How to get nutrients on a vegetarian diet


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How to get nutrients on a vegetarian diet

  1. 1. How to get nutrients on a vegetarian diet Dr. Yousef M. Elshrek
  2. 2. • If you're worried about getting enough protein on a vegetarian diet, you may be in for a surprise. • Are you sitting down? The truth is, most people get way too much protein, and vegetarians can easily get more than enough protein in their diet as well. • Many people still believe that protein is only available from meat and animal sources and we will all fall over dead without animal protein! Unless you're pregnant or an Olympic bodybuilder, you will likely get more than enough protein without even trying. • Plant sources of protein alone can provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids if a variety of plant foods are consumed and energy needs are met. • It is no longer deemed necessary to consume complementary proteins at the same time. • Consumption of various sources of amino acids over the course of the day should ensure adequate nitrogen retention and use in healthy persons.
  3. 3. • How much protein we need per day? • Adults are encouraged to get 10% to 35% of their day's calories from protein foods. That's about 46 grams of protein for women, and 56 grams of protein for men. • It's not hard to get this amount if you eat two to three servings of protein-rich foods a day, according to the CDC. • A small 100 gms piece of meat has about 20 • grams of protein. A typical 8-ounce piece of meat could have over 50 grams of protein. • One 240 gms container of yogurt has about 11 grams of protein. • One cup of milk has 8 grams of protein. • One cup of dry beans has about 16 grams of protein Table (1) amount of protein needed per day for different ages
  4. 4. • The above Table(1) shows recommendations are for non-athletic, healthy people. • Many fitness experts recommend that a person who works out regularly, take 2 gram of protein for every Kgm of body weight, per day • Example:• RDA recommendations for normal healthy person: 0.8 grams protein / kg body weight • For vegans: 0.8 to 1.0 grams / kg body weight • 10% of total calories should come from protein • If a person needs 2000 kcal diet, 200 kcal from protein 200kcal x 1 gram divided by 4 kcal = 50 grams of protein
  5. 5. • Protein is found in the following foods: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. meats, poultry, and fish legumes (dry beans, peas and lentils) Tofu (soy) eggs nuts and seeds, and peanut butter milk and milk products , soy milk Grains and grains products, such as corn , oatmeal, pasta, whole grain bread , barely. 8. Vegetables, and some fruits
  6. 6. • What is the best protein to supplement with? • There are many different types of protein to choose from and it can be confusing. • All protein types will help you build muscle & lose weight. • They all make great meal replacements; the difference is the source of the protein. • While whey is milk based, or animal sourced, many proteins on the market are plant sourced. • The choice is yours. • While vegetarians and vegans may prefer plant sourced , whey-based protein is a great choice for athletes, due to its amino acid profile which is abundant in muscle tissue • Many companies are now offering blends of pea, hemp, rice, chia and/or artichoke proteins. • These blends offer a complete amino acid profile and are a great choice for vegetarians, vegans or anyone who is lactose intolerant
  7. 7. • Iron:• Transports and stores oxygen. • Plant foods contain only non- heme iron, which is more sensitive than heme iron (found in animal foods) to both inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption. • To increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal, eat a food containing vitamin C, such as citrus fruit or juice, tomato or broccoli. • Cooking food in iron cookware also adds to iron intake.
  8. 8. • How much iron do we need? • Recommended dietary intake (RDI) for Iron • Iron requirements vary for different age groups and life stages and most people do not achieve the recommended iron level from diet alone
  9. 9. • Source of Iron • Iron is a very important mineral, and can be found in many foods that you might not expect. • Iron is a mineral required to transport oxygen through the blood and is essential for providing energy for daily life. • The best source of iron is found in animal foods, as not only do they usually contain more iron, but our bodies can absorb it better than the iron from plant foods. • The recommended daily intake of iron for women between the ages of 19 to 50 is 18 milligrams a day
  10. 10. • 12 oysters, 7mg iron • Great news for people who enjoy seafood and don't like red meat - oysters are full of iron and zinc and they're low in calories too. • 1 cup cooked silver beet, 2.53mg iron • Cooking increases the amount of iron available in dark green vegetables and so does the presence of vitamin C, so add lemon juice to maximize the iron absorption. oysters silver beet
  11. 11. • 150g steak, 5.55mg iron • Beef steak is a good source of absorbable iron, but you should stick to a portion of 150g or a piece about the size of the palm of your hand. 160g lamb fillet, 5.55mg of iron Like beef, lean lamb is another good source of iron. But again, you need to watch your portion size - a little goes a long way. 30g cashews, 1.5mg of iron The amount of iron in cashews may not seem like much, but it all adds up. Toss them through a stirfry with beef, leafy greens and lemon juice to boost iron absorption.
  12. 12. • 20 small mussels, 15mg iron • Mussels are easy to cook, economical, sustainable and one of the best sources of iron around. They are also a good source of selenium and vitamin B12. • 2 large eggs, 2mg iron • When it comes to nutrients, there's very little eggs don't have and, while they may not contain a huge amount of iron, every little bit adds up over the course of a day. • 1 cup prune juice, 3.15mg iron • A quick, easy and palatable way to get a dose of iron is through a glass of prune juice. Prunes are also a good source of dietary fibre.
  13. 13. • Examples for amounts of foods providing 2mg iron • Type of food Quantity (g) • Pistachios 14 • Cashews (roasted) 32 • Whole lentils 57 • Chick peas (boiled) 95 • Whole meal bread 74 • Sesame seeds or tahini 19 • Black molasses 22 • Apricots (dried) 59
  14. 14. In general the source of are: • Dried beans • Spinach • Chard • Beet greens • Blackstrap molasses • Dried fruit such as dates • Fortified cereals (Raisin bran) • Black beans • Whole wheat bread bulgur • Prune juice
  15. 15. • Vitamin B-12 • known as cobalamin • Needed for cell division and blood formation. • Comes primarily from animal-derived foods. • A diet containing dairy products or eggs provides adequate vitamin B-12. • Plant foods do not contain vitamin B-12 except when contaminated by microorganisms, although this is not a reliable source for vegans.
  16. 16. • Source Of Vitamin B12 • Vitamin B-12 is mostly available only in animal foods: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. • You can also get this important nutrient in some nutritional yeasts, as well as from fortified cereals and soy milk. Vegans need to take a vitamin-B supplement daily. • Keep in mind that you have many choices when you set a goal of eating fewer animal foods and more plant foods. • There’s a whole spectrum of choices. • Use these helpful tables to learn more about foods that provide calcium, protein, vitamin D, and vitamin B-12.
  17. 17. • Calcium • Calcium is a chemical element which is essential for living organisms, including humans. • Calcium's chemical symbol is "Ca". • It is found in many foods. • We need to consume a certain amount of calcium to build and maintain strong bones and healthy communication between the brain and various parts of the body. • Calcium continues strengthening the bones of humans until they reach the age of 20-25 years, or when they reach their peak mass. • After that age, the element helps bone maintenance as well as slowing down bone density loss, which is a natural part of the aging process. • People whose calcium intake is inadequate before the age of 20-25, have a considerably higher risk later on in life of developing brittle bone disease or osteoporosis, because calcium is drawn from the bones as a reserve.
  18. 18. • Calcium regulates muscle contraction, including the heartbeat. • It also plays a key role in normal blood coagulation (clotting). • Nearly all of the calcium in our bodies is stored in our teeth and bones, where it supports their hardness and structure. • Calcium also plays a role in the release of hormones and enzymes, as well as helping blood vessels move blood around the body. • An adequate calcium early in life may protect against obesity later on. • Vitamin D helps our bodies absorb and retain calcium in the bones. • Calcium rich diets increase women's lifespans ,women whose diets are rich in calcium probably live longer than their counterparts whose diets are low in calcium
  19. 19. • Calcium Source: • Dietary calcium can be found in several different foods and drinks; they also recommend that we obtain our calcium from a variety of sources, such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. low fat dairy products Collard greens Broccoli Kale Turnip greens Almonds White dry bean
  20. 20. • Vitamin D • Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. • In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). • Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. • The body can also synthesize vitamin D (specifically cholecalciferol) in the skin, from cholesterol, when sun exposure is adequate (hence its nickname, the "sunshine vitamin").
  21. 21. • Although vitamin D is commonly called a vitamin, it is not actually an essential dietary vitamin in the strict sense, as it can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sunlight. • A substance is only classified as an essential vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from its diet. • In common with other compounds commonly called vitamins, vitamin D was nevertheless discovered in an effort to find the dietary substance lacking in a disease, namely rickets, the childhood form of osteomalacia. • Additionally, like other compounds called vitamins, in the developed world, vitamin D is added to staple foods, such as milk, to avoid disease due to deficiency
  22. 22. • How much vitamin D do we need? • 19-50 years: 200 IU • 51-69 years: 400 IU • 70+ years: 600 IU Source of vitamin D
  23. 23. • Zinc • Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. • Zinc is also found in many cold lozenges and some over-thecounter drugs sold as cold remedies. • Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. • It is required for the catalytic activity of approximately 100 enzymes and it plays a role in immune function , protein synthesis , wound healing, DNA synthesis , and cell division . • Zinc also supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence and is required for proper sense of taste and smell. • A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system .
  24. 24. • Recommended Intakes • Intake recommendations for zinc and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences). • DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. • These values, which vary by age and gender, include the following: 1. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals. 2. Adequate Intake (AI): established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA and is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy. 3. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. 4. The current RDAs for zinc are listed in the following Table . 5. For infants aged 0 to 6 months, the FNB established an AI for zinc that is equivalent to the mean intake of zinc in healthy, breastfed infants.
  25. 25. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Zinc Age 0–6 months 7–12 months Male Female Pregnancy 2 mg* 3 mg 2 mg* 3 mg 1–3 years 4–8 years 9–13 years 3 mg 5 mg 8 mg 3 mg 5 mg 8 mg 14–18 years 19+ years 11 mg 11 mg 9 mg 8 mg Lactation * Adequate Intake (AI) 12 mg 11 mg 13 mg 12 mg
  26. 26. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Zinc Age Male Female Pregnant Lactating 0–6 months 4 mg 4 mg 7–12 months 5 mg 5 mg 1–3 years 7 mg 7 mg 4–8 years 12 mg 12 mg 9–13 years 23 mg 23 mg 14–18 years 34 mg 34 mg 34 mg 34 mg 19+ years 40 mg 40 mg 40 mg 40 mg
  27. 27. • Sources of Zinc • Food A wide variety of foods contain zinc . • Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. Other good food sources include beans, nuts, certain types of seafood (such as crab and lobster), whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, and dairy products . • Phytates—which are present in whole-grain breads, cereals, legumes, and other foods—bind zinc and inhibit its absorption . • Thus, the bioavailability of zinc from grains and plant foods is lower than that from animal foods, although many grain- and plant-based foods are still good sources of zinc
  28. 28. • * DV = Daily Value. • DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. • The DV for zinc is 15 mg for adults and children age 4 and older. • Food labels, however, are not required to list zinc content unless a food has been fortified with this nutrient. • Foods providing 20% or more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient • Dietary supplements • Supplements contain several forms of zinc, including zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, and zinc acetate. The percentage of elemental zinc varies by form. For example, approximately 23% of zinc sulfate consists of elemental zinc; thus, 220 mg of zinc sulfate contains 50 mg of elemental zinc. • The elemental zinc content appears in the Supplement Facts panel on the supplement container. Research has not determined whether differences exist among forms of zinc in absorption, bioavailability, or tolerability. • In addition to standard tablets and capsules, some zinc-containing cold lozenges are labeled as dietary supplements.
  29. 29. • Other sources Zinc is present in several products, including some labeled as homeopathic medications, sold over the counter for the treatment and prevention of colds. • Numerous case reports of anosmia (loss of the sense of smell), in some cases longlasting or permanent, have been associated with the use of zinc-containing nasal gels or sprays . • In June 2009, the FDA warned consumers to stop using three zinc-containing intranasal products because they might cause anosmia . • The manufacturer recalled these products from the marketplace. • Currently, these safety concerns have not been found to be associated with cold lozenges containing zinc. • Zinc is also present in some denture adhesive creams at levels ranging from 17–34 mg/g . • While use of these products as directed (0.5–1.5 g/day) is not of concern, chronic, excessive use can lead to zinc toxicity, resulting in copper deficiency and neurologic disease. • Such toxicity has been reported in individuals who used 2 or more standard 2.4 oz tubes of denture cream per week . • Many denture creams have now been reformulated to eliminate zinc.
  30. 30. • Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets • Choose a variety of foods, including whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds and, if desired, dairy products and eggs. • Choose whole, unrefined foods often and minimize intake of highly sweetened, fatty and heavily refined foods. • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. • If animal foods such as dairy products and eggs are used, choose lower-fat versions of these foods.
  31. 31. •Is Cholesterol Found in Foods Vegetarians Eat? •Cholesterol is found in foods from animals. •Eggs and dairy products do have cholesterol. •Grains, legumes, nuts, fruits, vegetables and vegetable oils do not have cholesterol or only contain insignificant amounts. •We do not need any cholesterol in our diets since our bodies can make all the cholesterol we need.
  32. 32. • Fats in the Vegetarian Diet --How much do we need? • Saturated fats and trans fatty acids are the kinds of fats most likely to cause heart disease. • Saturated fats are found mainly in animal products (eggs, butter, cheese, whole milk and whole milk products), and in coconut, palm and palm kernel oil. • Trans fatty acids appear in foods containing hydrogenated fats like margarine and crackers. • Heart healthy diets should aim at having saturated and trans fats providing no more than 8-10% of total calories.
  33. 33. Common Vegetarian Foods • Macaroni and cheese • Spaghetti • Cheese pizza • Eggplant parmesan • Vegetable soup • Pancakes • Oatmeal • Cheese lasagna • Barely • Fruit salad • Peanut butter & jam • Grilled cheese • Bean tacos & burritos • Vegetable • French toast • Vegetable pot pie • Fruit shakes • Bread & cereals • Yogurt • • • • • • • • • • • • Bulgur Lentils Millet Tahini Nutritional yeast Wheat germ Sprouts Chickpeas Kale Collards Soy burgers Nut
  34. 34. • Egg Replacers (Binders) • Any of the following can be used to replace eggs in baking: • 1 banana for 1 egg (great for cakes, pancakes, etc) • 2 Tbs cornstarch or arrowroot starch for 1 egg • 1/4 cup tofu for 1 egg (blend tofu smooth with the liquid ingredients before they are added to the dry ingredients) Dairy Substitutes The following can be used as dairy substitutes in cooking: Soy milk Soy margarine Soy yogurt Nut milks Rice milk
  35. 35. • Meat Substitutes in Stews/Soups • The following can be used as meat substitutes in soups and stews: • Tempeh (cultured soybeans with a chewy texture) • Tofu (freezing and then thawing gives tofu a meaty texture; the tofu will turn slightly off white in color) • Wheat gluten or seitan (made from wheat and has the texture of meat.