لألغذٌة ًالحس التقٌٌم
• Sensory analysis ًالحس التحلٌل تعرٌف
Sensory analysis (or sensory evaluation) is a scientific
discipline دراصت أو تعهيًاث أو تذريب that applies principles of
experimental design and statistical analysis to the use of
human senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) for
the purposes of evaluating consumer products.
• The discipline requires panels of human assessors,انًحكًين
whom the products are tested, and recording the responses
made by them.
• By applying statistical techniques to the results it is
possible to make inferences اصتنتاجاثand insights
انًالحظاثabout the products under test.
• Most large consumer goods companies have
departments dedicated يكزس to sensory analysis.
• Sensory analysis can generally be broken down
into three sub-sections:
1. Effective testing (dealing with objective facts
about products) األجهزة فيها يضتخذو اختباراث
2. Affective testing (dealing with subjective facts
such as preferences) (انتذوق أو انحضيت االختباراث)
3. Perception (the biochemical and psychological
aspects of sensation
• This type of testing is concerned with obtaining
objective facts about products. This could range
from basic discrimination testing(
• e.g. Do two or more products differ from each
other?) to descriptive profiling
• ( e.g. What are the characteristics of two or more
• The type of panel required for this type of testing
would normally be a trained panel
• Otherwise known as consumer testing,
• this type of testing is concerned with obtaining subjective
• or how well products are likely to be accepted.
• Usually large (50 or more) panels of untrained personnel
are recruited for this type of testing, although smaller
focus groups can be utilized to gain insights into products.
• The range of testing can vary from simple comparative
testing (e.g. Which do you prefer, A or B?) to structured
questioning regarding the magnitude of acceptance of
individual characteristics (e.g. Please rate the "fruity
aroma": dislike | neither | like).
• Perception involves the biochemical and psychological
theories relating to human (and animal (sensations .
• By understanding the mechanisms involved it may be
possible to explain why certain characteristics are
preferred over others
• Descriptive analysis involves trained panels (6-30 people)
who evaluate products by rating the intensity of various
characteristics on a scale. Statistical analyses are applied to
look for differences among various products for
characteristics of interest
• Consumer testing sometimes called hedonic test involves
having potential consumers of a product evaluate various
products and a small number of items on a ballot.
paired comparison test
• In paired comparison analysis ,also known as paired choice
• a range of options are compared and the results are tallied ًف سجلت
جدولto find an overall winner.
• A range of plausible القبولoptions is listed.
• Each option is compared against each of the other options,
determining the preferred option in each case.
• The results are tallied and the option with the highest score is the
• This technique may be conducted individually or in groups.
• It may include criteria to guide the comparisons or be based on
intuition بدٌهة أو حدسfollowing an open discussion of the group.
• A paired choice matrix or paired comparison matrix can be
constructed to help with this type of analysis .
Flavor Profile :Used
• To describe aroma, flavor and aftertaste
• Panelists, typically 5-8, are selected on basis
of taste and aroma ability.
• An eight point ordinal category scale is used
to estimate intensity of each attribute e.g. 0 =
absent through to 8 = Strong
• Uses a fixed frame of reference to express
intensities (absolute scale)
• Consensus ًجماع اتفاق scores for each
attribute are developed after discussion
• Used to describe textural/mouthfeel
attributes Panelists, typically 5-8, are
selected on basis of ability to discriminate
known textural difference on product type to
• Panelists are trained using predetermined
reference scales for textural attributes
• Panelists score products for attributes
individually using a scale, category,
continuous line or Magnitude estimation, on
which they have been trained during the
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis
• Developed in response to criticism of previous methods’
lack of statistical treatment of data.
• Panelists, selected from a large pool of individuals
according to their ability to describe and discriminate
between products in the category to be ultimately tested.
• Panel leader acts as a facilitator and does not direct initial
• Each panelist’s performance is monitored and compared
to that of the whole panel.
• Continuous Line scales are used to extend beyond fixed
anchors and are not meant as absolute measures as in the
Flavour Profile (although sometimes used this way).
• Consensus opinions are used in initial attribute set up but
then individual product assessment takes place
• Data are translated into mean scores and analyzed
statistically using ANOVA techniques.
Free Choice Profiling Panelists
• use their own attributes and scales when
evaluating the products
• The numbers of attributes used can vary for
• Requires little panel training
• Generalized Procrustes
• Analysis is used on the results to generate a
‘consensus space’ in which each individual’s
data are plotted. (Delegate only need
demonstrate an awareness of this technique
and does not need to be able to perform it.).
SPECIFIC VOCABULARY FOR
• Negative attributes
• Fusty/ muddy sediment Characteristic flavour of oil
obtained from olives piled or stored in such conditions as
to have undergone an advanced stage of anaerobic
fermentation, or of oil which has been left in contact with
the sediment that settles in underground tanks and vats
and which has also undergone a process of anaerobic
• Musty-Characteristic flavor of oils obtained from fruit in
which large numbers
• humid of fungi and yeasts have developed as a result of
its being stored in humid conditions for several days.
• Winey- Characteristic flavor of certain oils reminiscent of
wine or vinegar. This
• vinegary flavor is mainly due to a process of aerobic
fermentation in the olives or in
• Acid-sour olive paste left on pressing mats which have
not been properly cleaned and leads to the formation of
acetic acid, ethyl acetate and ethanol.
• Metallic Flavor that is reminiscent of metals. It is
characteristic of oil which has been in prolonged contact
with metallic surfaces during crushing, mixing, pressing
• Rancid Flavor of oils which have undergone an intense
process of oxidation.
Other negative attributes
• Heated or Characteristic flavor of oils caused by
excessive and/or prolonged
• burnt heating during processing, particularly
when the paste is thermally mixed, if this is done
under unsuitable thermal conditions.
• Hay–wood Characteristic flavor of certain oils
produced from olives that have dried out.
• Rough Thick, pasty mouthfeel sensation
produced by certain old oils.
• Greasy Flavor of oil reminiscent of that of
diesel oil, grease or mineral oil.
• Vegetable Flavor acquired by the oil as a
result of prolonged contact with
• Water vegetable water which has
undergone fermentation processes.
• Brine Flavor of oil extracted from olives
• Esparto Characteristic flavor of oil obtained from
olives pressed in new esparto mats. The flavour
may differ depending on whether the mats are
made of green esparto or dried esparto.
• Earthy Flavor of oil obtained from olives which
have been collected with earth or mud on them
and not washed.
• Grubby Flavor of oil obtained from olives which
have been heavily attacked by the grubs of the
olive fly (Bactrocera oleae).
• Cucumber Flavor produced when an oil is
hermetically packed for too long,
particularly in tin containers, and which is
attributed to the formation of 2,6
• Wet wood Characteristic flavor of oils
extracted from olives which have been
injured by frost while on the tree.
• Fruity Set of olfactory sensations characteristic of the oil
which depends on the variety and comes from sound,
fresh olives, either ripe or unripe. It is perceived directly
and/or through the back of the nose.
• Bitter Characteristic primary taste of oil obtained from
green olives or olives turning colour. It is perceived in the
circumvallate papillae on the “V” region of the tongue.
• Pungent Biting tactile sensation characteristic of oils
produced at the start of the crop year, primarily from
olives that are still unripe. It can be perceived throughout
the whole of the mouth cavity, particularly in the throat.
• Name _______________________________ Date
• Product :
• Characteristic to be
• Instructions :You will have three samples two of which are alike
and one is different. You are to select the one which is
• Which is the odd sample __________________________?
• Briefly describe the difference you observe .
• DUO-TRIO TEST-DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS
• NAME _________________________________________
• DATE _________________________________________
• PRODUCT ______________________________________
• On your tray you have a marked control sample (C) and two
coded samples, one is identical with C, the other is different.
Which of the coded samples is different from C ?
• SAMPLES..........CHECK ODD