Art Of Leadership


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Art Of Leadership

  2. 2. Learning Points <ul><li>Part One of this course contains answers to these questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which variables determine leadership effectiveness? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you possess the 10 qualities of a leader? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How susceptible are you to leadership influence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your level of interpersonal trust? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In which situations are you likely to lead? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your natural kind of intelligence? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Researchers have been trying to answer these questions for years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it take to be a successful leader? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the most effective leadership style? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early studies were based on two theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait Theory (focuses on leader qualities ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Theory (focuses on leader actions ) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Leadership Trait Theory <ul><li>Sir Francis Galton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the earliest leadership theorists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote “Hereditary Genius” pub. 1869 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed leadership qualities were genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This theory assumes physical and psychological characteristics account for effective leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear and strong values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High personal energy </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Leadership Trait Theory <ul><li>Edwin Gheselli identified six traits for effective leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisory ability </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Paul Von Hindenburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Chancellor of Germany, post WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used the trait theory for selecting and developing military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary qualities for leadership ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence (bright vs dull) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitality (energetic vs lazy) </li></ul></ul>Trait Theory Applied
  7. 7. Examples of Trait Theory <ul><li>Bright, lazy — staff officer </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic, dull — frontline soldier </li></ul><ul><li>Bright, energetic — field commander </li></ul><ul><li>Lazy, dull — left to find their own level of effectiveness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Leadership Behavior Theory <ul><li>In the 1930s, emphasis on behaviorism moved researchers in the direction of leadership behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurt Lewin trained assistants in behaviors indicative of three leadership styles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autocratic : tight control of group activities, decisions made by the leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic : group participation, majority rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire : little activity of any type by the leader </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Leadership Behavior Theory <ul><li>In the 1940s, research focused on leader behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumed that leaders take distinct actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ralph Stogdill at Ohio State University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped develop the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents described leaders’ behavior in two dimensions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Showing consideration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Leadership Behavior Theory <ul><li>Findings of a Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Democratic style was more beneficial for group performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader’s behavior impacted the performance of followers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Initiating Structure <ul><li>Leaders taking action to define the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between themselves and staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role each staff member will assume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures of initiating structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying out new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging slow workers to work harder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting at scheduled times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making sure everyone works to capacity </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Showing Consideration <ul><li>Showing consideration means… taking action to develop trust, respect, support, and friendship with subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of consideration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treating all people as equals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to make changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing behind subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing things to make group membership pleasant </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Leadership Behavior Theory <ul><li>Rensis Likert at the University of Michigan conducted leadership studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied leaders’ behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified two dimensions of behavior: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job centered (initiating structure) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee centered (showing consideration) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Leadership Behavior Theory <ul><li>Robert Blake and Jane Mouton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a managerial grid reflecting Ohio and Michigan dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideal leader has high concern for both production and people </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Managerial Grid <ul><li>Major management styles and concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impoverished : low production, low people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweatshop : high production, low people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country Club : high people, low production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status Quo : medium production, medium people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully Functioning : high production, high people </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Managerial Grid <ul><li>Two additional styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paternalistic: high concern for production, use of rewards for compliance and loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunistic: promotes his/her own advancement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Behavior Theory Applied <ul><li>Margot Morrell documented Ernest Shackleton’s endurance expedition and the lessons he learned: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading by example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating a vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping morale up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a positive attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successful leaders execute these points </li></ul>
  18. 18. Leadership Contingency Theory <ul><li>Both trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By the late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational factors </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Leadership Contingency Theory <ul><li>In the past 50 years, more than 65 leadership classification systems have been developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most agree that leadership effectiveness depends on the leader, the followers, and situation variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders in different situations need different interests, values, and skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A leader in a bank differs from one on a farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced vs new followers have different needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational factors include the job performed, the workplace culture, and task urgency </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Leadership Contingency Theory <ul><li>Leadership results when… the ideas and deeds of the leader match the needs and expectations of the follower in a particular situation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen. George Patton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For leadership to take place, the leader, followers, and situation must match </li></ul>
  21. 21. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Charismatic leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspire others and bring forth loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Max Weber’s definition of charisma: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A quality that sets an individual apart from ordinary people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be treated as if endowed with exceptional powers or qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charisma is a gift or power of leadership </li></ul>
  22. 22. Theory of Charismatic Leadership <ul><li>This theory was published by R.J. House in 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic leaders exhibit a combination of personal characteristics and behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambitious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-confident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of purpose </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Behaviors of Charismatic Leaders <ul><li>Charismatic leaders… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate ability that elicits respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have ideological goals with moral overtones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate high expectations and show confidence in meeting them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignite the motives of followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of motives… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation, power, and achievement </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Charismatic leaders emerge in every walk of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Football coach Vince Lombardi generated respect and following of others through charisma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He cared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He worked hard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He knew the right answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He believed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He kept the bar high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He knew people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>According to James MacGregor Burns, “charisma” has overlapping meanings : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders’ magical qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An emotional bond between the leader and the led </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on a powerful figure by the masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption that a leader is omniscient and virtuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular support for a leader that verges on love </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transformational leaders raise aspirations and transform individuals through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other personal qualities </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transformational leadership was first discussed by J. V. Downton </li></ul><ul><li>However, identification of these leadership types is credited to James MacGregor Burns : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional leadership </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Transformational Vs Transactional <ul><li>Transformational leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the potential relationship between the leader and the followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage the full person of the follower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap the motives of the followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on exchanges between leaders and followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize exchanging one thing for another </li></ul></ul>