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The coca cola company

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The coca cola company

  1. 1. Acknowledgement we are pleasured to dubmit this presentation studied in vivek vidyalaya college of commerce (m.com) we would like for humbled attempt to thank all those people who helped us to make this project. First it is our pleasure to principal of vivek college anf project in charge for granting us the opportunity to present our project
  2. 2. The Coca Cola Company MARKETING STRATEGY
  3. 3. Contents Introduction and Summary of the Company ............................................................................................ Environmental Analysis ........................................................................................................................... Political ............................................................................................................................................... Economic............................................................................................................................................. Social................................................................................................................................................... Technological ...................................................................................................................................... Customer analysis – STP analysis ............................................................................................................. Segmentation ...................................................................................................................................... Targeting ............................................................................................................................................. Positioning .......................................................................................................................................... Competitive Analysis ............................................................................................................................... SWOT Analysis..................................................................................................................................... Strengths ......................................................................................................................................... Weaknesses..................................................................................................................................... Opportunities .................................................................................................................................. Threats ............................................................................................................................................ Porter’s Five Force Analysis ............................................................................................................... Competition................................................................................................................................... Threat of new Entrants .................................................................................................................. Threat of substitute products......................................................................................................... Supplier power .............................................................................................................................. Buyer Power .................................................................................................................................. Strategic approach and competitive advantages.................................................................................... Channel analysis....................................................................................................................................
  4. 4. Communication – Innovative advertising ........................................................................................... Distribution ....................................................................................................................................... Conclusion............................................................................................................................................. References ............................................................................................................................................
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF THE COMPANY Coca Cola is known as soft drink of the world (Bell, 2004). It was invest by Dr John Pemberton, who was a pharmacist in Atlanta. The drink did not have bubbles at that time and started selling at soda fountains. The first slogan for the new drink was “Delicious and refreshing” The company has been hugely successful over the last century and has become an icon of American culture. Coca Cola is not involved in all the processes that see its products go to the hands of consumers. According to the company website, Coca Cola has entered into partnership with bottlers around the world. The website says, “ Our Company manufactures and sells concentrates, beverage bases and syrups to bottling operations, owns the brands and is responsible for consumer brand marketing initiatives. Our bottling partners manufacture, package, merchandise and distribute the final branded beverages to our customers and vending partners, who then sell our products to consumers .” The company posted revenues of US$ 35 billion and net income of US$ 11.8 billion in 2010. Total number of employees on payrolls of the company during the period was 139,600 and the company sells its products in more than 200 countries (Form 10K: The Coca Cola Company, 2010). This report looks at various marketing techniques used by Coca Cola to become one of the best known brands of the world. If we consider business to be akin to war, then perhaps there is no better starting point than the writings of Sun Tzu [circa 400-320 B.C.]. „The Art of War‟ is the oldest formalised writing focusing on the concepts and principlesof warfare and military strategy. Written over two millennia ago, it is still validin the modern world, not only in military terms, but also in business. “Generally, he who occupies the field of battle first and awaits his enemyis at ease, and he who comes later to the scene and rushes into the fight isweary. And, therefore, those skilled in war bring the enemy to the field of battle and are not brought there by him. One able to make the enemy comeof his own accord does so by offering him some advantage. And one able tostop him from coming does so by preventing him. Thus, when the enemy isat ease, be able to tire him, when well fed, to starve him, when at rest tomake him move.” Sun Tzu, The Art of War, The Oldest Military Treatise InThe World
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS PEST analysis is valuable while analyzing external environment where a business is conducted or where an organization is planning to start a business (Henry, 2008). This section studies the environmental factors that have an impact on operation of Coca Cola. Political Coca Cola is subjected to strict regulations since its products come under food category. However, few changes in law are expected to impact Coca Cola. Following are some such factors: The issue of negative impact of Coca Cola manufacturing plants on environment has been highlighted in many countries. Laws for environment protection and stringent regulations in this regard can impact the production process. Coca Cola can work towards minimizing this impact by improving the efficiency of its processes and reducing wastage. Government changes, civil unrest, military takeover and other disturbances in a country can affect sales and operations of Coca Cola in that country. Expansion to a new country depends on the political conditions of the area. Coke abstained from Israel for many years because it wanted to protect the Arab market, which was quite large. Economic Following economic variables can impact Coca Cola Economic downturn in a country is going to have a negative impact on sales of Coca Cola. The impact on the company would be specially huge since its products are non essential. Various macroeconomic factors such as inflation and labor price would impact operations of Coca Cola. Countries with high income per capita would have more to spend on products such as beverages. Social The Coca Cola Company can be impacted by following social variables Soft drink beverages are considered unhealthy and people are getting health conscious. This is both a threat and an opportunity for Coca Cola. While sales in traditional brands
  7. 7. might go down, Coca Cola can introduce new products in new categories The company has witnessed opposition from social groups in some countries due to the environmental issues surrounding its production. Social and culture of a country has a huge impact on food habits of its citizens and this would impact the portfolio that Coca Cola can introduce in the country
  8. 8. TECHNOLOGICAL Technology is used at every step of Coca Cola‟s value chain – syrup manufacturing, bottling operations and storage at retail shops. Following technological factors have an impact: Coca Cola‟s strength is marketing and new marketing and advertisement channels have a big impact on the company. Coca Cola has been quick to embrace new mediums that have developed over the years – radio, television and now internet. It is important for the company to connect to the customers through different channels. Different type of packaging has helped Coca Cola drive sales. Apart from the original glass bottle, the beverages are now available in plastic bottles and cans. These are easier to store and transport. - New machines and processes impact the manufacturing operations. Adoption of new technology allows a company to manufacture more efficiently, with better quality and in greater quantity. The beverages need to be cooled before consumption. Therefore, consumption is limited to the places that can provide the facility of cold storage
  9. 9. CUSTOMER ANALYSIS – STP ANALYSIS This section looks at how Coca Cola views it customers and the way it designs the consumer strategy. STP (segmentation, targeting and positioning) analysis is used to study customers. Segmentation According to Weinstein (2004, pp4) market segmentation is the process of portioning market into groups of potential customers with similar needs and/or characteristics who are likely to exhibit similar purchase behavior. Objective of such a process is to analyze and understand market, identify opportunities and use or develop competitive edge to capitalize on those opportunities.The Coca Cola Company segments the customers based on the following criteria Geographic segmentation : Coca Cola has segmented the worldwide market on the basis of geographies. There are various divisions created for major regions of the world and heads of each division report to the parent company. Lot of autonomy is given to each division to run the operations. Place of consumption : Coca Cola segments the market on the basis of the place of consumption of the beverage. Most of the consumption takes place on premise such as cinemas, railway station, restaurants etc, while rest of it takes place in homes. Product type : Coca Cola segments the market on the basis of the type of products bought by customers. The market is divided into Cola products and non cola products. Cola products currently provide majority of the revenues, but the proportion of non cola products is increasing. Demographics : Coca Cola segments the market on the basis of demographics. The segmentation is on the basis of age as well as income. Targeting Coca Cola target different segments with different ads. Primary market of Coca Cola is younger people in the age bracket 10-25 with people from 25-40 comprising of secondary market. Cola products are targeted towards people who want strong flavor, while diet cola and its variants are targeted towards the sub segment that is health conscious. Coca Cola uses non cola beverages to target the health conscious segment of the market. Some
  10. 10. of the products such as Sprite specifically target teens and college going youth while others such as Limca target young working population. Positioning Coca Cola position its products as refreshing and thirst quenching. The products are said to bring joy, as apparent from Coca Cola‟s latest tagline – Little drops of joy. The products are associated with having a good time with friends and family and enjoying everyday life. The products are also marketed as consistent and of high quality.
  11. 11. COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS This section discusses the strategic capabilities that Coca Cola has built over the years, and how it has helped the company in creating sustainable competitive advantages. SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis would give a good insight of the strategic capabilities and resources available and the way these capabilities strengthen the competitive advantage as well as allow the company to exploit new opportunities (Kotler, 1991). SWOT framework analyzes both internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) as well as external factors (opportunities and threats) that define the market environment as well as capability of a firm to respond to the market conditions. At the same time, distinction is also made between positive factors (strengths and opportunities) and negative factors (weaknesses and threats). Strengths The Coca Cola Company enjoys the following strengths that has seen the company become the most recognized one in today‟s world - Brand : The Company has a very strong brand across the globe. The brand has been recognized as one of world‟s leading brands by various studies conducted by Interbrand, Businessweek and other experts. Apart from Coca Cola, the company owns other top beverages brands such as Fanta, Sprite and Diet Coke. The Company has spent huge amount of money over more than a century to build a brand that has a high customer recall and is the most recognized one. It also allows the Company to go for brand extensions and introduce various types of beverages. - Economies of scale : The Coca Cola Company is the largest manufacturer and marketer of non alcoholic beverages in this world. The company sells its products in more than 200 countries. The large scale of operations ensures that the company is able to invest in new
  12. 12. markets and reap benefits when the business grows profitable there. - The Coca Cola System : The whole supple chain of Coca Cola and its bottling system is a big strength for the company. It allows the company to target various markets globally and take the bottlers‟ help to gain knowledge about the local market. It also allows the company to expand rapidly to new markets without a big upfront investment. Weaknesses Though the company has been hugely successful, there are various weaknesses that need to be addressed by the company. These are: Criticisms regarding health and environmental issues : Products of the Coca Cola Company are considered to be high in calories and harmful for health. Various groups have advocated healthier drinks over carbonated ones. In 2006, the Company was involved in a controversy in India when government agencies alleged that Coca Cola contains pesticides and is dangerous for health. Such negative publicity can cause a lot of damage to the company, especially in international and growing markets. - Dropping sales in several countries : In recent years, the company has witnessed zero or negative growth in various key markets. The performance of the company has been weak in North America, which is its largest market, in last few years. The company‟s performance has been weak in Japan, Latin America and South East Asia as well. This could prevent Coca Cola from being aggressive in marketing and prevent the company from higher growth overall.
  13. 13. Opportunities Inorganic Growth and Acquisitions : The Coca Cola Company has been acquiring various local beverages companies aggressively over the last decade. Also, the company has increased its stake in major bottling operations. This has given the company more control over the entire value chain and allows it to align the goals of these bottling operations with those of the company. The company acquired other companies in almost all major markets around the world. These acquisitions gave head start to Coca Cola in the international markets and allowed the company to diversify its revenue stream. Growing healthy drinks and bottled water: The market for carbonated drinks is getting saturated in many Western countries and the trend is to move towards healthier drinks. Also, the market for bottled water is increasing fast globally. Coca Cola has developed and acquired various brands catering to these two segments. Coca Cola can use its strong brand position in carbonated water to increase its presence in other beverages category and take advantage of these growing markets. Threats - Changing trends: In carbonated drinks, Pepsico is the only real competitor of Coca Cola. But the trend is to move towards healthier drinks and there is a big threat of substitution facing Coca Cola. Possible substitutes include coffee, tea, milk, juices and energy drinks. The company has already taken steps to address this issue by launching products in the category of healthy drinks. Dependence on third party bottling partners: The Coca Cola system of bottling partners, which is a strength for the company, is potentially a threat as well. The company does not have the ownership in most of the bottling operations and makes money by selling syrup to these bottling companies. The interest of The Coca Cola Company can be different from the bottling companies as each of them try to maximize their profits. The
  14. 14. major dependence on independent third party vendors is a major risk to the company. This threat is being addressed by vertical integration as well as entering into long term partnerships with the bottling companies. Competition: Pepsico competes fiercely with Coca Cola in most cannot let down its guard.
  15. 15. PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS This analysis would give us a good idea of the competitive environment that the company operates in (Porter, 2008). The following factors define the competitive landscape for Coca Cola Competition The largest competitor for Coca Cola is Pepsi Co. They compete in almost all the markets worldwide. Coca Cola has higher sales worldwide, though Pepsi Co dominates the US market. There are other players in various beverages category, but none of them as large as Coca Cola or Pepsi Co. The new competition in the industry is to increase the product portfolio and introduce new variants of carbonated drinks and non-carbonated drinks. Most of the strengths and weaknesses of Pepsico are similar to those of Coca Cola. Pepsico enjoys good brand value as well as economies of scale. At the same time, it also has come under criticism for health and environmental issues. While Coca Cola operates almost exclusively in beverages segment, Pepsico derive a big share of total revenues from non-beverages category such as chips and oats. This can potentially provide opportunities to Pepsico to take advantages of synergy among various products. While Coca Cola is enjoyed by people from various age groups, Pepsico mainly targets young people. Threat of new Entrants Threat of new entrants is very low in this industry and the following factors are responsible: Brand name : It has taken these companies decades to build their brand and it‟s not easy for a new company to emulate that. Distribution channel: The two existing companies have wide distribution channel across the world and it‟s difficult to match up to that. Huge initial investment: The high cost of setting up manufacturing plants, transportation channel and distribution channel is a big barrier for new entrants. Economies of scale: Both the existing companies enjoy large economies of scale that help in keeping the costs down. A new entrant would not be able to match the cost of the biggies and would be forced out of the business.
  16. 16. THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS The threat of substitution is high for soft drink industry with products like bottled water, juices, tea and coffee readily available. To take care of this, The Coca Cola Company has increased its presence in these sectors as well. For people who take soft drinks for its caffeine, tea and coffee can be easy substitutes. In some cases, alcoholic beverages such as beer can be a substitute as well. It costs nothing for a customer to substitute a soft drink with another drink and hence there is a high threat of substitution. Many people are moving towards healthier drinks and substituting soft drinks with juices etc. Supplier power Supplier power is low in case of Coca Cola. Following are the suppliers for the company: Raw materials such as sugar and water are standard and the suppliers can be easily replaced without any problems. Bottling equipment manufacturers are suppliers for Coca Cola since the company owns stake in many bottling units. These equipments can be supplied by many companies and hence they have low bargaining power. Other factors such as labor, power etc would not be a problem for the company. For all the inputs, Coca Cola has higher bargaining power since it enjoys economies of scale and orders in huge quantities from the suppliers. Buyer Power In case of The Coca Cola Company, the bottling units are the buyers since the company sells the syrup to them and rest of the activities are undertaken by them independently. But the company owns many of the bottling plants and in such a case, buyers are the retail outlets. Bottling partners have low degree of bargaining power with Coca Cola. Though the company is dependent on bottlers for selling their product to the end consumers, they can replace the bottling partners. To start the business, the bottling company has to invest a lot and this creates a lock in for them, reducing their power. The power of mass retailers is moderate. On one hand, the brand of Coca Cola is very strong and the retailers have to store the product to satisfy the customers. On the other hand, the retailers can switch to other drinks without any cost and stop storing the products of Coca Cola.
  17. 17. STRATEGIC APPROACH AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES The Coca Cola Company is known for its marketing expertise and the company has always followed a great marketing strategy that is responsible for bringing the success to the company for over a century. The biggest strength of Coca Cola is its brand. It has taken a lot of effort and good strategy to create the widely known brand. Apart from this, there are various strategies that Coca Cola has followed over the years in order to achieve competitive advantage using its strategic capabilities. These strategies include: - Marketing and branding strategy: Healey (2008) defines a brand as a promise of satisfaction and emphasis that good branding reinforces reputation, generates loyalty and assure quality. Few companies in this world have developed a brand as strong as Coca Cola. The company has used its marketing resources to create a brand that is widely known and has become the biggest competitive advantage for the company. Coca Cola has been successful in creating brand loyalty among its consumers. This is a result of sustained marketing efforts starting from early 20 th century. Coca Cola has adoptedinnovating marketing techniques right from the times of Candler and Robert Woodruff. Apart from usual advertising through bill boards and newspapers, Coca Cola focused on organizations, universities and colleges and this increased sales while promoting the brand name. Coca Cola’s glocal strategy: Coca Cola has used its organizational capability to adopt a glocal strategy Gay et.al. (2007) – using a mix of central and local marketing functions in order to achieve maximum marketing and distribution effectiveness. Using this, Coca Cola maintains the strong global brand while introducing the local elements in the marketing to make sure that the product image is in harmony with the local culture.
  18. 18. NEW PRODUCT INTRODUCTIONS : Coca Cola follows out to in approach while developing new products. Coca Cola has always preferred taking note of customer preferences and designing its products according to them, instead of taking an internal approach – the process of taking stock of internal assets and expertise and using them to produce something that customers would buy. Based on these, the company either introduces a new product or acquires a company producing the suitable product. This is essential to survive in the changing market and to change the product portfolio according to customer requirements
  19. 19. CHANNEL ANALYSIS This section looks at the communication and distribution strategy of Coca Cola. Communication – Innovative advertising The company has used every medium available for advertisement and has been on the edge of technology for it. Use of radio has been one of the oldest medium of advertising and with the advent of television; the company became one of the first major advertisers through the medium. Coca Cola always presents itself as a pleasurable and refreshing drink. The Company has successfully launched many famous campaigns such as “The Coke adds life” and “Have a coke and smile” in 1970s; “can‟t beat the feeling” and “Coke is it!” in 1980s; “can‟t beat the real thing” in 1990s and “always life” in 2000s. The company sponsors major sporting events around the world and hires top sportspersons to promote the brand. The company also hires top models and movie stars as their brand ambassadors. The company always portrays itself as the number one and has the best products available. With the advent of internet, the company has been advertising online to connect with the online population. Distribution Coca Cola has developed its distribution network all over the world. It follows two types of distribution strategy: Direct selling: In this method, Coca Cola supply various products to retailers. These retailers may be retail stores, restaurants, cinema halls etc. The company uses its own vehicles to deliver the products. Direct selling brings in only small part of the revenue. Indirect selling: Most of the revenue comes from this channel. Coca Cola gets into partnership with various distributor agencies. The company supply products to these distributors, who then make them available to the retailers. In the traditional model, products are transferred from bottling plants to large distributors. These distributors then transport the products to retailers or smaller distributors. Small distributor node is added in case of rural areas or areas with low density population. The small distributors then supply the product to retailers. Most of the bottlers are under contract with Coca Cola. At the same time, the Company has direct contract with big retailers such as Wal-Mart. Coca Cola Company has introduced an innovative distribution mechanism in African countries to help the local economy thrive. According to the company‟s report, “Our unique distributionmodel allows the Coca Cola system to build relationships with small enterprises, creatingeconomic opportunity and wealth creation at the community level in developing markets. These micro distribution businesses, commonly known as Manual Distribution Centers (MDCs), are run by local small-scale entrepreneurs who employ local workers to deliver our products to small retailers in their neighborhoods. They typically reach consumers in dense urban areas in the developing world where traditional truck delivery is not feasible.” The creation of MDCs has been going on under the initiative led by UNDP (United Nations
  20. 20. Development Programme). This programme calls on companies to identify the steps that can be taken to reach Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This model ensures availability of Coca Cola‟s product in difficult to reach places while contributing towards development of the region.
  21. 21. CONCLUSION Coca Cola is a truly global company with presence in multiple countries. The company‟s biggest competitive strength comes from the strong brand that has been developed over 125 years of consistent marketing efforts. Economies of scale and the network with suppliers and distributors also contribute to the success. Marketing and advertising has been the most important function that has taken Coca Cola to new heights. The company has adopted innovating marketing techniques right from the times of Candler and Robert Woodruff. Apart from usual advertising through bill boards and newspapers, Coca Cola focused on organizations, universities and colleges and this increased sales while promoting the brand name.
  22. 22. GLOBAL MARKETING STRATEGY, STANDARDISATION OR/AND ADAPTATION Many have written on topics related to global strategy, but only a limitednumber of conclusions have been reached.Mesadag (2000) argues that global marketing is a particular form of international marketing which – in its truest form does not exist. Its essenceis that it covers a broad spread of the world‟s countries and that it strives toconsciously standardise its marketing strategy between those countries.Svensson (2001), comments that a company‟s global strategy is closelyrelated to its corporate strategy. The corporate strategy guides theperformance of a company‟s overall business activities and the allocations of resources to achieve established business goals.Others state that when a company pursues a global strategy, it looks atthe world market as a whole rather than at markets on a country-bycountrybasis (Jeannet and Hennessey, 2001).Levitt (1983) argues that the optimum global strategy is to produce asingle standardised product and sell it through a standardised marketingprogramme. The challenge for the global corporation is to achieve low costoperations and also to produce products of a high standard. This strive for low cost through standardising products is key and will result in growth for thecorporation. Companies that dominate small domestic markets will graduallybe eased out by the low cost producing global corporation.Kogut (1985) in his perspective of global strategy, emphasises strategicflexibility, whilst Collis (1991) has summarised global strategy in the following4 points: A global strategy is required whenever there are importantinterdependencies among a business‟s competitive position in differentcountries. The acid test is whether a business is better off in onecountry by virtue of its position in another. The sources of these interdependencies can be identified, includingscale economies (Levitt, 1983), accumulated international experience,possession of global brand name, a learning curve effect (Porter,1985), and the option value or cross-subsidisation (Hamel andPrahalad, 1985) that a multi-market presence confers. The critical issues that a global strategy must address include theconfiguration and co-ordination of the business‟s worldwide activities(Porter, 1986). The organization structure should be aligned with and derived from theglobal strategy.
  23. 23. DEMETRIS VRONTIS AND IAIN SHARP The question of whether to standardise or modify overshadows all the tacticaldecisions that are required from a strategist/international marketer. Itrepresents a very real tension between the profitability promised through costeffectiveness, which is greater when activities are controlled centrally, andthe market effectiveness that is promised if the offering is differentiated tomeet the needs of each geographic segment. Medina and Duffy (1998) are proponents of adaptation and define it as theprocess of extending and effectively applying domestic target-market-dictatedproduct standards - tangible and/or intangible attributes - to markets inforeign environments.The Marketing Mix (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, PhysicalEvidence and Process Management) is a “tactical toolkit” with which anymultinational company can implement efficient and effective strategy. Eachelement within the marketing mix can therefore be adjusted in order to gainoptimum environment fit and consequently meet customer diverse needs andwants.Levitt (1983) takes the opposite view and suggests that the globalcompetitor will seek constantly to standardise his offerings everywhere. He will digress from this standardisation only after exhausting all possibilities toretain it and he will push for reinstatement of standardisation whenever digression and divergence have occurred. He argues that the most effectiveworld competitors incorporate the same kind of products sold at home or inthe largest export markets.Vrontis (2003), the main supporter of integration, argues that the debateon adaptation and standardisation is a huge one and suggests that theexclusive use of either approach is too extreme to be practical. The truth liesin neither of these two polarised positions. Both processes,internationalisation and globalisation, coexist and the decision onstandardisation or adaptation is not a dichotomous one between completestandardisation and adaptation. Rather it is a matter of degree and there is awide spectrum in between that the international marketer should be aware.The international marketers should have to search for the right balancebetween standardisation and adaptation and therefore determine the extentof globalisation in a business and adapt the organisation‟s responseaccordingly. This is illustrated below in figure 2 in the Vrontis‟ Framework of AdaptStand Integration (Vrontis 1999).We have developed Vrontis‟ AdaptStand Framework further, adding thefollowing calculations, to illustrate a subjective view of where Coca-Cola ispositioned on the continua. Figure 3 illustrates the elements of the marketingmix (7P‟s) for Coca-Cola in international markets. It also reveals its level of standardisation and adaptation with number zero describing completeadaptation and number five complete standardisation. Any other number liesin the middle of the continuum.
  24. 24. PORTER GENERIC STRATEGY GRID The use of a differentiation strategy is where the firm attempts to be diversefrom its competitors by adding something to its product that will provide aunique value to its customers. There are also various ways a firm candifferentiate depending on the industry it is in, however the costs of thisdifferentiation policy must be lower than the additional pricing the firm canobtain. Differentiation for Coca-Cola is achieved through perceived superior quality product, which surpasses their nearest rivals, and high brand imageand recognition. The company has also used their promotion and packagingas a means of further differentiation, for example, the Coca-Cola bottle,which has become an internationally recognised symbol. The decision in1999 to revitalise the contoured bottle design was Coca-Cola‟s first globalmarketing priority (Boutzikas, 2000). They capitalised on a resource thatnone of their competitors had or have as an asset. They can, therefore,adopt a premium pricing policy in many markets where economic conditionsallow.It should also be noted that Coca-Cola is positioned in the CostLeadership quadrant. Aaker (1998) points out that there are several approaches a firm can taketo become a low cost producer, which can be used in isolation or as acombination. The most basic way to a low cost is to remove all the „extras‟from the product and produce a no frills offering. The danger in this strategyis that the way is paved for a feature war. The design or make up of theproduct can create cost advantages, for example, the use of alternativematerials. The production and operational processes a firm employs can alsoreduce costs. Another example would be the efficient use of distributionnetworks, manufacturing systems or the use of low cost labour and productinnovation.
  25. 25. THE STRATEGIC POSITIONING OF COCA Cola either approach too extreme to be practical and urges multinationalmarketers to search for the right balance between standardisation andadaptation.Coca-Cola‟s core „global‟ brands are mainly standardised, but with anumber of adaptations taking place. Although the company may strive for acompletely standardised strategic approach, drawing on the associatedeconomies of scale, in reality they are following the Integrated AdaptStandapproach as advocated by Vrontis (2003).The company‟s effectiveness and profitability is obviously well supportedby their strong competitive position and market share in their primary productmarket – Coca-Cola. Other brands like Diet Coke, Sprite and Fanta havealso been internationally recognised and profitable. Its‟ international successis achieved by the company‟s strategy and tactics, which complement eachother and work in harmony providing the optimum return bounded byefficiency. The company is thriving as it is both effective (doing things right)and efficient (doing the right thing).Coca-Cola is adopting Differentiation and Cost Leadership strategies(Generic Strategies). In terms of Differentiation, the firm attempts to bediverse from its competitors by adding something to its product that willprovide a unique value to its customers. This is achieved through well-designed and managed marketing activities resulting to perceived superior quality product and high brand image and recognition. Further, CostLeadership is achieved not only through economies of scale, but also throughlearning, knowledge and experience in production and operationalprocesses, and through effective/efficient distribution networks andmanufacturing systems.In relation to Ansoff, Coca-Cola is using a number of strategies. Initially, itused the Market Penetration Strategy and become established in its homemarket by increasing market share and product usage. Then, it used aMarket Development Strategy by expanding its operations into foreignmarkets. Later, it developed new products, both at a national andinternational level(Product Development) and then started operations in thecarbonated soft drinks market (Diversification Strategy). This also ensures that Coca-Cola has a comprehensive product portfolioin each market, increasing the likelihood of a purchase of a Coca-ColaCompany branded product. This portfolio is well managed and enables thebest fit between the company‟s strengths and weaknesses to theopportunities found in the environment.In considering the strong competitive position of the firm in a highlyattractive market, it is suggested that Coca-Cola should Protect its Position(Mckinsey Matrix). This can be achieved by concentrating efforts onmaintaining its existing strength by investing to grow at maximum digestiblerate.Coca-Cola should maintain its marketing orientation not only in itsstrategic approach but also in its tactical day-to-day operations. It shouldconstantly undertake market research
  26. 26. MARKET SEGMENTATION Instead of trying to identify teen segments by specific demographics, this campaign will appeal to youth with several types of attitudes, perceptions and lifestyles to give it the sense of unity it is looking for. PRIMARY MARKET (13-to-15 year olds) This segment is important to consider because it is influencing its parents‟ decisions as well as its friends‟ decisions. Throughout the next few years this age group will be transitioning from decisioninfluencers to decision-makers. Currently, they are doing what older segments are doing, buying the products they are buying and mimicking their styles and trends. 16-to-18 year olds: This older segment is making its own decisions. They are driving, which means they are going to the store on their own. stopping at gas stations, stocking up dorm rooms and buying soft drinks for social events. For the first time they feel a sense of independence and are excited to make their own branding choices. SECONDARY MARKET (21-to-24 year olds) Coke must retain those who have chosen Coke as their primary soft drink brand by this point. At the same time, Coke must make switchers out of those who have not chosen a specific soft drink brand through social events, which are a priority for this segment.
  27. 27. ICONIC BRAND “The Coke Side of Life” campaign takes on the most recent cultural contradiction in the youth segment by addressing its widespread desire to be viewed as expressive individuals and alleviating anxiety created by misrepresentations in reality television. Using Holt‟s theory, The Stalwart Group will position Coca-Cola Classic – an already iconic brand – as a product that accepts and promotes individuality, expression and realism as the solution to the false representation of truth in reality television. The truth is, you are often a product of your environment – a combination of everything you surround yourself with. Our target market is slowly accepting what reality television portrays as genuine. From make-up to friendships, teenagers keep everything very near to the surface – just in case a new trend or belief comes along and changes what is considered “cool.” Individuality lies underneath the surface and is not invited by society to shine through. The Stalwart Group‟s integrated marketing communications campaign will break through reality television‟s chokehold on today‟s youth by addressing and resolving the cultural contradiction that youth experiences on a daily basis.
  28. 28. REFERENCES Bell, L., 2004. The Story of Coca Cola. Mankato: Smart Apple Media Healey, M. 2008. What is Branding? Miese: RotoVision SA Henry, A. 2008. Understanding Strategic Management. New York: Oxford university press Kotler, P., 1991. Marketing Management .7 th edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Porter, M. E., 2008. Strategic. Competitive Forces that shape Strategy. Harvard Business Review. Cambridge: Harvard Press The Coca Cola System. 2011. The Coca Cola System. [online] Available at: < http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/citizenship/the_coca-cola_system.html> [Accessed on 27 th June, 2011] United States Securities and Exchange Commission. 2010. Form 10-k: The Coca Cola Company. [online] Available at: <http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/21344/000104746911001506/a2202147z10k.htm> [Accessed on 27 th June, 2011] Weinstein, A. 2004. Handbook of market segmentation: strategic targeting for business and technology firms. 3 rd edition. New York: Probus Publishing Co

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