as a zero energy building using passive solar, building integratedPV, day lighting. There are plans for specialized laboratories like efficiency laboratory, solarPV laboratory, fuel cells and hydrogen laboratory, energy innovation laboratory, alternativefuels laboratory apart from the existing solar and energy systems laboratories.Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre (MCRC)Shri AMM Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, popularly known as MCRC, is a non profitresearch organization. MCRC‟s ideologies are centered on science and technologyapplications for rural development thereby improving the quality of life of the rural people,particularly the under privileged and the marginalized. Hydrogen energy technology has been Page | 5
  6. 6. a part of MCRC research for two decades. With financial assistance from the Ministry of NonConventional Energy Sources (MNES), MCRC has developed a biological process forgeneration of hydrogen from sugar and distillery wastes using the effluents at M/s. E.I.D.Parry Ltd., at Nellikuppam, Tamil Nadu. MCRC has been working on scaling this technologyusing a 125 m3 bioreactor which has produced 18,000 liters of total gas per hour with about60% hydrogen mixed largely with CO2 and CO.1.5 Hydrocarbon Vision India 2025:The government has released a report in order to remove barriers of demand & supply inenergy. The study conducted suggests the following measures : A. Revisions of foreign ownership regulations for refinery operations allowing 100% foreign ownership. B. Elimination of government subsidies for petroleum for next 3-5 years C. Target to meet 90% of petroleum & diesel needs through domestic sources D. encouragement to allow gas prices to float to international levelThe planned future: Intermediate Stage: Ultimate Objective: Present Scene: Electric & Hybrid Environment Friendly Petrol /Diesel /CNG based Vehicles; Bio-Fuel / and Carbon Free Automobiles & Power Synthetic Fuel based Hydrogen Based Vehicles Generation Vehicles & Power & Power Generation Generation Page | 6
  7. 7. 2. Pestel Analysis for the Hydrogen Fuel Industry2.1 PoliticalFor the development of hydrogen fuel, the National Hydrogen Energy Board has beenconstituted in October, 2003 with Hon‟bleMinister, of Non-Conventional Energy Sources asChairman. The board involves high level representation from Government, Industry,Research and Academia, Public Figures and other stakeholders.The following activities are controlled by the board: i. Guides the preparation and implementation of National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap. ii. Creates policy framework cutting across different sectors. iii. Guides research & development programme in Hydrogen and Fuel cells iv. Business development initiatives for hydrogen fuel v. Nationwide education and training programme. vi. Manages issues relating to Production, Storage, Delivery / Transport, Applications, Safety and Awareness, capacity building addressedIn the year 2006, India was the first country selected to participate on the US governmentsteering committee for the Future Gen project, which was seeking to develop a coal-basedpower plant that removes and sequesters CO2 while producing electricity and hydrogen. Asper the plan, The Indian government would contribute $10 million to the initiative and Indiancompanies would be invited to participate in the private sector segment of the programme. Inthe same year, the Indian government had unveiled a National Hydrogen Energy Roadmapwith the goal of having one million hydrogen-fuelled vehicles on the road by 2020 and Page | 7
  8. 8. generating 1,000 MW from hydrogen through public-private initiatives. To achieve theseoutputs, the national plan included two major new programmes: i. The green initiative for future transport (GIFT)The green initiative for power generation (GIP) that would develop and demonstrate ahydrogen-powered engine and fuel cell-based cars ranging from small cars and taxis to busesand vans (Tech Monitor).Currently, to boost the development of hydrogen fuel, The Indian Ministry for Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) is funding a number of public institutes involved inresearch on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen production and storage among otherhydrogen-driven applications .Examples include BHU for fuel cell vehicles; IIT (Chennai) incollaboration with SPIC Science Foundation to assess the a range of polymers that can beused as electrolytes in fuel cells and the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) andBHEL (Hyderabad) for the development of catalysts and two fuel reformers for producinghydrogen from methanol (MNES)Increasing importance of renewable energy resources: in 2007, share of power generated byrenewable energy resources in India was only 8%, and Indian government had setup a targetto increase this percentage to up to 12% by year 2012, benefits like tax holidays, lowercustoms duties, sales tax, and exemptions from excise tax are offered to promote use ofalternative fuels. It is expected that fuel cells will have an increased share in this renewableenergy pie.2.2 EconomicIn terms of mileage efficiency, cost of fuel and emissions, hydrogen is superior to CNG. “Itdepends on how you use hydrogen fuel. If used in a fuel cell car, the mileage efficiencyobtained is twice that of a conventional internal combustion (petrol) engine,” says ChetanMaini, deputy chairman and chief technical officer, Reva Electric Car Company (RECC.)Demand and Supply of EnergyWith the growth of the economy comes an increase in demand for energy. India imports 80%of its crude oil consumption.. Hydrogen fuel is about 3 times better in Calorific Value thanPetrol or Diesel/LPG/CNG, hence projected kilometre average for a given by car would benear about three times, while currently being high priced (tentatively) INR 100/kg and wouldprevent our further increase in Oil Pool Deficit. Power supply in India face several problemslike poor quality and reliability of grid supply, high tariffs, and high T&D losses. The Indianpower sector has not been able to meet demand-supply gap, and this gap is expected toincrease in foreseeable future. A big chunk of this demand is expected to be fulfilled byalternative energy sources like small hydro projects, biomass gas, biomass power, urban andindustrial waste power, wind energy, fuel cells, etc. Such Plants are of importance Page | 8
  9. 9. particularly in the rural areas and outskirts of cities where there is scope for Industrialdevelopment.CostsIt is difficult and costly to convert to liquid because hydrogen is a gas, it cannot becompressed into a liquid form without intensive cost and energy input. Hydrogen is thelightest element on earth hence it dissipates rapidly. Commercial production and use ofhydrogen fuel cells is also costly as some of the component pieces are made from highlyexpensive materials. As for example there are fuel cells which can be operated on or nearroom temperature - requires precious metal platinum as catalyst for the reaction to take place.One very important challenge is to find a cheaper and alternative catalyst for the process.Significant research is being done in this area and solutions are on their way.Requirement of Fiscal PolicyThere is a need for the government to design a fiscal policy to cushion the R&D cost, toenable commercialization -- and rapid commercialization. Only large scale can impact thisprogram."Employment and Reduction of Power CostsSick Public Sector Units/ Sick Private companies, can employ persons and boost industrialproductivity. The local persons can be inducted and trained which will assist to solveunemployment problem to a substantial level. The Project Cost is approximated at INR 1.5CRORES PER MEGAWATT, while one unit can be sold to Hydrogen Electricity Consumersat an appx price INR 1.50, with appropriate security deposit in advance assuming that by-product is sold.2.3 Socio/CulturalWith the widespread use of hydrogen fuel, people will become aware of use of non-renewable sources of energy. There will be a shift in the mindset and lifestyle of consumers.People will be more conscious in terms of using environment friendly products.2.4 TechnologicalProduction of hydrogen fuel involves a lot of R & D. The technology in India involved is:ProductionThe Banaras Hindu University (BHU); Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre (MCRC),Chennai; and IIT, Kharagpur are among the leading research groups working on biological,biomass, and other renewable energy routes to produce hydrogen. With R&D support fromthe MNES (Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources), the MCRC has demonstratedhydrogen production in batch-scale from distillery waste. The pilot plant is able to produceup to 18 000 liters of hydrogen per hour. Page | 9
  10. 10. StorageThe BHU, IIT Chennai, and the National Physical Laboratory are working on the hydrogenstorage methods. The BHU has developed various types of metal hydrides with storagecapacities of up to 2.4 weight%. It has also demonstrated the use of 1.6% weight storage inmetal hydride on a pilot scale.Hydrogen-Fuelled VehiclesHydrogen-operated motorcycles and three-wheelers have been developed and demonstrated.The BHU has modified a commercially available motorcycle (100 cc, four strokes) and athree-wheeler (175 cc, four strokes) to operate on hydrogen as a fuel. Biggest problem in carsrunning with hydrogen fuel cell is that it needs refilling from outer source. Because of this,these cars are not considered good for long distance travelling. To overcome this problem, heworked on „onward fuel generation‟ technique. It means hydrogen will be generated in thecar itself. His team has added some new techniques in it. They prepared cell with aluminumelectrode with saline water (salt and water solution). With electrosis process, cell willproduce hydrogen fuel frenziedly in car. He used special type of air filters and thin filmmembrane to separate fuel from hydrogen. By this way, purity of hydrogen will increase. Inaddition, pollution level in environment will fall considerably. On a test drive, it was foundthat pollution level from cars running with hydrogen fuel cell is very less in comparison tocars running with gas/petrol.Status of Major Technologies of Hydrogen FuelTechnology International Status National StatusBiological route for Hydrogen In Pre-Commercial stage Demonstration Plant set upProductionMetal Hydrides for Hydrogen Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Hydrides with 2.42wt% storagestorage storage Hydrides with 1.5 - capacity for ambient conditions 2.0wt% storage capacity for developed ambient conditions developedCarbon Nano-structures for In R&D Stage In R&D Stage,Further R&DHydrogen Storage efforts underwayIC Engine for Hydrogen Not commercially available Dedicated engine to be developedProblems with hydrogen Fuel Technology: i. Separation Issues: Hydrogen is an energy carrier rather than an energy source. While hydrogen always exists in conjunction with other elements, such as in water, it must be separated from these elements and is therefore considered an energy carrier, as opposed to an energy source. Page | 10
  11. 11. ii. Costly to convert to liquid - . Because hydrogen is a gas, it cannot be compressed into a liquid form without intensive cost and energy input. Hydrogen is the lightest element on earth. As a gas, it dissipates rapidly. To compress this gas is very difficult. iii. Fossil Fuels May be needed to produce Hydrogen - Most methods to produce hydrogen must use energy to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen. This may require fossil fuels such as coal or oil. So, in a sense, we are spinning our wheels in trying to get away from fossil fuels. Along with that, coal, which is a major feedstock for hydrogen, is a major contributor to pollution. iv. Infrastructure :Existing infrastructure has not been built to accommodate hydrogen fuel2.5 EnvironmentalThere has been a concentrated effort around the globe to curb rising levels of pollution so asto control global warming and its possible adverse effect on humanity in large. As fuel cellemits no harmful gases they are expected to be used in this war against climate change,resulting in there improved acceptance and use.Automobiles are the leading cause to theworld‟s air pollution problem. Cars also release toxic emissions that damage ourenvironment. Pollution is hurting our environment by adding to the greenhouse effect,damaging air quality and decreasing the ozone level. By this technology, it has been provedthat we can reduce pollution level more then CNG.In Mumbai & New Delhi Auto-exhaust pollution contributes to over 70 % and similar figuresin other metros. Hydrogen Car is the only solution as there is no pollution to air of any kindas water is the by-product of combustion. The other advantages are about 10% higherrpm/power is achieved during the same time, less noise and vibration (due to lowest densityof MHG) and naturally free from Carbon, Sulphur and more notorious Benzene (acarcinogen) in Indian Fuels & its compounds. Hydrogen is not only clean and renewable, itis also indigenous. One big advantage of using the fuel is that it is found in abundance insolar energy and water. Not only is it eco-friendly, it will also bring down the oil deficit2.6 LegalPatents are granted from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, for the production ofnew and renewable energy.The Indian patent entitled „Hydrogen Gas Burner „has been awarded to Mr. S. M.Degaonkar, Consulting Engineer with decades of Industrial experience, for the production ofHydrogen Fuel.Professor Y K Vijay and his team from the Physics department, Rajasthan University are alsoto take patent as his research for hydrogen fuel production is going under this ministry since1984. When this project will be cleared, it will not only be a blessing for industrial sector, butalso will help to clean environment. Automobile companies are free to experiment onhydrogen fuel cell technology under guidance of Professor Vijay. Page | 11
  12. 12. 3. Porter’s Five Force Model3.1 Threat of new EntrantsSetting up Hydrogen Plant, Development of Engine for Hydrogen Fuel and Fuel CellTechnology involves huge costs supported with proper infrastructure Development costs andResearch and Development. Also It is difficult and costly to convert to liquid becausehydrogen is a gas, it cannot be compressed into a liquid form without intensive cost andenergy input.All these factors put together increase the entry barrier making it capitalintensive and proper infrastructure pre requisite for this industry.RESULT: HIGH3.2 Bargaining of Power of BuyersBuyers do have other alternative sources of fuel options include both Renewable and NonRenewable source energy. With wide range of energy choices available for the consumers,the end decision maker is the solely the buyer commanding huge bargaining power.RESULT: HIGH3.3 Bargaining Power of SuppliersSuppliers to this industry will mainly consist of Machine Suppliers because the hydrogen isprocessed by the manufacturer. Bargaining power of suppliers also depend on supplier Page | 12
  13. 13. relations, maintaining good supplier relations give the companies the power of negotiatingpower. However the no. of companies into manufacture of hydrogen fuel is very less. Hencesuppliers of Machines do not command Bargaining power.RESULT: LOW3.4 Threat of SubstitutesHydrogen Fuel has threat of substitutes from both the renewable and non renewable sourceslike oil, petroleum, CNG, firewood, coal, biogas, natural gas, solar energy, wind energy etc,and with people becoming aware of use non-renewable sources of energy there will be shiftin the minds of the consumers towards more environmental friendly products.RESULT: HIGH3.5 Competitive RivalryCurrently there are no players in this industry supplying hydrogen fuel, but the industry has abright potential with big players investing in this sector. Therefore once this industry gainsmomentum, great competition can be expected. But the industry being characterized by highcapital and Research & Development costs will see huge players betting money in thissegment.RESULT: LOW TO MODERATE3.6 CONCLUSIONFrom the analysis of porters 5 forces it can be concluded that the Industry is moderatelyattractive to enter due to high R&D however there is a growth potential in the industry and abright future towards use of environment friendly fuel Page | 13
  14. 14. 4. Company Analysis – Indian Oil Corporation Limited.The Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. operates as the largest company in India in terms of turnoverand is the only Indian company to rank in the Fortune "Global 500" listing. Its businessinterests straddling the entire hydrocarbon value chain – from refining, pipeline transportationand marketing of petroleum products to exploration & production of crude oil & gas,marketing of natural gas, and petrochemicals. The oil concern is administratively controlledby Indias Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, a government entity that owns just over 90percent of the firm. Since 1959, this refining, marketing, and international trading companyserved the Indian state with the important task of reducing Indias dependence on foreign oiland thus conserving valuable foreign exchange.4.1 Evolution of the company Indian oil was formed by government after independence to end the monopoly of foreign private companies like Burmah and Shell. To implement this policy Indian government passed the Industrial Policy Resolution, which states that its oil industry should be state-owned and operated. In 1958, the government formed its own refinery company, Indian Refineries Ltd. with Soviet and Romanian assistance .In 1959, the Indian Oil Company was founded as a statutory body. At first, its objective was to supply oil products to Indian state enterprise. Then it was made responsible for the sale of the products of state refineries. By the early 1990s, Indian Oil refined, produced, and transported petroleum products throughout India. Indian Oil produced crude oil, base oil, formula products, lubricants, greases, and other petroleum products. It was organized into three divisions. The refineries and pipelines division had six refineries, located at Gwahati, Barauni, Gujarat, Haldia, Mathura, and Digboi. Together, the six represented 45 percent of the countrys refining capacity. The division also laid and managed oil pipelines. The marketing division was responsible for storage and distribution and controlled about 60 percent of the total oil industry sales. Indian Oil also established its own research center at Faridabad near New Delhi for testing lubricants and other Page | 14
  15. 15. petroleum products. It developed lubricants under the brand names Servo andServoprime. The center also designed fuel-efficient equipment.The oil industry in India changed dramatically throughout the 1990s and into the newmillennium. Reform in the downstream hydrocarbon sector--the sector in whichIndian Oil was the market leader--began as early in 1991 and continued throughoutthe decade.In 1997, the government announced that the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM)would be dismantled by 2002. To prepare for the increased competition thatderegulation would bring, Indian Oil added a seventh refinery to its holdings in 1998when the Panipat facility was commissioned. The company also looked to strengthenits industry position by forming joint ventures.In 2006, Indian Oil and Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)signed a MoU to conduct joint research on hydrogen storage,transportation, safety codes and fuel cell power generation. In early2007, the government signed a MoU with Indian Oil to optimizeHydrogen-CNG blend ratios for best performance in automotive vehicles(Economic Times, March, 2007). India is expected to launch its firsthydrogen filling station in 2008. A petrol pump owned by the Indian OilCompany will become the first to offer hydrogen refuelling capabilities,delivering hydrogen and hydrogen mixed with CNG (Fuel Cell Today,November, 2006).In early 2002, Indian Oil acquired IBP, a state-owned petroleum marketing company.The firm also purchased a 26 percent stake in financially troubled HaldiaPetrochemicals Ltd. In that year, Indian Oils monopoly over crude imports ended asderegulation of the petroleum industry went into effect. As a result, the companyfaced increased competition from large international firms as well as new domesticentrants to the market. During the first 45 days of deregulation, Indian Oil lost Rs7.25billion, a signal that the Indias largest oil refiner would indeed face challenges as aresult of the changes. Nevertheless, Indian Oil management believed that thederegulation would bring lucrative opportunities to the company. Page | 15
  16. 16. 4.2 Market Share and Network Indian Oil and its subsidiary (CPCL) account for over 46% petroleum products market share, 34.8% national refining capacity and 71% downstream sector pipelines capacity in India. With a steady aim of maintaining its position as a market leader and providing best quality products and services, Indian Oil is currently investing Rs. 47,000 crore in a host of projects for augmentation of refining and pipelines capacities, expansion of marketing infrastructure and product quality up gradation. REFINING - % SHARE PRIVATE IOCL 34% REFINERS PRIVATE ONGC REFINERIES 41% HPCL BPCL 13% BPCL HPCL7% ONGC 5% The Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of Indias 20 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 65.7 million metric tones per annum (MMTPA, .i.e. 1.30 million barrels per day approx). Indian Oil‟s cross-country network of crude oil and product pipelines, spanning 10,899 km and the largest in the country, meets the vital energy needs of the consumers in an efficient, economical and environment-friendly manner. PRODUCTS PIPELINE - % SHARE PIL 8% PIL HPCL 21% IOCL HPCL 54% BPCL 17% BPCL IOCL Page | 16
  17. 17. Indian oil has the largest and widest network of petrol & diesel stations in the country,numbering over 18643 regular ROs & 2947 kissan Sewa Kendra. The company has alsostarted auto LPG dispensing stations (ALDS). Termin al/ Depots 140 About 35000 Customer Touch Points Indian oil has till date invested close to Rs 1000 crore in setting up world class facilities at its R&D center and it plans to invest about Rs. 500 crore during the period 2007 -2012, to maintain its leader ship in petroleum industry. Indian Oil has the largest and most sophisticated integrated petroleum products supply chain in India. Indian Oils marketing operations network of storage, distribution and supply hubs is backed by efficient sourcing, on-time logistics and round-the-clock after sales service and consultancy. As a leading oil supplier, IOCL has the challenge of maintaining its leadership position and meeting its vision. To meet this challenge effectively appropriate marketing strategies need to be developed by focusing on consumer‟s needs. Page | 17
  18. 18. 4.3 Products offered by Indian Oil at present are - SERVOIndane Natural Petrol/Gas ATF/Jet Diesel/Gas Auto gas lubricants Gas Gas oline Fuel oil & greases Marine Bulk/Industrial Petrochemicals Bitumen Kerosene Fuels & Fuels Lubricants4.4 Competitors of Indian Oil BHARAT PETROLEUM • Impressive track record as an innovator: from fuelling the pioneer of Indian Industry – JRD Tata’s solo flight in 1932 to providing India with the first modern refinery in 1955, to manufacturing the country’s first bottled gas ‘Burshane’ in the mid 50s. • Wass awarded the SAP Star Implementation Award being the first Public Sector Oil Company to implement Enterprise wide Resource Planning (ERP) solutions - SAP. • 1st to start the concept of convenience stores and loyalty cards as promotional strategy. RELIANCE • largest private sector enterprise, with businesses in the energy and materials value chain. • Groups annual revenues are in excess of US$ 27 billion. • The flagship company, Reliance Industries Limited, is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India. materials and energy value chain. SHELL • leading and most diversified global investor in Indias energy sector with nearly US$1 billion already invested. • 5 core business exploration and production of oil, chemicals, renewable energy and power. HINDUSTAN PETROLEUM • State-owned oil company of the Government of India • Fortune 500 company of India listed at number 311. • Operates 2 major refineries producing wide variety of petroleum fuels. Page | 18
  19. 19. 5. SWOT AnalysisStrengths Weaknesses i. The first and foremost strength of IOCL is that it is a i. Though being PSU is Government owned company. an advantage to this ii. It has a huge group refining capacity of 60.2 million metric company but it is also tons per annum and a share of 33.8% share in the national a seen as a weakness refining capacity. because most the PSU iii. It has huge amount of cash holding which is evident from its in recent time is high earning per share ratio which is comparatively higher than lacking the proper its competitors i.e. BPCL and HPCL. monitoring and thus iv. Being initiated in the year 1950 it has got a vast array of refining subjected to huge and distribution network. losses. v. By virtue of entering extensive joint venture and out its own ii. The company has its initiatives the company has a diversified product elements in major weakness in the other related activities like petroleum storage, pipelines, lube R&D department. additives, explorations, petrochemicals, gas, training, and iii. It has got a low price consultancy etc. earning ratio. vi. The company has already entered overseas markets such as Sri iv. The technological Lanka, Oman, and is presently considering entering in Turkey drawback is through a joint venture. It has also weighing the possibility of considered to be entering Indonesia. another weakness of vii. It is the market leader in the branded fuel sector with a 60% the company. market share which gives them the goodwill of initiating a new product.viii. Its assets turnover ratio is 3 times larger and revenue is 2 times larger than that of BPCL. ix. It has a higher operating profit margin which implies that its turnover is greater than its sales. x. It has also acquired management control of the marketing company IBP, thereby strengthening its position in these activities. It also has a dominant share in all segments in terms marketing infrastructure. Page | 19
  20. 20. Opportunities Threats i. The company has an opportunity to build its own pipelines, so i. Prices are that it will be a independent player. governed by ii. Global trend is to move from fossil fuels to carbon free fuels, MoPNG including renewable. ii. As the technology iii. Increase crude oil price. in private and iv. Growing gap between demand and supply of commercial foreign companies energy with increasing dependence on imported oil. is much more v. Urgency for containing environmental pollution caused by advanced so the burning of fossil fuels and biomass energy. prices at which vi. Inadequate development of eco-friendly energy resources they are sold are including hydro and renewable energy very cheap than vii. Oil intensification of Indian economy due to declining self- this company. sufficiency in oil and increasing oil demand. iii. This type ofviii. Centralized production of electricity based on increasing share energy is diffused of hydro, nuclear and renewable. and dispersed. ix. India has set up as the largest programmers of renewable iv. They are not energy in the world. storable. x. Hydrogen best fulfills the requirements of lightness, highest v. Not fuel for energy density, clean, versatility and inexhaustible. transportation xi. Increased emphasis on the environmental policies of available. Government. vi. Higher cost of hydrogen. vii. Development high pressure cylinders. viii. Regulations and codes.On analyzing the Strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats of Indian Oil foraying intothe hydrogen fuel industry it is clearly visible that the strengths outnumber the weaknessesand opportunities outnumber the threats. Hence Indian Oil should consider foraying into thisindustry. Page | 20
  21. 21. 6. The Marketing Mix – 4 P’s of Marketing6.1. Product6.1.1. Needs for the product  Global fuel demands will be scorching high along with factors like high fuel cost, increasing energy security thus leading to wealth that will be uncontainable, change in ownership, economic empowerment, massive job creation, construction and development of new cities and ultimately a new energy order. The Indian economy itself is growing at 7- 8% p.a. which is thereby increasing the demand for Commercial energy which will grow at 4.5% per annum till 2020. There is a need for sustainable energy pathway for India which will ensure energy security.  Given the backdrop of a continuously widening gap between demand and supply there is immense necessity to diversify the given energy sources and continuously explore alternative ways to satisfy the country‟s energy need in order to sustain our economic growth. Oil imports expected to rise from present 70 percent to 100 percent in next fifteen years. There has been Oil intensification of Indian economy due to declining self-sufficiency in oil and increasing oil demand.  Growing dependence on non-commercial energy sources like fire-wood, cow-dung and agricultural wastes in rural areas which pollute the environment. Inadequate development of eco-friendly energy sources including hydro and renewable energy. There is an urgency of having renewable sources of energy that are safe, cleaner, and even inexhaustible. Increasing environmental concerns is also posing a serious Page | 21
  22. 22. challenge for concerned energy companies. Urgency for containing environmental pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and biomass energy  By 2025, petroleum production is expected to go down significantly. The present oil production is 25 billion barrels of oil per year and by 2025, the oil production annually most likely will be somewhere between 18 and 19 billion barrels which is even less than the annual production of the oil during the oil crisis and shortage during the 1970s.6.1.2. Features of the product:  Green fuel is basically a solid, liquid or gaseous fuel which can be obtained from comparatively recently lifeless or living biological material. It is different from fossil fuels which are derived from long dead biological material.  Known the fact that hydrogen is the most abundant element on the earth, it comprises more than 75 % of the environment and thus if it becomes a primary fuel our dependence on other foreign sources of fuel would be drastically eliminated.  The other feature of hydrogen is that it can store approx 2.8 times the energy per unit mass as gasoline.  Hydrogen fuel has the capacity to store more energy than batteries and in a fuel cell it burns with double the efficiency of gasoline in an engine which means it helps in saving money.  There is only one by-product that is produced from burning hydrogen is water unlike the carbon based products that is produced by burning regular gasoline.  Undoubtedly hydrogen is amongst the cleanest fuel available. The hydrogen-fueled ICEs and other gas turbine engines based on it have very negligible emissions of different air pollutants. Again the hydrogen-powered-fuel-cell vehicles have no emissions.  Green fuel is non-toxic, fully biodegradable and is safer to store than fossil diesel. It has a flash point more than twice that of fossil diesel.  The low carbon footprint it has when compared with coal gives its clean combustion features6.1.3. How can customers use such green fuel Page | 22
  23. 23.  Green Fuels like Hydrogen fuel can be used by the customers as it can blend up to 100% in any diesel vehicle and its performance will not be affected as long as correct procedures are followed.  Hydrogen can be derived from a variety of feedstock which includes coal, natural gas, oil, water, and biomass.  Companies like DaimlerChrysler, Mazda, and BMW have successfully developed and tested ICEs fueled with hydrogen and has concluded that hydrogen fuel can be used effectively and successfully as a vehicle fuel.  Also these Fuel cell vehicles will be within budget by the time it will reach the marketplace.  Critics to the technology claim that the price of today‟s hand-built prototypes and other stationary power generation systems are very high and thus they leap to the conclusion that fuel cell vehicles will not be very much cost-competitive. In the process, they ignore that prototypes and first-generation systems are almost always very expensive like gasoline powered cars, personal computers, digital cameras, and many other innovative products compared with mass produced units.  Again this works well in any diesel engine with very little or almost no modification to the fitted fuel system. Findings even suggest that using it can actually prolong the engine‟s life by as much as 50 percent over other traditional fossil fuel as it leaves very less or no carbon deposits and thereby reducing friction and abrasion. 6.1.4. What is it to be called?IOCL can foray in this market and the name of the hydrogen fuel could be “Naveen”. Thisname signifies the new innovation which will foster the growth objective of the company andwill bring a new way of seeing the fuel products as more eco friendly alternatives could beexplored. 6.1.5. How the product will be branded?Creating a positive emotional association in the market for hydrogen fuel will be the key. Ifthe product is good, it needs comparatively less effort to sell. Awareness will create want anddesire by the mere mention of how their act is serving the nature and a greater cause ofprotecting it. For instance, the mere mention of McDonalds conjures up images of numerousunique burgers and other offerings with the anticipation for our favorite. Such positiveemotional associations will be built over time through branding practice and a time-tested Page | 23
  24. 24. relationship between IOCL and their customer based on intrigue, trust, understanding andsupport.To create a brand promise that creates such emotional connections, it should be:  A relevant proposition for the target customers in order to engage our target market  The brand must be able to create some sort of positive emotional attachment beyond just being “good”  It should be adaptable to the prevailing business climate  It must be continually reinforced  It must maintain consistency across advertising and marketing mediums  Also it should be known and echoed by business partners Different aspects of Hydrogen Fuel as a substitute product. 6.2. PlaceIOCL has its products which get distributed directly to bulk customers and to the other retailcustomers via a network of different retail outlets and dealers or distributors. IOCL‟s overall Page | 24
  25. 25. distribution network is encompassing over 35,000 different sales points incorporating IOCL‟s own franchise as well as other independent outlets, distributors, consumer pumps etc. the substantial majority of which are governed by dealership agreements. Hydrogen being an energy carrier and not an energy source like wind; it not only needs infrastructure for its production but also for its distribution. Different products are transported to the various distribution points by pipeline, rail tankers and road tanker trucks, ship tanker etc. Thus consumers will be able to buy hydrogen at the established “energy stations” of IOCL. The company can choose to build a massive centralized national hydrogen distribution system, but there‟s no need for coming on a national basis. It can get started for much less. Getting hydrogen in consumers‟ hands will require new production and delivery systems, but they need not be built all at once, and they may begin as widespread small scale facilities. Located near to the market Convenient to Existing sites customers Easy to locate / find out Why is place important in about Near to marketing? other facilities Good transport Staff availability links Geographical needs Fig. Importance of selecting appropriate place.6.3 Promotion6.3.1 Above the line promotion:TV, radio, newspapers, internet6.3.2 Below the line promotion:Sponsorship, sales promotion, merchandising, public relations, trade shows. a) Advertisements: Advertising will be a paid for communication. It will be used in order to transmit information, develop attitudes and to generate awareness, and also it helps in gaining and analyzing responses from the target market. There are many advertising media such as newspapers (local, national, free, trade), magazines and journals, television (local, national, terrestrial, satellite) cinema, outdoor advertising Page | 25
  26. 26. (such as posters, bus sides).IOCL can opt for advertising in prominent dailies for selection of dealers who will be dealing with the proposed hydrogen fuel for their proposed retail outlet dealerships at various locations in various states. b) Sponsorship: Sponsorship is where IOCL will be paying so that it can be associated with a particular event, cause or image. All the marathons for saving the environment or any green initiative could get the sponsorship by IOCL..The underlying attributes of the event which has been sponsored should then be associated with the sponsoring organization i.e. IOCL. c) Personal Selling: IOCL is selling Hydrogen fuel which is a very new concept and such complex products usually use salespeople to sell their products in a business to business aspect. As IOCL can work with Mahindra & Mahindra, personal Selling will be an effective way to manage personal customer relationships. The respective sales person will act on behalf of the organization. They tend to be well trained in the approaches and techniques of personal selling. d) Relationship Marketing: This type of marketing refers to a philosophy that IOCL wishes to succeed. It should be able to sustain a strong, continuous, long-term relationship with all its respective customers, its suppliers and distributors. For this, IOCL should work with umbrella branding. In order to make sure this happens, customers and intermediaries have to feel good about doing business with the company. e) Sales Promotion: Sales promotion tends to be thought of as being all promotions apart from advertising, personal selling, and public relations. Schemes like free accessories and introductory offers could work. Each single different sales promotion should be cautiously checked and then costed and compared with the next best available alternative present.6.4 PriceHydrogen has long been championed as the ultimate environmentally-friendly fuel,potentially offering zero-emissions motoring and freedom from oil addiction.Hydrogen is readily available, in natural gas or in water and burning hydrogen in an internalcombustion engine or combining it with oxygen in a fuel cell to produce electricity, producesonly heat and water vapor.The lure of CO2-free driving has persuaded governments and the auto industry to investbillions of dollars in the last decade researching hydrogen fuel cells, developingdemonstration cars and, more recently, installing hydrogen refuelingstations. And, therefore, as far as pricing is concerned, it is going to beon a higher side. The major reasons being: Page | 26
  27. 27.  Although Hydrogen is readily available, in natural gas or in water, but storing hydrogen is a challenge as compressed hydrogen tanks need to The Telsa Roadster is a fully be specially built in which can carry compressed hydrogen in a electric car with zero emission and a top speed of small available space in the vehicle. 125 km/hr  Also, distribution of hydrogen is a problem. But, this can be overcome by Home Energy Station, which drivers can use to produce energy (or make hydrogen) at home via electrolysis by tapping into the domestic natural-gas supply. But, this would also incur cost.  Huge amounts are being spent on the Research and Development of the hydrogen fuel.  IOCL spends around 20 million INR annually to educate its customers and others on protecting the environment as its CSR activity. Also, a lot of money is being spent on the promotion of the fuel. All these factors and many more have led the way for hydrogen fuel to be priced high. But here, the probable price can be lowered if IOCL by any chance convinces government to subsidize the fuel and make it cost effective and affordable to the common man. Fuel Cell IOCL being such an old player in crude oil production andnow being the first mover in the hydrogen fuel category in the market and with otheravailable domestic fuel prices touching the skies, if in such a scenario IOCL comes up with afuel which is a green fuel with no or almost Zero Emission; then pricing should not beproblem for them as the cost incurred till now in all the R&D etc will easily cross the breakeven. Page | 27
  28. 28. 7. Need of Hydrogen Fuel7.1 Data Collection7.1.1.Primary Sources:Primary Data till date has been collected on the basis of the focus group discussion and faceto face interviews.  Focus Group Discussion: FGD was conducted to infer the attitude and viewpoints of target population towards introduction need of Hydrogen fuel in today’s Scenario.  Face To Face Interviews They were conducted with the faculty members of IBS so as to have a deep insight in the opportunity.7.1.2 Secondary Sources:Secondary Data Sources being used in research include- Manuals, Research Papers, Brochures Website‟s Journals and Publications7.2. Focus Group Discussion A focus group is a qualitative data collection method in which one or two researchers and several participants meet as a group to discuss a given research topic.7.2.1.Observations of Focus Group Discussion: Most of the participants wish for a cleaner environment. People conscious about energy preservation. Prefer less travel through vehicles Believe in technology usage. . People find renewable sourse as a savior for coming generation. They want to adopt the renewable sources for maximum products The time frame for development of such alternate resources is a major issue Talking about prices customers were willing to pay extra to avail this service however they said that if the base price increase then the demand will decrease. Few people also suggested introduce such services in government aided vehicles – buses. Page | 28
  29. 29. In addition it will help to reduce the the pollution. For such products, initial step to be taken by government. Finally people were positive to adapt this service as they believe this will be a value added Product as it will provide them a healthy environment.7.2.3 What’s next??With depleting oil resources and degradation of atmosphere we are planning to go green. Asan alternative to fuels the company decided to work on hydrogen fuel cell technology,production of hydrogen on mass scale through various processes, technological upgradationsin the development and analysis of key physical component, the catalyst.7.2.4. TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (www.Eia.Doe.Gov/Oiaf/Ieo)The average annual rate of energy consumption and the gross domestic product havebeen growing at a significantly greater rate in IndiaCOUNTRY 1999 2005 2010 2020 % DAMAGE USA 96.7 107 114.1 120.7 13 JAPAN 21.7 22.8 23.5 26 0.9 CHINA 32 43.2 55.3 84.1 4.7 INDIA 12.2 15.5 18.4 26.1 3.7In India, the 2 and 3 wheelers are mainly responsible for the air‟s poor quality. Conversion ofsome vehicles to run on hydrogen fuel will improve the quality dramatically. With theadvancement of industry towards a hydrogen economy production of such alternative soundspositive.7.3 Hydrogen EnergyHydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean and reliable source of energy that can be usedin a wide range of applications, including the transport sector and power sector mainly.The road map is to identify the path that would lead to gradual introduction of hydrogenenergy in India. The road map also aims to accelerate commercialization efforts and facilitatecreation of hydrogen energy infrastructure in the country.With the progress in technology, a lot of focus is being put on development anddemonstration of hydrogen energy and fuel cell technologies. Page | 29
  30. 30. 7.4 Hydrogen Production TechnologiesHydrogen does not exist by itself in nature. It has to be produced from hydrocarboncompounds. It can also be produced from available resources including natural gas andnuclear, Biomass and other renewable including solar , wind , hydro-electric or geothermalenergy.The development of fuel from renewable sources – clean , sustainable and cost-competitivehydrogen production processes. The production can be done from three different process : i. Thermal Processes ii. Electrolytic Process iii. Photolytic Process7.5 Why Indian Oil Corporation Limited?In March 2010, IOC entered into a limited liability partnership agreement with Ruchi SoyaIndustries, a leading manufacturer of edible oils. The agreement sought to establish a modelbio-diesel value chain for production of bio-diesel in Uttar Pradesh and covered nurserymanagement, contract farming and oil seed processing. Further in March 2010, IOC signed aMoU with Honeywell International for collaboration on research and development for a rangeof bio fuels technologies and projects in India7.5.1. Hydrogen fuel:The product can be manufactured under GIP (Green Initiative for Power Generation)programme of the company with a tie up with IIT-Madras and SPIC-SF as they are the twomajor institutes which are working on hydrogen and fuel cell technology. It will involve thedevelopment and demonstration of fuel cell power packs (50-100 kW).7.5.2. Product feasibilityHydrogen-fuel-cell-powered cars are the best alternatives to polluting, gasoline-powered carsfor several reasons: o The cars are completely emission-free Page | 30
  31. 31. o The fuel cells have no moving parts o Hydrogen is renewable and abundant o The cars are compatible with cold weather o The fuel cells are compact and lightweight--not overly bulky or heavy o The cars are about 3 times as efficient as gasoline-powered cars o The cars will have incredible mile ranges o The tanks will be refueled quickly o Hydrogen is safe, has been tested rigorously for use in vehicles, and is being used in many vehicles already.7.5.3Strong Research & Development Capabilities:IOC‟s R&D Centre has made successful developments in lubricants formulation, refineryprocesses, pipeline transportation, and alternative fuels. Indian Oil Technologies, a wholly-owned subsidiary, commercializes the innovations and technologies developed by IOC‟sR&D Centre. The centre is also the nodal agency of the Indian hydrocarbon sector fordeveloping hydrogen fuel usage in the country. The centre is setting up a commercialhydrogen-compressed natural gas (CNG) station at an IOC retail outlet in New Delhi. It holds214 active patents, including 113 international patents. Page | 31
  32. 32. 8. Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Page | 32
  33. 33. 8.1 SegmentationThe fuel market has been segmented on the basis of various factors which are shown asfollows: On The Basis Of Resources Used Renewable Resource Non-renewable Resource On The Basis Of Geography West North South Central Foriegn East India India India India India Countries On The Basis Of Industry To Be Served Automobile Industry Telecom Industry Power Sector Others On The Basis Of Nature Of Existing Relationships Existing Companies With Existing Companies Desirable Companies Stong Relation On The Basis Of Purchasing Criteria Of Customer Quality Service Price On The Basis Of Specific Application Automobile Fuel Power Others - Like Batteries Etc Generator On The Basis Of Attitude Towards Risk Risk Seeker Neutral Risk Averse Page | 33
  34. 34. THE BASIS OF CATEGORIES SEGMENTATIONResources Used Renewable Resource Non-renewable resourceGeography East India West India North India South India Central India Foreign CountriesIndustry to be Served Automobile Industry Telecom Industry Power Sector OthersNature of Existing Relations Existing Companies with Strong RelationsWith Customer Existing Companies Desirable CompaniesPurchasing Criteria of QualityCustomers Service PriceSpecific Application Automobile Fuel Power Generator Other Utilities – Batteries, etc.Attitude Towards Risk Risk Seeker Risk Averse Risk Neutral Page | 34
  35. 35. 8.2 TargetingThe highlighted part in the segmented market shows the target market of the company. On The Basis Of Resources Used Renewable Resource Non-renewable Resource On The Basis Of Geography West North South Central Foriegn East India India India India India Countries On The Basis Of Industry To Be Served Automobile Industry Telecom Industry Power Sector Others On The Basis Of Nature Of Existing Relationships Existing Companies With Existing Companies Desirable Companies Stong Relation On The Basis Of Purchasing Criteria Of Customer Quality Service Price On The Basis Of Specific Application Automobile Fuel Power Others - Like Batteries Etc Generator On The Basis Of Attitude Towards Risk Risk Seeker Neutral Risk Averse Page | 35
  36. 36. The target market of IOCL is classified on the following basis:Industry: the hydrogen cell of IOCL will initially cater to the automobile industry as thecompany is already into the production of hydrogen fuel and targeting other sectors wouldrequire the advancement of technology.Geography: Initially the company is targeting the capital region of the country seeking thehelp of the government. However, the product will be made available at other metropolitancities in the near future with the success of the project. The company is also making thepresence of its product felt in the entire country by tying up with Mahindra & Mahindra andTATA Motors by implementing its hydrogen fuel cell kit in its certain specified models.Resources used: the product will act as a substitute to the exhaustible sources of energy.Power structure: Serve companies that are engineering dominated.Nature of existing relationships: apart from just focusing on existing strong3relationships the company would concentrate more on desirable companies.Purchasing criteria: Serve companies that are seeking quality and service?Specific application: focusing on a specific application initially rather than all applications.Size or order: Depending on the size of fuel cell required for specific application. Page | 36
  37. 37. 8.3 Positioning  As IOCL in itself has a great brand name and standing for itself in the market, it‟s new product i.e. the hydrogen fuel cell will be able to bring revolution.  Act of designing the company‟s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the minds of the target markets. The goal of positioning is to locate the brand in the minds of the consumer.  IOCL has the biggest advantage of its name which it can use for capturing a huge chunk of the hydrogen fuel cell market.Positioning Map zero Hydrogen fuel CNG LPG low Petroleum(Pollution caused) Diesel kerosene medium Coal wood high Low Medium High (Energy Efficiency)  Page | 37
  38. 38. 9. Future Prospects The hydrogen fuel cell of IOCL has the potential of developing into a full fledged alternative to automotive fuel in the future. Studies say that-  As the research and development activities go on the cost of hydrogen is expected to be brought down to Rs. 70 / kg at the fuelling station or actual point of use.  Studies say that by 2020 there will be large scale use of hydrogen based Engines and fuel cells for power generation.  Also, there are expected to be one million hybrid vehicles on road by 2020. All these findings point out that there is a huge scope of hydrogen fuel being used on a large scale as an ultimate inexhaustible source of energy for power generation in the country, environment friendly automobiles and other energy requirements. This would further dominate in future as an energy resource decreasing the dependency of the country on International player for the same. Thus it can be said that development in hydrogen fuel can lead to great profit earnings for the company and so we can say that the hydrogen fuel cell of IOCL will prove to be a very successful product for the company. Page | 38
  39. 39. 10. References i. Annual Report Analysis of Indian Oil Corp. Ltd, September 2004, (online), available at www.IndiaInfoline.com ii. http://www.usfcc.com/resources/Connection_March2006.pdf iii. http://mnes.nic.in/html_folder/ch7_pg1.htm; iv. http://www.techmonitor.net/techmon/06jan_feb/nce/nce_news.htm v. http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/newsletter/ad102_india.asp vi. http://iahe.org/News.asp?id=28vii. http://www.ovonic.com/PDFs/hydrogen_3-wheeler/3-wheeler_hydrogen_17jul05.pdfviii. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1826194.cms ix. http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/FuelCellToday/IndustryInformation/IndustryInformatio nExternal/NewsDisplayArticle/0,1602,8521,00.html x. http://www.usfcc.com/resources/Connection_March2006.pdfxi. http://mnes.nic.in/html_folder/ch7_pg1.htm;xii. http://fuelcellsworks.com/news/2010/03/21/india-new-milestone-hydrogen-fuel-cell- technology/xiii. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi-times/Hydrogen-the-new-fuel- Zen/articleshow/943083.cms Page | 39

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