How nanotechnology affect biodiversity and ecosystem by shreya modi

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How nanotechnology affect biodiversity and ecosystem by shreya modi

  1. 1. PHYSICO-CHEMICALPROPERTIES OF NANOSIZED METAL PARTICLES SUBMITTED TO- Centre for nanoscience Central university of Gujarat SUBMITTED BY- SHREYA M.MODI 1
  2. 2. M.Phil./Ph.D. in NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY, CENTRE FOR NANOSCIENCE, CUG.What is Biodiversity?Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, oran entire planet.Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function ofclimate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions supportfewer species.Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. One estimate is that less than1% of the species that have existed on Earth are extant.[1] http://www.jjphoto.dk/jjphoto_globe_collage.jpg 2
  3. 3. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunctionwith the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil),interacting as a system.[2]Earth also possess a variety of ecosystems, For example,Wetlands, Rainforests, Oceans, Coral reefs, and Glaciers that provide services such as-Water Storage and Release-Carbon dioxide absorption and Storage-Nutrient Storage and Recycling-Pollutant Uptake and Breakdown etc…These components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[3]As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms, and betweenorganisms and their environment,[4] they can come in any size but usually encompass specific,limited spaces[5] (although it is sometimes said that the entire planet is an ecosystem).[6,7] http://www.ucar.edu/communications/gcip/images/biogeochem.jpgSo, Environment and their activity have great influence on both Biodiversity and Ecosystem.Ecosystem processes, including water, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus cycling, changed morerapidly in the second half of the twentieth century than at any time in recorded human history. 3
  4. 4. Human modifications of ecosystems have changed not only the structure of the systems (such aswhat habitats or species are present in a particular location), but their processes and functioningas well.The capacity of ecosystems to provide services derives directly from the operation of naturalbiogeochemical cycles that in some cases have been significantly modified.Now a days, Prevention of biodiversity and Earth‘s ecosystem is critical to human life andprosperity.HOW NANOTECHNOLOGY AFFECT BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM? NANOTECHNOLOGY’S ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CAN BE SPLIT INTO TWO ASPECTS: The possibly novel type of The potential for Nano pollution that Nano technological innovations to technological materials help improve the might cause if released into environment the environment.As nanotechnology is an emerging field, there is great debate regarding to what extent industrialand commercial use of nanomaterial will affect organisms and ecosystems. 4
  5. 5. Biodiversity means the diversity in biological system. Both Biodiversity and Ecosystem arerelated to the living things, as we know all living things require three basic need to live. BASIC NEED TO LIVE 3 NEEDS FRESH AIR WATER FOODOur planets ability to provide an accommodating environment for humanity is being challengedby our own activities.To understand this I have just tried to explain Planetary Boundaries.WHAT DO WE MEAN BY "BOUNDARY"?This refers to a specific point related to a global-scale environmental process beyond whichhumanity should not go.The position of the boundary is a normative judgment, informed by science but largely based onhuman perceptions of risk. This doesnt mean that any change in the Earth system is dangerous.Our planet can undergo abrupt changes naturally.An example is the sudden switch in North Atlantic Ocean circulation when a critical level offreshwater input is reached.But these thresholds and abrupt changes are intrinsic features of the Earth system and cannot beeliminated or modified by human actions, such as the development of new technologies.We have to learn to live with thresholds and respect them.An abrupt change is a hardwired feature of the Earth system independent of human existence,while violation of a boundary is a subjective judgment by humanity about how close we wish toapproach dangerous or potentially catastrophic thresholds in our own life-support system. 5
  6. 6. Climate change, biodiversity loss, and phosphorus and nitrogen production are just threeareas in which boundaries can be determined and measured, and we will use these as examples [9]Even small changes can have a synergistic effect when linked to other small changes.For example,Conversion of forest to cropland, increased use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, andincreased extraction of freshwater for irrigation could all act together to reduce biodiversity morethan if each of these variables acted independently.Many changes feed back into each other. The processes involving ocean acidity and atmosphericCO2 concentration are an example of a reinforcing feedback loop. An increase in ocean acidityreduces the strength of the "biological pump" that removes carbon from the atmosphere, whichin turn increases the atmospheric CO2 concentration, which increases the physical uptake of CO2by the ocean, which further increases acidity, and so on…..[10] 6
  7. 7. http://www.pelicanweb.org/PlanetaryBoundaries3.jpgSOURCE-ROCKSTORM et al, 2009. 7
  8. 8. Now a days we all are facing some problems regarding Environmental Pollution, GlobalWarming, Scarcity for Energy Sources etc.. Which lead to disturbance in Biodiversity andEcosystem. To find out the solution of such problems is the great challenge to all, butNanotechnology and its Fascinating Application may be answer for these.FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RESOURCESWe all knownonrenewable energy sources are limited they will exhausted within few yearsapart from this, their use also lead to pollution in environment which affect biodiversity of earthso here nanotechnology is boon for development or enhancement of new energy sources. http://www.nanostart.de/images/stories/newsletter/2011_03/solar_energy.jpgNanotechnology has made it possible for scientists to develop renewable energy sources that willnot harm the environment any further, as they produce energy with low levels of toxic emissionwhile at the same time affordable to many. 1) Consider the possibility of having inexpensive solar power in the near future by using nanostructured solar cells. The use of the latter has made it possible for manufacturers to produce solar panels into flexible rolls using print-like processing that equates to lower costs and easier installations. 2) Currently, researchers are into developing thin-film solar panels that fits into portable computer cases and mobile electronic devices or be woven into flexible nanowires and attached to garments as a means for generating usable energy, either from natural light, from friction or from one‘s own body heat while on the go. 3) Nano-bioengineering researches and development are also currently aimed at enabling enzymes to convert cellulose, wood chips, cornstalks and organic perennial grasses into ethanol fuel. 4) Moreover, researchers are onto the possibility of converting heat wastes into usable energy power as they are generated by computers, vehicles, homes, factories, power 8
  9. 9. plants and the like. They are generated by computers, vehicles, homes, factories, power plants and the like. 5) Windmill blades are being developed into lightweight nanostructures that are stronger than the ordinary blades with the capacity to increase the amount of electricity generated. 6) Other developments for nanowires are for their utilization in electric grids by adding carbon nanotubes to create lower resistance. This then will result to the reduction of power that is lost while energy is being transmitted to power lines.[8]http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0928493103002169-gr5.jpgAn overview about existing nanotechnologies in cars already on the market, applications withshort-term and medium-term potential as well as long-term applications such as light-weightconstruction using nano-carbon nanotubes which are presently investigated in research labsworldwide and have a high potential if they can be used for automotive bodies.Nanotechnology for Waste Water treatment and remediationContaminated waste water also affects biodiversity and also ecology of the water system.Because waste water contain so many impurities like Organic Dyes, Harmful Microorganisms,Heavy metals etc.. Clean and pure water is basic need for all purposes like for Drinking,Domestic Uses, Industrial Uses etc..[9] 9
  10. 10. http://www.pragnapump.com/toxic-waste-water-thailand.jpgA strong influence of Nanochemistry on Waste-water treatment, Air purification and Energystorage devices is to be expected.Seawater and brackish water from saline aquifers constitute approximate 97% of the water onearth.[10]. Approximately 2.58-4.36 KWh of energy is need to produce 1 m3of clean water fromsaline water[11]. Development of low energy desalination technology must be a priority forextracting clean water and valuable minerals[e.g. lithium] from brackish water and sea water.Mechanical or chemical methods can be used for effective filtration techniques. One class offiltration techniques is based on the use of membranes with suitable hole sizes, whereby theliquid is pressed through the membrane.Nanoporous membranes are suitable for a mechanical filtration with extremely small poressmaller than 10 nm (―nanofiltration‖) and may be composed of nanotubes. Nano filtration ismainly used for the removal of ions or the separation of different fluids.Magnetic nanoparticles offer an effective and reliable method to remove heavy metalcontaminants from waste water by making use of magnetic separation techniques.Using nanoscale particles increases the efficiency to absorb the contaminants and iscomparatively inexpensive compared to traditional precipitation and filtration methods.Some water-treatment devices incorporating nanotechnology are already on the market, withmore in development. Low-cost nanostructured separation membranes methods have been shownto be effective in producing potable water in a recent study.[12]Nanoscale iron particles have also shown potential as a detoxifying agent for cleaningenvironmental contaminants from Brownfieldsites.[13]Farm waste is a mixture of animal faeces and urine, plus milk and chemicals such as pesticides.A large quantity of animal waste is generated by concentrated animal feeding operations anddisposal of the waste has been a major problem. Factory farms collect the animal waste and mix 10
  11. 11. it with water to form slurry. Slurry is a type of liquid manure that can be used on fields asfertilizer. If the soil or plants are unable to absorb the slurry or if the slurry is spread in too high aconcentration, the run-off can get into water systems.Slurry is generally more polluting than raw sewage. When slurry tanks are accidentally ordeliberately breached large amounts of slurry can spill into rivers, streams or lakes, includingwetlands causing severe environmental problems. Many incidents are not reported. Animal wasteis found in soil, surface water, groundwater and sea water.Slurry disturbs aquatic ecosystems by increasing nitrogen and phosphorus levels leading to thegrowth of toxic algae, which poison the fish and it decreases oxygen levels causing fish tosuffocate.The growth of toxic algae in waterways is called algal blooms. In addition to the ecologicaleffects these algal blooms make waterways smelly, unsightly, unsuitable for drinking anddangerous for swimming.Increased use of agrochemicals, farm machinery and irrigation in recent years has made thepollution problem worse.Milk spills are another major environmental hazard for aquatic ecosystems. Milk is a highlypolluting substance and when it gets into waterways is a threat to fish and other animals livingwithin the waterway. This is because the bacteria feeds on the milk and uses up oxygen that fishand other animals need to survive. The dairy industry sometimes accidentally loses hugevolumes of milk from its tankers. Sometimes milk that cannot be sold is deliberately dumped andgets into waterways.Chemicals used on farms as pesticides, fungicides or fertilizers are found in waterways.Common farm chemicals include 1080, aluminum phosphide, cresol, organophosphoruspesticides, pyrethroids, methyl bromide, strychnine, and tryquat. These chemicals are sprayed onfarmland using tractors and boom sprayers, or aerial sprays from light planes. Droplets areproduced that can linger in air and may be carried by wind away from the intended area. This isknown as ‘spray drift’. Chemical spray drift cannot always be contained and might still occurdespite correct application. These chemical sprays often drift over neighboring properties orwaterways and can affect human health, animals and the environment.Education about how to transport, store, use and dispose of chemicals more safely, and chemicaldisposal services such as Chem-clear have helped reduce chemical pollution.Nanotechnology and its application play efficient role to solve above problems.Farm waste has huge potential as a source of energy. It is a major source of methane, agreenhouse gas contributing to climate change. When possible the methane should not beallowed to escape into the atmosphere. It should be captured and the energy potential should beharnessed.[14]. 11
  12. 12. For example-Engineers at Oregon State University have discovered that the proper nanotech coating couldincrease the electricity output of wastewater-to-energy production by more than 20 times.In producing power from wastewater, bacteria are placed in an anode chamber – where they forma biofilm, consume nutrients and grow – to release electrons.The researchers then experimented with the use of new coatings on the anodes of microbialelectrochemical cells to generate more electricity from sewage. They found that coating graphiteanodes with a nanoparticle layer of gold can increase electricity production by 20 times, whilecoatings with palladium produced an increase as well, but not nearly as much.[15]NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR OIL RECOVERY TO SAVE ECOSYSTEM ANDBIODIVERSITYOil spills from container ships or offshore platforms are a frequent hazard to marine and coastalecosystems and an expensive one to clean up. BP expects the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in 2010 --the worst environmental disaster in U.S. history -- to cost it $40 billion.On its own, oil is not magnetic, but MIT researchers say that when mixed with water-repellentnanoparticles that contain iron, the oil can be magnetically separated from the water. Thenanoparticles can later be removed to enable the re-use of the oil.[16].Numerous solutions have been proposed for dealing with the problem of oil spills. These include  Use of microorganisms to digest the oil  Mechanical means like skimmers, booms, pumps, mechanical separators etc.  Sorbents to remove oil from water through adsorption and/or absorption and  Use of chemical dispersants like detergents etc. [17]Conventional techniques are not adequate to solve the problem of massive oil spills.In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a potential source of novel solutions to many ofthe worlds outstanding problems. 12
  13. 13. Although the application of nanotechnology for oil spill cleanup is still in its nascent stage, itoffers great promise for the future. In the last couple of years, there has been particularlygrowing interest worldwide in exploring ways of finding suitable solutions to clean up oil spillsthrough use of nanomaterials.[18] http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id20215_1.jpg Figure : Various approaches for oil spill cleanup using nanomaterials/nanotechnologies.BETTER AND MORE COST-EFFECTIVE MEDICAL TREATMENT. http://www.nanostart.de/images/stories/newsletter/DNA.jpg 13
  14. 14. Around the world, the need for better, cheaper healthcare has become critical. In theindustrialized economies, aging populations are putting enormous strains on national healthcaresystems, and in emerging economies, population growth and a rising middle class are likewisecreating an enormous new demand for medical treatment.Nanotechnology is playing an increasingly important role in overcoming this global challenge.Around the world, medical researchers are working on nanoparticles for drug delivery whichcan deliver powerful medications to exactly where they are needed in the body, such as the siteof a tumor or infection. This means that these medications can act more effectively – and withfewer side effects in the rest of the body.Because of increasing the problems of Environmental pollution some dangerous diseases like-Cancer, respiratory system diseases etc..are also increasing day by day.Nanoparticles have also enabled a totally new approach to cancer treatment; by injecting amagnetic nanoparticle fluid directly into the tumor and applying an external electromagneticfield, the tumor may be destroyed by heating it from the inside out. The application ofnanotechnology will also make itself felt in our pockets, not only figuratively but also literally: Itis enabling bulky, expensive laboratory analysis and diagnostic technology to be miniaturizedonto a silicon chip, putting within reach the dream of a complete hospital laboratory which fits ina pocket.Fully automated biochips will soon be able to quickly and cheaply detect pathogens or otherbiomolecules, such as those associated with cardiovascular disease or other widespread healthissues. In the field of pharmaceutical research, too, the technology of drug discovery isbenefitting enormously from these Nanobiotechnology-based systems [19].SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITYIn the next 10+ years, it is expected that nanotechnology will contribute significantly to thepreservation of biodiversity through the development and implementation of:Advanced sensors and devices for monitoring ecosystem health (e.g./ soil/water composition,nutrient/ pollutant loads, microbial metabolism, and plant health)Advanced sensors and devices for monitoring and tracking animal migration in terrestrial andmarine ecosystemsCost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges,including energy, water, environment and climate change . 14
  15. 15. As per two sides of coin, there are also some drawback and harmful effects of Nanotechnologyand Nanoparticles which also cause some harmful effect to Biodiversity and EcosystemWHAT ARE THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF NANOPARTICLES ON THEAGRICULTURE AND FOOD CHAIN?However, the side effects and environmental impact of these altered materials remain under-researched.In general, introducing a new material into the environment—engineered or not—will affectecosystems.OmowunmiSadik, director of Binghampton University‘s Center for Advanced Sensors andEnvironmental Systems, cites the example of silver nanoparticles, which are used to coatmaterials ranging from cookware to laundry liquids. Socks that are laced with silvernanoparticles for their antibacterial and deodorant properties are eventually washed in thelaundry, and some of the particles are flushed into waterways.The biggest problem with these tiny particles—they range in size from 1 to 100 nanometers—islocating them in water, soil and the atmosphere. Current methods of analyzing nanoparticles relyon bulky, hard-to-move microscopes that are unable to provide information on the toxicity of thematerials.[20].The present situation of agricultural production faces the challenge of enhancing crop productionand providing nutritionally adequate diets for the increasing population, under uncertain climaticextremes, water scarcity, in limited (and degraded at many places) land area, with morerequirement of water, and in many cases with poor quality water and air, and rapid erosion ofnatural biodiversity.To maintain the food quality in relation to its huge production, the food security is also animportant factor. The food production, quality and food security can be maintained byintroducing small science in the present century. Thus small science have such a big impact, thisis nothing but nanotechnologyNanotechnology is being explored in the field of agriculture to boost production by severalcompanies. Nano particles are engineered materials that operate at a scale of 100 nanometers(nm) or less.Nanotechnology can create breakthroughs in the food sector. But scientists would like to predictthat this technology may create some risk in ecological, health and in socio-economic sectors.Nanotechnology may create some toxic effects in food chain, in biomagnification and also infood web. Naturally, the toxicological effects need consideration.[21] 15
  16. 16. http://ec.europa.eu/health/opinions2/en/nanotechnologies/images/figure-4.gifResearchers have also found that the process of nanotube manufacturing releases toxicsubstances similar to those found in cigarette smoke and automobile tailpipe emissions.Moreover, different carbon nanotubes have diverse chemical compositions, making it difficult totrace their impact in the environment.Notably, carbon nanotubes are not biodegradable. Hence, they will persist in our environmentand may build up in the food chain. Furthermore, studies on the impact of nanoparticles on soilecosystems, vertebrates, or invertebrates are missing almost completely.Given that nanoparticles are potentially highly toxic and may persist and disperse throughout theenvironment, the possibility that they may disrupt ecosystem functioning needs to be considered.This is because a wide range of individuals across many species may be exposed to nanoparticlesas they disperse through the environment. Harm to a single species may lead to a disruption inthe functioning of the whole ecosystem.Disruption of natural bacterial processes could affect the fixing of nitrogen. This is the processby which atmospheric nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia.The ammonia is subsequently available for many important biological molecules such as aminoacids, proteins, vitamins, and nucleic acids.Organisms that have been altered by nanotechnology might mutate and evolve into harmful newviruses.Nanotechnology may make humans more effective at destroying the environment becausestronger materials and larger machines accelerate the pace of destruction.[22]. 16
  17. 17. HARMFUL EFFECT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY AND NANOTOXICITYThere are no known problems with nanotechnology but with increased use and exposure tohumans and the environment, certain aspects of this technology make it risky. The small size andgreater mobility of free nanoparticles mean they pose a greater threat than fixed nanoparticles.[22].http://www.umt.edu/ethics/Debating%20Science%20Program/ODC/imx/Nano_toxicity_bacteria. jpgNanoparticles could cause an ‗overload‘ on phagocytes, the cells that ingest and destroy foreignmatter. This is likely to trigger a stress reaction that can lead to inflammation and weaken thebody‘s defenses against other pathogens.[23]Nanoparticles may be inhaled, ingested or taken in through contact with the skin. The knownpossible adverse health impacts are summarized in below figure which includes both natural andanthropogenic nanoparticles. Obviously not all nanoparticles are harmful, but without exhaustivetests especially in the case of the newly engineered nanoparticles, it is impossible to tell.Diseases associated with inhaled nanoparticles include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lungcancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson‘s and Alzheimer‘s diseases.Nanoparticles in the gastrointestinal tract have been linked to Crohn‘s disease and colon cancer.Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are implicatedin arteriosclerosis, blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately death from heartdisease. Nanoparticles entering other organs, such as liver, spleen, etc., may lead to diseases ofthese organs. Some nanoparticles are associated with autoimmune diseases, such as systemiclupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis.[24-26] 17
  18. 18. IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND BIOSYSTEMPublished risk assessment studies of engineered nanoparticle (ENP) exposure scenarios.[28-37].Focal ENP(s) Context CitationNanosilver (nano-Ag) Fate and risks for aquatic exposure associated Blaser et al., 2008 with Ag in plastics and textilesNanosilver (nano-Ag) Comprehensive synthesis of Ag production and Luoma, 2008 future likely scenarios of exposureNano-TiO2 Assessment of TiO2 production and exposure Ogilvie-Robichaud scenarios et al., 2009Single-walled carbon Measured the elemental, molecular, and stable Plata et al., 2008nanotubes (CNTs) carbon isotope compositions of commercially available single-walled CNTs to provide unique―fingerprints‖ to trace CNTs in the environmentAssorted ENPs, with Review of potential and risks associated with Karn et al., 2009emphasis on zero- nanoremediation approachesvalent Fe nanoparticlesHypothetical ENPs Application of multicriteria decision analysis Linkov et al., 2007possessing different tools to four hypothetical ENPscharacteristicsENPs in Examination of industrial reporting Meyer et al., 2009nanocomponents andproductsNano-Ag, nano-TiO2, Substance flow analysis from products to air, Mueller andand CNTs soil, and water in Switzerland Nowack, 2008Single-walled CNTs, Assessment of inputs, outputs, and waste streams Robichaud et al.,buckyballs (C60), in fabrication processes. 2005quantum dots, and Comparison of risk to other industrialalumoxane and manufacturing processesTiO2 nanoparticlesTiO2, ZnO, Ag, and Modeled predictions of ENP concentrations in Gottschalk et al.,CNT and fullerenes sediment and sludge treated soil for the United 2009. States, Europe, and Switzerland. Risk assessment scenarios compared with toxicity to calculate risk quotients 18
  19. 19. Journal of Environmental Quality • Volume 39 • November–December 2010 http://www.i-sis.org.uk/graphics/nanotoxicityInRegulatoryVacuum.jpg Figure;- Diseases linked to nanoparticles from different pathways of exposureThe new properties could lead to unique applications, but also to possible harmful consequences.Given their small particle sizes and increased reactivity, nanomaterials might cross bodymembranes, and scatter in the environment.[27]Likewise, direct exposure to carbon nano products can cause brain damage in largemouth bass,be toxic to micro-organisms that digest bacteria in water, and have a negative impact on marineecosystems. 19
  20. 20. In addition, research in mice showed that inhalation of particles from carbon nanotubes (strong,flexible, powerful electrical conductors) may result in asbestos-like health effects.DO NANOPARTICLES AFFECT THE HEALTH OF THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM?Nanotechnology collectively describes technology and science which utilizes Nano scaleparticles. Despite their benefits, introduction of nanoparticles into the environment might havesignificant impacts as they may be extremely resistant to degradation and have the potential toaccumulate in bodies of water or in soil. http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0939641111000142-gr4.jpgThe study observed the behavior of C60 fullerenes; also know as Bucky Balls, in soil. Theseare a type of carbon nanomaterial currently used in some cosmetics with expected future use inpharmaceuticals.Other types of carbon nanomaterials have a promising future for use in a range of environmentalapplications, including environmental sensors, renewable energy technologies and pollutionprevention strategies. Laboratory tests on C60 fullerenes provide a good indicator of how othertypes of carbon nanomaterials will behave in the environment, as they all display similarphysical and chemical characteristics.In water, nanoparticles cluster together to form larger particles, aggregates, which may behavedifferently when released into the environment. In order to investigate the impact of fullereneson soil microorganisms, the researchers prepared suspensions of aggregated C60 fullerenes,applied them to soil at varying concentrations and assessed how they affected the growth anddiversity of soil dwelling microorganisms over time. 20
  21. 21. The study demonstrated that microbial biomass and respiration rate (an indication of the activityof soil microorganisms) were unaffected by nanoparticle treatments. Soil protozoans, such asamoeba, were slightly sensitive to nanoparticle applications. However, fast growing bacteriadecreased up to 4 fold in number. Protozoa feed on bacteria, so a reduction in bacterial biomasscould disrupt the bottom of the food chain in the soil ecosystem. Additionally, the researchersnoticed a very small, but persistent, change in the genetic diversity of both the bacterial andprotozoan community, caused by the fullerenes.It is possible that the water-repelling nature of fullerenes means that they limit bacterial growthby adsorbing vitamins and minerals, which are essential for bacterial growth, from the soil.Interactions between microorganisms in the soil ecosystem are very complicated and the impactof fullerenes on fast-growing bacteria may affect the balance of these interactions and in turn theoverall health and function of the soil.Researchers recommend that further studies of the long-term fate of fullerene nanoparticles areneeded before they are released into the environment. In addition there are many different typesof nanoparticles so the effects of all types should be considered when setting environmentalregulations for their release.[38]WHY MARINE ECOTOXICOLOGY OF NANOMATERIALSNanotechnology holds promise for cleaning up contaminated sites, yet little research has beendone on the potential toxicological effects nanomaterials might pose. The available research dataindicates that silver and copper nanoparticles are harmful to aquatic life.Given the unique features of nanomaterials, there is a need for the development andimplementation of appropriate and fit for purpose scientific approaches. This philosophy is basedon the following: 1) The marine environment is likely to be a sink for nanomaterials as it is for most man- made pollutants; it is therefore possible that certain nanomaterials may bio-accumulate and bio-magnify along the marine trophic chain, thus potentially affecting marine biological resources (wild and farmed); 2) Nanomaterials may be transferred to humans through diet by consumption of contaminated seafood products; 3) Nanomaterials may lead to a deterioration in marine environmental quality (coastal areas including natural and recreational interests) with social and economic repercussions. 21
  22. 22. 4) Some nanomaterials can, however, be used to reduce marine pollution, through selected applications, such as for instance through remediation by binding and removing specific contaminants.[39]CONCLUSIONAs we know nanotechnology can be applied in the every field of science, it affects every areadirectly or indirectly, in this assignment It can be concluded that nanotechnology is verymuch important to save and maintain biodiversity and Ecosystem, it play efficient role in thesustainability of Environment. http://takingaction.typepad.com/.a/6a00d83453033369e2010536913744970c-320wiApart from these, nanoparticle exposure lead to nanotoxicity to which affect environment,Biodiversity and Ecosystems. 22
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