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  1. 1. Stress Management
  2. 2. Stressful Energy Trading <ul><li>These energy traders in Houston experience high levels of stress due to long hours, intense bartering, and the hefty consequences of poor decisions. “I am so burned out at the end of the day, I don't even want to make a decision about what to eat for dinner,” says one trader. </li></ul>© S. N. Pool, Houston Chronicle
  3. 3. What is Stress? <ul><li>An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being </li></ul>© S. N. Pool, Houston Chronicle
  4. 4. General Adaptation Syndrome Stage 1 Alarm Reaction Stage 2 Resistance Stage 3 Exhaustion Normal Level of Resistance
  5. 5. Stressors and Stress Outcomes Work Stressors Physical environment Role-related Interpersonal Organizational Stress Nonwork Stressors Individual Differences Consequences of Stress Physiological Behavioral Psychological
  6. 6. Role-Related Stressors <ul><li>Role conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrole conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrarole conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person-role conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain duties, authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much/too little work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine pacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No work schedule control </li></ul></ul>© Photodisc. With permission.
  7. 7. Interpersonal Stressor: Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on work environment or job performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Violence <ul><li>Workplace violence is a stressor to those who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience violence at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe violence at work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work in jobs with higher risk of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High risk of violence in the U.S., but higher in several other countries (e.g., France, Argentina, Canada) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Bullying <ul><li>Offensive, intimidating, or humiliating behavior that degrades, ridicules, or insults another person at work. </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace bullies tend to be people with higher authority </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace bullying is reduced through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful hiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360-degree feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution system </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Work-Nonwork Stressors <ul><li>Time-based conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>due to work schedule, commuting, travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women still do “second shift” (most housework) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strain-based conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work stress affects home, and vice versa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role behavior conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incompatible work and nonwork roles </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Stress and Occupations Accountant Artist Auto Mechanic Forester Low-Stress Occupations High-Stress Occupations Hospital manager Physician (GP) Psychologist School principal Police officer Tel. operator U.S. President Waiter/waitress Medium-Stress Occupations
  12. 12. Individual Differences in Stress <ul><li>Perceive the situation differently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use different stress coping strategies </li></ul>
  13. 13. Type A / Type B Behavior Pattern <ul><li>Talks rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Is devoted to work </li></ul><ul><li>Is highly competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles to perform several tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Has a strong sense of time urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Is impatient with idleness </li></ul><ul><li>Loses temper easily </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupts others </li></ul><ul><li>Handles details patiently </li></ul><ul><li>Is less competitive with others </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplates issues carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Has a low concern about time limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn't feel guilty about relaxing </li></ul><ul><li>Has a relaxed approach to life </li></ul><ul><li>Works at a steady pace </li></ul>Type A Behavior Pattern Type B Behavior Pattern
  14. 14. Consequences of Distress <ul><li>Physiological consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cardiovascular diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ulcers, sexual dysfunction, headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work performance, accidents, decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>absenteeism -- due to sickness and flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>workplace aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Job Burnout Process Interpersonal and Role-Related Stressors Depersonalization Reduced Personal Accomplishment Physiological, psychological, and behavioral consequences Emotional Exhaustion
  16. 16. Work-Life Balance at Ford Motor Co. <ul><li>Mark-Tami Hotta is engaged in a rousing game of Daddy Elephant/Baby Elephant with his kids. The chief program engineer for the Ford Windstar minivan leaves work early three days each week as part of the company’s effort to improve work-life balance. </li></ul>© D. Guralnick, Detroit News
  17. 17. Family-Friendly and Work-Life Initiatives <ul><li>Flexible work time </li></ul><ul><li>Job sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>Personal leave </li></ul><ul><li>Childcare facilities </li></ul>© D. Guralnick, Detroit News
  18. 18. Other Stress Management Practices <ul><li>Withdrawing from the stressor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent -- transfer to better fit job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary -- work breaks, vacations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing stress perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy, self-leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling stress consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness and lifestyle programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation and meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional and informational </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Stress Management