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Prof. Shrinivas V K
Prof. SVK
Prof. SVK
WHY???WHY???
Prof. SVK
MotivationMotivation
 Psychological processes
that arouse and direct
goal-directed behavior
 Does high motivation
mean b...
A FRAMEWORK FOR
MOTIVATIONNeed Deficiency
(Unsatisfied Need)
Re-Evaluation of
Need Deficiency/
Behavior/Experience
Tension...
Prof. SVK
MotivationalTheoriesMotivationalTheories
 ContentTheories
◦ Identify internal factors
influencing motivation
 ProcessThe...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009Prof. SVK
Source: Penn State Psych 484
Maslow RevisedMaslow Revised
Prof. SVK
Alderfer's ERGTheoryAlderfer's ERGTheory
Existence: Desire for
physiological and
materialistic well-being
Relatedness: D...
McClelland's NeedTheoryMcClelland's NeedTheory
The Need for
Achievement
◦ Desire to accomplish
something difficult
The N...
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model
Hygiene Factors -- job
characteristics associated
wit...
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model
Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009Prof. SVK
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model
Source: MAAW from HBR 1968, 2003Prof. SVK
Theory ComparisonTheory Comparison
Self-
Actualization
EsteemEsteem
BelongingnessBelongingness
SafetySafety
PhysiologicalP...
EquityTheoryEquityTheory
People strive for fairness and justice in social
exchanges
People will be motivated to the exte...
EquityTheoryEquityTheory
Source: BusinessBallsProf. SVK
What DoYouThink?What DoYouThink?
Deena works 60 hours per week and does not feel
that she is being adequately recognized o...
Vroom’s ExpectancyTheoryVroom’s ExpectancyTheory
Prof. SVK
Vroom’s ExpectancyTheoryVroom’s ExpectancyTheory
Self Efficacy
Goal Difficulty
Perceived Control
Trust
Control
Policies
Ne...
Porter and Lawler ModelPorter and Lawler Model
Porter and Lawler usedVictorVroom’s
expectancy theory as a foundation to
de...
Porter and Lawler ModelPorter and Lawler Model
 Similar toVroom’s theory, Porter and
Lawler concluded that an individual’...
Prof. SVK
Relevance of Porter and LawlerRelevance of Porter and Lawler
ModelModel
The Porter-Lawler theory is a more
complete theor...
Types of RewardsTypes of Rewards
Individual reward Team reward Organizational
reward
Piece rate Gain sharing Stock ownersh...
Conclusion?Conclusion?
Experts in many fields
are still trying to figure
it out and making a
good living doing so.
YOU h...
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Motivation-Organisational Behavior

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Motivation-Organisational Behavior/MBA/BBA

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Motivation-Organisational Behavior

  1. 1. Prof. Shrinivas V K Prof. SVK
  2. 2. Prof. SVK
  3. 3. WHY???WHY??? Prof. SVK
  4. 4. MotivationMotivation  Psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior  Does high motivation mean better job performance? ◦ A=Yes, B=No  Is money the only motivator? Prof. SVK
  5. 5. A FRAMEWORK FOR MOTIVATIONNeed Deficiency (Unsatisfied Need) Re-Evaluation of Need Deficiency/ Behavior/Experience Tension (felt Need) Experienced Reward Or Punishment Search Behavior Goal-Directed Behavior The Individual Prof. SVK
  6. 6. Prof. SVK
  7. 7. MotivationalTheoriesMotivationalTheories  ContentTheories ◦ Identify internal factors influencing motivation  ProcessTheories ◦ Identify the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence motivation Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009Prof. SVK
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009Prof. SVK
  9. 9. Source: Penn State Psych 484 Maslow RevisedMaslow Revised Prof. SVK
  10. 10. Alderfer's ERGTheoryAlderfer's ERGTheory Existence: Desire for physiological and materialistic well-being Relatedness: Desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others Growth: Desire to grow and use one’s abilities to their fullest potential Source: Penn State Psych 484Prof. SVK
  11. 11. McClelland's NeedTheoryMcClelland's NeedTheory The Need for Achievement ◦ Desire to accomplish something difficult The Need for Affiliation ◦ Desire to spend time in social relationships and activities The Need for Power ◦ Desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve Source: Penn State Psych 484Prof. SVK
  12. 12. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model Hygiene Factors -- job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction ◦ Salary ◦ Supervisory relations ◦ Working conditions Motivators -- job characteristics associated with job satisfaction ◦ Achievement ◦ Recognition ◦ Responsibility Prof. SVK
  13. 13. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009Prof. SVK
  14. 14. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene ModelHerzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model Source: MAAW from HBR 1968, 2003Prof. SVK
  15. 15. Theory ComparisonTheory Comparison Self- Actualization EsteemEsteem BelongingnessBelongingness SafetySafety PhysiologicalPhysiological Growth RelatednessRelatedness ExistenceExistence Motivator- -Hygiene Motivators HygienesHygienes Need for Achievement Need forNeed for PowerPower Need forNeed for AffiliationAffiliation McClelland’s Learned Needs ERGNeeds Hierarchy Prof. SVK
  16. 16. EquityTheoryEquityTheory People strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges People will be motivated to the extent their perceived inputs to outputs is in balance A. Compare personal outcomes to inputs. B. Compare your outcomes to relevant others: 1. Comparisons to teammates or coworkers 2. Comparisons to another group (e.g. department/unit) 3. Comparisons to others in your field or occupational. Prof. SVK
  17. 17. EquityTheoryEquityTheory Source: BusinessBallsProf. SVK
  18. 18. What DoYouThink?What DoYouThink? Deena works 60 hours per week and does not feel that she is being adequately recognized or rewarded. According to equity theory, Deena is least likely to: a. Ask for a raise or bonus b.Reduce her efforts by decreasing her hours c. Increase her efforts by working longer hours d.Frame the situation as a learning experience and beneficial for her future career. Prof. SVK
  19. 19. Vroom’s ExpectancyTheoryVroom’s ExpectancyTheory Prof. SVK
  20. 20. Vroom’s ExpectancyTheoryVroom’s ExpectancyTheory Self Efficacy Goal Difficulty Perceived Control Trust Control Policies Needs Values Goals Preferences Expectancy (E P) Perceived likelihood that EFFORT will lead to performance Instrumentality (P R) Perceived likelihood that Performance leads to desired rewards Valence V(R) The value of expected rewards to the individual Motivational Force (MF) Force directing specific behavior alternatives X X = Prof. SVK
  21. 21. Porter and Lawler ModelPorter and Lawler Model Porter and Lawler usedVictorVroom’s expectancy theory as a foundation to develop their expectancy model to the expectancy theory. Prof. SVK
  22. 22. Porter and Lawler ModelPorter and Lawler Model  Similar toVroom’s theory, Porter and Lawler concluded that an individual’s motivation to complete a task is affected by the reward they expect to receive for completing the task. However Porter and Lawler introduced additional aspects.  The Porter-Lawler Model The model predicts that satisfaction is determined by the perceived equity of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for high-level performance. Prof. SVK
  23. 23. Prof. SVK
  24. 24. Relevance of Porter and LawlerRelevance of Porter and Lawler ModelModel The Porter-Lawler theory is a more complete theory because it stresses: (1)Intrinsic and Extrinsic rewards, (2)Task requirements and ability, and (3)The perceived fairness of rewards. Prof. SVK
  25. 25. Types of RewardsTypes of Rewards Individual reward Team reward Organizational reward Piece rate Gain sharing Stock ownership (ESOP) Commissions /Incentives Bonuses Stock options Royalties Profit sharing Bonuses Prof. SVK
  26. 26. Conclusion?Conclusion? Experts in many fields are still trying to figure it out and making a good living doing so. YOU have to figure out what MOTIVATES you, and then feed it! Prof. SVK

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