SPECTROSCOPIC AND THERMAL   ANALYSIS OF COMPOSTING  DURING AGITATED PILE AND  ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTING
ABSTRACTWater hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has infested vast wetlands, andhas caused major problems in the region viz. ...
COMPOSTING
MATERIAL FLOW FOR CONVENTIONAL      COMPOSTING PROCESS C, N, Inorganic,            Composting            Humic substances,...
PHASES IN COMPOSTING PROCESS               • Time necessary for microorganisms to colonize inLatent phase     new environm...
PATTERNS OF TEMPERATURE AND   MICROBIAL GROWTH DURING                COMPOSTING
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS   Nutrient balance                                               Particle size   • Organisms in...
TYPES OF COMPOSTING                                               Composting                Open Process                  ...
WINDROW COMPOSTING
AERATED STATIC PILE
ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTER
WATER HYACINTH
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSConsidered to be world’s worst aquatic plantsAbility to reproduce exponentially interferes withagric...
POTENTIAL UTILIZATIONAs a phytoremediation agent • Ability to grow in heavily polluted water together with its capacity fo...
COMPOST MATERIAL               Water              Hyacinth         Sawdust    Cattle                    Manure
WASTE COMPOSITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICSParameters and Trials   Water Hyacinth   Sawdust   Cattle Manure       Trial 1      ...
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN         Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum composting             Waste collection and charaterization     ...
SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Thermogravimetric Analysis Differential Thermogravimetry ...
FOURIER TRANSFORM   FTIR Spectra of compostedINFRARED SPECTROSCOPY   olive-mill wastes at various                        s...
THERMOGRAVIMETRIC         ANALYSIS
DIFFERENTIALTHERMOGRAVIMETRY
DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING          CALORIMETRY
SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN                  COMPOSTINGYear               Raw Material                            Spectros...
PHASE IISpectrocopic and Thermal analysis of samplesAgitated Pile – Samples from day 0, 18 and 30 to beanalyzedRotary Drum...
1634                                                      2924                                                            ...
REFERENCES1.   Gunnarsson, C.C., Petersen, C.M., 2007. Water hyacinths as a resource     in agriculture and energy product...
THANK YOU   Presentation by –            Shreyas Nangalia            09012227
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Spectroscopic and Thermal Analysis of Composting during Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum Composting

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Spectroscopic and Thermal Analysis of Composting during Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum Composting

  1. 1. SPECTROSCOPIC AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSTING DURING AGITATED PILE AND ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTING
  2. 2. ABSTRACTWater hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has infested vast wetlands, andhas caused major problems in the region viz. reducing fish population,blocking irrigation canals and averting navigation, damaging ricefields, eutrophication etc. Composting can be one of the suitableoptions for management and disposal of this free floating weed, asthe process is ecologically sound and economically viable, and helpsin reducing large quantities of organic wastes. Chemical analysesused in previous studies to determine the quality and stability ofcompost is time consuming and unreliable. Therefore, the aim of thisstudy is to employ modern spectroscopic and thermal analyses duringagitated pile and rotary drum composting of water hyacinth and itsdifferent waste combinations with cattle manure and sawdust. Duringphase 1 of the project, samples were prepared by pile and drumcomposting techniques. In phase 2, spectroscopic and thermal analysisof these collected samples will be done.
  3. 3. COMPOSTING
  4. 4. MATERIAL FLOW FOR CONVENTIONAL COMPOSTING PROCESS C, N, Inorganic, Composting Humic substances,Pathogens, Weed Mixing Process Curing Inorganic micro- seeds, Microbes organisms
  5. 5. PHASES IN COMPOSTING PROCESS • Time necessary for microorganisms to colonize inLatent phase new environment • Rise of biologically produced temperature to Growth phase mesophilic levelThermophilic • Temperature rises to highest level phase • Temperature decreases to mesophlilic and,Maturation phase consequently ambient levels
  6. 6. PATTERNS OF TEMPERATURE AND MICROBIAL GROWTH DURING COMPOSTING
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS Nutrient balance Particle size • Organisms involved in stabilization of • Particle size of composting materials should organic matter utilize about 30 parts of C be as small as possible so as to allow for for each part of N efficient aeration Moisture control Aeration requirement • Optimum moisture content is known to be • Necessary to ensure that oxygen is between 50-60% supplied throughout the mass and aerobic activity is maintained Temperature • Optimum temperature varies for different feedstocks or materials. However, most data indicate it to be between 50-600C
  8. 8. TYPES OF COMPOSTING Composting Open Process Reactor ProcessAgitated Pile Static Pile / Vertical Flow Horizontal/Inclined Non-flow (Batch) (Windrow) Aerated Pile
  9. 9. WINDROW COMPOSTING
  10. 10. AERATED STATIC PILE
  11. 11. ROTARY DRUM COMPOSTER
  12. 12. WATER HYACINTH
  13. 13. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSConsidered to be world’s worst aquatic plantsAbility to reproduce exponentially interferes withagricultural and infrastructural projectsCan present many problems for fishermenBlamed for reduction of biodiversityLow oxygen conditions create breading conditions formosquito vectors of malaria, encephalitis and filariasis
  14. 14. POTENTIAL UTILIZATIONAs a phytoremediation agent • Ability to grow in heavily polluted water together with its capacity for metal ion accumulation makes it suitable for treating wastewatersPower alcohol production • Relatively high content of hemicellulose indicates it could be a good source of hemicellulose for bioconversionBiogas production • Possibility of converting water hyacinth to biogas has also emerged as an area of major interest for many yearsAnimal fodder/fish feed • High water and mineral content of water hyacinth indicates that the nutrients in water hyacinth are suitable to some animals
  15. 15. COMPOST MATERIAL Water Hyacinth Sawdust Cattle Manure
  16. 16. WASTE COMPOSITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICSParameters and Trials Water Hyacinth Sawdust Cattle Manure Trial 1 150 0 0 Trial 2 120 15 15 Trial 3 105 15 30 Trial 4 90 15 45 Trial 5 75 15 60 pH 5.79 6.155 6.65 Conductivity (dS/m) 4.91 0.389 3.31 Moisture content(%) 85.535 10.015 80.92 Volatile Solids 72.641 97.871 72.054
  17. 17. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Agitated Pile and Rotary Drum composting Waste collection and charaterization Pile & Drum Start up and Waste Feeding Different Operating Scenarios 5 trials of different waste combinations Sampling & Analysis Preparing Database & Report
  18. 18. SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Thermogravimetric Analysis Differential Thermogravimetry Differential scanning calorimetry
  19. 19. FOURIER TRANSFORM FTIR Spectra of compostedINFRARED SPECTROSCOPY olive-mill wastes at various stages of maturation
  20. 20. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS
  21. 21. DIFFERENTIALTHERMOGRAVIMETRY
  22. 22. DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY
  23. 23. SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES IN COMPOSTINGYear Raw Material Spectroscopic Technique 1990 Cattle manure FTIR 1998 Pig manure FTIR 2003 Municipal Solid Waste Thermal analysis 2003 Olive Mill wastes FTIR 2005 Sewage sludge and green plant waste FTIR 2007 Winery and Distillery residues Thermal analysis 2009 Olive mill residues FTIR & DSC
  24. 24. PHASE IISpectrocopic and Thermal analysis of samplesAgitated Pile – Samples from day 0, 18 and 30 to beanalyzedRotary Drum – Samples from day 0, 12 and 20 to beanalyzed5 different waste combinations will be testedTotal 30 samples to be analyzed by FTIR, TGA, DTG andDSC
  25. 25. 1634 2924 3434 Water Hyacinth% Transmittance 1020 2920 1643 1042 Cattle Manure 3405 603 1260 2921 1639 1035 Saw Dust 3430 500 1000 1500 3000 3500 4000 -1 Wavenumber (cm )
  26. 26. REFERENCES1. Gunnarsson, C.C., Petersen, C.M., 2007. Water hyacinths as a resource in agriculture and energy production:A literature review. Waste Management 27, 117-129.2. Hsu, J.H., Lo, S.L., 1999. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformations during composting of pig manure. Environ. Pollut. 104, 189–196.3. Haug, R.T., 1993. The practical handbook of composting engineering. Lewis publishers.4. Jouraiphy, A., Amir, S., El Gharous, M., Revel, J-C., Hafidi, M., 2005. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 56, 101-108.5. Kalamdhad, A., Ali, M., Khwairakpam, M., & Kazmi, A. (2009). Organic metter transformation during rtary drum composting. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant.
  27. 27. THANK YOU Presentation by – Shreyas Nangalia 09012227

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