Metrics and Measurement –IE 5342 Project



      Work Sampling:

      The Work Sampling System is an authentic performan...
The number of observations taken = 35

I took 35 observations, because the 5 categories repeated for my every week day whi...
Range: p̂ ± Z α/2 σp
                   ̂

        0.2571 ± 1.96*0.0738

        (0.1125, 0.4017)

My confidence level is ...
My confidence level is 95% that the true value of the gym category lies between (0.009, 0.2194)

            ̂
C= Z α/2 * ...
̂
C= Z α/2 * σp

 = 1.96 * 0.0738

 =0.14464

C- Desired Expected level of deviation

Z α/2- Confidence level

 ̂
σp- stan...
http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-1/early.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawthorne_effect

http://dic.academic.ru/dic.ns...
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Time Study Analysis Metrics

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Metrics and Measurements: Time Study analysis

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Time Study Analysis Metrics

  1. 1. Metrics and Measurement –IE 5342 Project Work Sampling: The Work Sampling System is an authentic performance-based assessment tool. Work Sampling is designed to help a person evaluate the key time spent on individual work thereby documenting and evaluating a person’s skills, knowledge, behaviors and accomplishments across a wide variety of curriculum areas on multiple occasions in order to enhance time management and to keep track of each person’s individual achievement. Objectives: Personal: I personally opted for the 5 categories Study, Work, Gym, Music and Cooking because these categories made up my daily errands and I wanted personally see that how each week day is spent on each category and how time can be well managed for the days to come for optimal usage of every Week Day. Categories: Study, Work, Gym, Music, Cooking A study of the above categories was recorded throughout a week with help of a Random Time Generator. I generated the random time from the website www.random.org. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Work Work Work Work Work Time done Time done Time done Time done Time done 8.00 am Study 8.00 am Study 8.00 am Study 8.00 am Work 8.00 am work 11.30 9.00 am Work 8.45 am Gym 11.20 am Gym 12.05pm Cook am Study 3.00pm Gym 9.13am Work 12.30 pm work 1.00pm Study 1.39 pm Work 4.15pm Work 1.15pm Music 4.45pm Cook 6.35pm cook 4.00pm Gym 5.00pm Study 1.40 pm Cook 5.30pm Study 9.00pm Music 6.25 pm Cook 10.00pm Music 2.15pm Work 8.30pm Cook 10.00pm Cook 8.45pm Study 11.00pm Cook 11.00 pm Study 11.00pm Music 11.00pm Music 11.00pm cook Observations:
  2. 2. The number of observations taken = 35 I took 35 observations, because the 5 categories repeated for my every week day which constituted the major consumption of time and I wanted to optimize the usage of time in a more effective method thereby increasing my efficiency of work for the further consecutive weeks to come. I generated the random time using the www.random.org I used my cell phone which prompted me reminder whenever required. Added addition to my cell phone I did use my IPod also for double reminder. Advancement in technology led me use my IPhone where I recorded my observations on my Notepad. Calculations Observations: No. of occurrence for Study category = 9 No. of occurrence for Work category = 8 No. of occurrence for Gym category = 4 No. of occurrence for Music category = 5 No. of occurrence for Cook category = 9 Total No. of Observations = 35 Calculation for p̂ values: p̂study = 9/35 = 0.2571 p̂work = 8/35 = 0.2285 p̂gym = 4/35 = 0.1142 p̂music = 5/35 = 0.1428p̂cook = 9/35 = 0.2571 ̂ Calculation for σp values: Study: σp = Square Root [(p̂ {1- p})/ 35] ̂ ̂ = Square Root [(0.2571{1-0.2571})/35] = 0.0738 For 95% CI, we get Z α/2 = 1.96
  3. 3. Range: p̂ ± Z α/2 σp ̂ 0.2571 ± 1.96*0.0738 (0.1125, 0.4017) My confidence level is 95% that the true value of the study category lies between (0.1125, 0.4017) ̂ C= Z α/2 * σp =1.96 * 0.0738 = 0.144648 Work: σp = Square Root [(p̂ {1- p})/ 35] ̂ ̂ = Square Root [(0.2285{1-0.2285})/35] = 0.0709 For 95% CI , we get Z α/2 = 1.96 Range: p̂ ± Z α/2 σp ̂ 0.2285 ± 1.96*0.0709 (0.0896, 0.3674) My confidence level is 95% that the true value of the work category lies between (0.0896, 0.3674) ̂ C= Z α/2 * σp = 1.96 * 0.0709 = 0.138964 Gym: σp = Square Root [(p̂ {1- p})/ 35] ̂ ̂ = Square Root [(0.1142{1-0.1142})/35] = 0.0537 For 95% CI , we get Z α/2 = 1.96 Range: p̂ ± Z α/2 σp ̂ 0.1142 ± 1.96*0.0537 (0.009, 0.2194)
  4. 4. My confidence level is 95% that the true value of the gym category lies between (0.009, 0.2194) ̂ C= Z α/2 * σp = 1.96 * 0.0537 = 0.105252 Music: σp = Square Root [(p̂ {1- p})/ 35] ̂ ̂ = Square Root [(0.1428{1-0.1428})/35] = 0.0591 For 95% CI, we get Z α/2 = 1.96 Range: p̂ ± Z α/2 σp ̂ 0.1428 ± 1.96*0.0591 (0.027, 0.2586) My confidence level is 95% that the true value of the music category lies between (0.027, 0.2586) ̂ C= Z α/2 * σp = 1.96 * 0.0591 = 0.115836 Cook: σp = Square Root [(p̂ {1- p})/ 35] ̂ ̂ = Square Root[(0.2571{1-0.2571})/35] = 0.0738 For 95% CI, we get Z α/2 = 1.96 Range: p̂ ± Z α/2 σp ̂ 0.2571 ± 1.96*0.0738 (0.1125, 0.4017) My confidence level is 95% that the true value of the cooking category lies between (0.1125, 0.4017)
  5. 5. ̂ C= Z α/2 * σp = 1.96 * 0.0738 =0.14464 C- Desired Expected level of deviation Z α/2- Confidence level ̂ σp- standard deviation of respective category ̂ p- the proportion of the total number of observations devoted to an activity category of interest Hawthorne Evaluation: Hawthorne Evaluation concept deals with the motto to improve the aspect of a behavior being measured on a person which is experimentally measured in response to the fact that they are being studied, not in response to any particular experimental manipulation. The Hawthorne effect is a form of reactivity, and describes a temporary change to behavior or performance in response to a change in the environmental conditions, with the response being typically an improvement. Landsberger defined the "Hawthorne evaluation" is a short-term improvement caused by observing worker performance. Others have broadened the definition to mean that people's behavior and performance change following any new or increased attention. An example for this will be the performance evaluation of a person practicing a game individually to the performance when he is plays in front of 100 people. In my case I did see that cooking and work takes the same amount of observation and the cooking can be reduced thereby increasing the Study or work. I also see that Music could be given more importance as it reduces the stress and relieves the mind. If the above observation was taken for someone else, it would have been better from my perspective because when doing it for myself, I could have neglected the ideal times, Sleeping time, eating time, breaks etc. When one observes the others it will be easier to notice the above mentioned flaws. Conclusion: I personally found that the study was difficult but to me, I had put my honest efforts to make the readings more precise and accurate. This method helped me to analyze how to manage my time with my weekly work schedule. Optimal usage of time with each work will save time, money, energy and enhance good health. I personally found that this project was very much thought provoking and one of the best methods which should be incorporated in every individual’s lifestyle in order to make things more efficient and easy for the rapid fast paced world. References:
  6. 6. http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-1/early.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawthorne_effect http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/264811 Work Systems and Methods, Measurement, and management of Work- Mikell P. Groover www.random.org

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