Industrial inplant training at hll lifecare kanagala by shreenath metri be mechanical


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A student of BE mechanical IV sem KLS gogte institute of technology ,Belgaum has successufully completed the inplant trianing at HLL kanagala-591225

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Industrial inplant training at hll lifecare kanagala by shreenath metri be mechanical

  1. 1. KarnataKa Law Society’S Gogte Institute of Technology Udyambag , Belgaum. Department of mechanical engineering A report on “ Industrial inplant training ” At Kanagala, Belgaum -591225 Training guide : Shri. Badiger A.S Trainee name : Mr. Shreenath Metri Training Period : 06 July to 06 Aug 2012 1“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  2. 2. Acknowledgement I consider it my privilege to express my gratitudeand respect to all those who have guided me in thistraining. I thank Mr.Veerendra H. Asst. Manager(HR), HLLLifecare Limited, Kanagala –Belgaum for permitting meto carryout the inplant training in the organization. I am obliged to Mr. Badiger A.S for giving hisvaluable time and constant guidance during the courseof the training. Finally, I express my gratitude to my parents, friendsand who morally supported and guided me during mytraining---------- ---Thank you one and all-------------- Shreenath Metri 2“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  3. 3. CONTENTSPart – A : Company overview 1. Industry Profile 2. Company Profile 3. Objectives of the company 4. History of HLL Kanagala Unit 5. Unit profile 6. Departments 7. Product profilePart – B : Mechanical Maintenance 1. Mechanical workshop  Grinding machine (pedestal)  Broaching machine  Lathe machine  Drilling machines (piller & radial )  Milling machine  Shaping machine  Welding machine (electric & Gas  Hydraulic power press  Platform scale weighing machine 2. Boiler or steam generators  Introduction  Areas of application  Classification of Boiler  Difference between fire tube and water tube boilers  Boiler mountings and accessories 3“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  4. 4.  Thermax boiler  Nestler boiler  Boiler maintenance 3. Effluent Treatment Plant (E.T.P)  Introduction  Importance of ETP Plants  Application of ETP Plants 4. Reverse Osmosis Plant (R.O.P)  Need  Features  Operation  Advantages  Applications 5. Air compressors  Introduction  Types of air compressor  Uses of Compressed air  KHOSLA air compressors model VYDT  Accessories  Maintenance 6. Diesel Generators  Introduction  Area of application  Generator size  General layout of diesel generator  Maintenance 4“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  5. 5. Part – C : Production Department 1. Condom plant  Products of HLL Lifecare Limited  Primary Production Plant  Compounding section  Moulding section  Vulcanizing section  Quality Control Department  ETD (electronic testing dept)  Packing department 2. Oral Contraceptive Pills (O.C.P)  Granulation  Tablet Compression  Tablet Coating  Common tablet defects  Packaging Training 3. Bulk Drug Unit (B.D.U)  Introduction  Manufacturing process  Reactors  Mechanical Utilities 4. Sanitary Napkin Plant(S.N.P)  Raw materials required  Quality control Procedure  Machine description 5“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  6. 6. Part - A(company Overview) 6“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  7. 7. INDUSTY PROFILE Hindustan latex’s (HLL) journey started with its incorporation as acorporate entity under the ministry of health and family welfare of thegovernment of India on march 1,1966.HLL was setup in the natural rubber richstate of kerala , for the production of male contraceptive sheaths for the nationalfamily planning programme the company commenced its commercial operationson April 5,1969. the plant was established in technical collaboration with M/sOakmont industries. To trace briefly HLL’s land mark in the 37th since it’s commencement ofoperation. In the year 1969 the company started manufacturing atthiruvananthpuram (karalla) . As part of expansion program of the company startsdecided to establish One more unit Kanagala near Belgaum in the year 1986. andthey start the manufacturing in 1987. 7“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  8. 8. COMPANY PROFILE HLL is today a multi product, multi- unit organization addressingvarious public health challenges facing humility. Hindustan life care limited is theonly company in the world which manufactures and markets the widest range ofcontraceptives. It is unique inproviding a range of condoms, including female condoms, intra uterine devices,oral contraceptive pills- steroidal in the area of contraceptives HLL has added to itsoral contraceptive pills(OCP)for female. Its OCP range include Mala D/N, Saheli,Arpana, Apsara, Menders, Jaljeevan etc, it has also added female condoms torange. It also started manufacturing of copper T, Blood bags, Hydrocephalus shunt,Hand gloves etc. Today HLL is a multi-product, multi-unit organization addressing variouspublic health challenges facing humanity. On the path of rapid growth, HLL hasset its sights to be a Rs 1000 crore company by the year 2010. 8“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  9. 9. OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY  To maximize capacity utilization of existing plant.  To increase the profitability of the company and to maximize generation of surplus to enable HLL to finance its diversification projects.  To make social marketing projects.  To maintain and improve the existing cordial relationship between employees and management by mutual interaction at various levels and to further improve efficiency of the executives, supervisors and works to meet future challenges.  To make continuous efforts for up gradation of technology and quality to be internationally competitive.  To improve substantially direct marketing for all products.  To maximize cost reduction.  To explore possibilities for strategic alliances for diversification.  To be an active player in realization of the objectives set forth in the national population policy (NPP)2000.  To straighten information, education and communication aimed at enhancing the outreach of contraceptives in remote areas 9“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  10. 10. HISTORY OF HLL KANAGALA UNITHLL was set up 1969 at Thiruvananthapurm, Kerala as a government ofIndia undertaking. In 1984 the company decided to establish one more unit atKanagala Belgaum district of Karnataka state. Shri.R.Venkataraman the vice-president Government of India laid down thefoundation stone for the Kanagala unit. The function was prescribed by Shri.Shankaranand, the ministry of Health and Family welfare of Government of India.The construction of plant was completed in 1986 and regular productioncommenced from March 1987. The Kanagala plant is setup in collaboration with M/s Okamoto Industries,Japan and it incorporates Japanese technology cable of manufacturing testedcondoms in the world. The plant is fully automated andcomputerized and it hasannual production capacity of 144 million condomLocation of the Plant:The plant is situated in Kanagala, a small village in hukkeri taluka ofBelgaum District. It is 55 kms away from Belagum, 12 kms fromSankeshwar and 15 kms from Nippani. It is situated beside the NH-4,which is convenient for transportation and means for communication. In1984 Shri. B.Shankaranand took the initiative step in the successfulestablishment of Kanagala unit of HLL. HLL unit Kanagala plant acquires of about 30 acres of land. About 3/4th ofland is occupied by administrative office, main factory building,electrical and maintenance department, boiler room, effluent plant, stores building,ammonia storages, rest room, time office, canteen andassistance aid room, locker room etc. Other two buildings have beenconstructed one for production of oral contraceptive pills like Mala D,Mala N, Choice, Saheli, Ecroz etc. And one more is production ofCentchroman Bulk Durg, which has annual production capacity of 1,000kilograms. Other side of the factory there is a guesthouse, a hostel forunmarried officers and quarters for General Manger and Deputy General 10“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  11. 11. manger. The Kanagala plant, Karnataka commenced operation with the productionof condoms in 1985 using Japanese technology. It was expanded with the tablet tinFacility for birth control pills, Mala D/N, Saheli commenced in 1992. 11“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  12. 12. UNIT PROFILE:Name : Kanagala Facility, BelgaumAddress : HLL Lifecare limited A/P-Kanagala-591225 Tal-Hukkeri Dist-Belgaum State-Karnataka.Corporate : Public Limited CompanyStatus : A Government of India enterpriseRegistration No : KTK/25/11/87Nature of Industry : Manufacturing.Date of commencement : March 1987e-mail : hllnfk@sancharnet.inWeb-site : www.hlllifecarehll.comFax No. : 08333-279245Phone no. : 08333-279244, 279206,279680Promoter : Late. Shri.B. Shankaranand Former minister of Health and family Welfare of Government of India.CMD : Shri.M.Ayyappan. 12“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  13. 13. The Kanagala unit is divided into the followingDepartments:Operations and production :  Boiler house  Machine shop  HR  Accounts  Purchase  Stores  Dispatch  Systems  Safety  Electrical  Mechanical  Research and Development 13“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  14. 14. PRODUCT PROFILEThe various products produced and marketed by the company are asshown below:HEALTHCARE PRODUCTSBlood Single, Double, Triple, Quadruple, Penta, Pediatric, & Transfer Bags.Sutures Hicon, Hincryl, Hisil, hilon.Tissues expanders HLL SubcutexAuto Disposable Syringe Bsure, AutolokOral Re-hydration salts Jal JeevanMedicated Plasters PlastidWomen Healthcare Pharma Products.FAMIL PLANNING & HIV/AIDS PREVENTION:CONDOMSNirodh Deluxe Nirodh MaujZaroor Rangeele NymphUstad Share TNMSCMoods Sparsh RakshakMoods SupreremeFemale condoms- Confidom Passion Rings 14“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  15. 15. Part - B(Mechanical Maintenance) 15“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  16. 16. MECHANICAL WORKSHOP1. Grinding machine (pedestal)2. Broaching machine3. Lathe machine4. Drilling machines (piller & radial )5. Milling machine6. Shaping machine7. Welding machine (electric & Gas)8. Hydraulic power press9. Platform scale weighing machineGrinding machine : Grinding Machines are also regarded as machine tools. A distinguishingfeature of grinding machines is the rotating abrasive tool. Grinding machine isemployed to obtain high accuracy along with very high class of surface finish onthe workpiece. However, advent of new generation of grinding wheels andgrinding machines, characterised by their rigidity, power and speed enables one togo for high efficiency deep grinding (often called as abrasive milling) of not onlyhardened material but also ductile materials.Broaching machine : Broaching is the method of removing metal by pushing or pulling a cuttingtool called a broach when cutted in fixed path. Broaching machines are probably the simplest of all machine tools. Theyconsists of work holding fixture, a broaching tool, a drive mechanism, andsupporting frame. 16“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  17. 17. Specifications of Broaching machine:Stroke(mm) :Driving force :Breaching speed(mpm) :Return speed(mpm) :Motor h.p :Lathe machine : It is one of the oldest machine tool. The main function of a lathe is toremove metal from a piece of work to give it the required shape and size.Main parts of Lathe machine :1. Bed2. Headstock3. Tailstock4. Carriage5. Feed m/s 6. Screw cutting m/sSpecifications of Lathe machine:Height of centres measured from bed :Swing dia over bed :Length between two centres :Swing dia over carriage :Max. bar diameter :Length of bed 17“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  18. 18. Drilling machine : It is one of the most important machine tools in a workshop. In thisworkshop both radial and piller drilling machines are used.Main parts of Drilling machine: 1. Base 2. Column 3. Radial arm 4. Drill head 5. Spindle speed and feed m/s Specifications of Drilling machine: Max. size of drill possible : Table diameter : Max. spindle travel : No. of spindle speeds : Feed available : Power input : Floor space reqd. : Net weight of machine : For specially Radial drilling machine Dia of column : Length of arm ; 18“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  19. 19. Milling machine : A milling machine is a machine tool used for the complex shaping of metaland other solid materials. Its basic form is that of a rotating cutter or endmill whichrotates about the spindle axis (similar to a drill), and a movable table to which theworkpiece is affixed. That is to say the cutting tool generally remains stationary(except for its rotation) while the workpiece moves to accomplish the cuttingaction. Milling machines may be operated manually or under computer numericalcontrol Milling machines can perform a vast number of complex operations, such asslot cutting, planing, drilling, rebating, routing, etc. Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting site to cool and lubricate the cut,and to sluice away the resulting swarf.Shaping machine : The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool intendedprimarily to produce flat surface. These surfaces may be horizontal,vertical or inclined. In general, the shaper can produce any surfacecomposed of straight line elements.Principal parts of shaper: 1. Base 2. Column 3. Crossrail 4. Saddle 5. Table 6. Ram 7. ToolheadSpecifications of shaping machine: 1. Max. length of stroke 2. Type of drive 3. Power input 4. Floor space 5. Weight m/c 6. Cutting to return stroke ratio 19“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  20. 20. Shaper mechanism : 1. Crank and slotted link m/s 2. Withworth quick returm m/s 3. Hydraulic shaper m/sWelding machine : welding is widely used by metalworkers in the fabrication, maintenance, andrepair of parts and structures. While there are many methods for joining metals,welding is one of the most convenient and rapid methods available. The termwelding refers to the process of joining metals by heating them to their meltingtemperature and causing the molten metal to flow together.Gas welding : One of the most popular welding methods uses a gas flame as a source ofheat. In the oxyfuel gas welding process, heat is produced by burning acombustible gas, such as MAPP (methylacetylene-propadiene)or acetylene, mixed with oxygen. Gas welding is widely used in maintenance andrepair work because of the ease in transporting oxygen and fuel cylinders.Arc welding : Arc welding is a process that uses an electric arc to join the metals beingwelded. A distinct advantage of arc welding over gas welding is the concentrationof heat. In gas welding the flame spreads over a large area, sometimes causing heatdistortion. The concentration of heat, characteristic of arc welding, is an advantagebecause less heat spread reduces buckling and warping. This heat concentrationalso increases the depth of penetration and speeds up the welding operation;therefore, you will find that arc welding is often more practical and economicalthan gas welding. 20“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  21. 21. Hydraulic power press : The hydraulic press is one of the oldest of the basic machine tools. In itsmodern form, is well adapted to presswork ranging from coining jewelry to forgingaircraft parts. Modern hydraulic presses are, in some cases, better suited toapplications where the mechanical press has been traditionally more popular. 21“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  22. 22. BOILER OR STEAM GENERATORSIntroduction : A boiler may be defined as a closed vessel in which steam isproduced from combustion of fuel.Areas of application :  In chemical industries.  In pharmaceutical industries.  Textile industries.  Sugar factory.  For generating power in steam turbine.Classification of Boiler : 1) Horizontal , vertical or inlined 2) Fire tube and water tube 3) Externally fired and Externally fired 4) Forced circulation and natural circulation 5) High pressure and low pressure boilers 6) Stationary and portable 7) Single tube and multi-tube boilersDifference between fire tube and water tube boilersSl. Fire tube boiler Water tube boilerNo1. The hot gases from the furnace The water circulates inside the tubes pass through the tubes which are which are surrounded by hot gasses surrounds by water. from the furnace2. It can generate steam pressure up ……….16.5 bar to 24.5 bar3. The rate of generation of steam is ………….450tonnes/hr 22“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  23. 23. low up to 9tonnes/hr4. The floor area required is more. …………. less.5. Overall efficiency is 75% ………… 75%6. Transportation and erection is …………easy difficult.7. It is prepared for fixed loads. …………Fluctuation loads8. Operating cost is low ……….high9. Bursting chances are less ……….more10. Not suitable for large plants Suitable……BOILER MOUNTINGS AND ACCESSORIESBoiler mountings : These are the fittings, which are mounted on the boilerfor the satisfactory functioning, efficient working, easy maintenance, and the safetyof the Boiler. 1. Water level indicator : It indicates the water level inside the boiler. 2. Pressure Gauges : Used to measure the pressure of the steam inside the boiler. 3. Safety Valve : It prevents the boiler from explosions due to excessive internal pressure of steam. 4. Steam Stop valve : It is used to control the flow of the steam from with in the boiler and to stop it completely when required. 23“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  24. 24. 5. Blow off Valve or cock : It is use to remove the sediments or mud deposited at the bottom of the boiler . 6. Feed check Valve : control the flow of water from the feed pump to the boiler and to prevent the back flow of water from boiler to pump.Boiler Accessories: The are required to improve the efficiency of steampower plant and to enable for the proper working of the boiler. These are notdirectly mounted on the boiler. 1. Economizer : Maximum amount of heat from the gases should be recovered before it escapes to the chimney. 2. Air pre-heater : Recovers the heat in the exhaust gases by heating the air supplied to the furnace of the boiler. 3. Super heater: Increase the temperature of the steam above saturation temperature. 4. Feed pump : It is used to force the feed water at high pressure into the boiler. 5. Steam separator : It is used to separate the water particles which decrease the economy and efficiency of steam turbines. 6. Stem Trap : It is used to drain off the condensed water accumulating in the steam pipelines. 24“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  25. 25. THERMAX BOILERType of boiler : Fire tube boilerCapacity : 3 tonChimney height : 37 mEfficiency : highWorking pressure : 10.5kg/cm2Working temperature : 180 oCFuel used : furnace oil , LPG NESTLER BOILERType of boiler : Fire tube boilerCapacity : 4 tonChimney height : 41 mEfficiency : lowWorking pressure : 10.5kg/cm2Working temperature : 180 oCWorking pressure : 10.5kg/cm2Working temperature : 180 OCFuel used : furnace oil , LPG 25“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  26. 26. BOILER MAINTENANCEWater level :  Low water controls are designed and installed to minimize overheating to boiler parts.  Low water cut-offs are designed to shutdown the burner equipment in the event the water level falls below a specific point.  Periodic draining and testing of the low water cut-off and gage glass will confirm reliability of these controls. Draining the water chamber of the low water cut-off removes sludge and sediment as well as simulating a low water condition to shutdown the burner.Pressure :  Steam gages let the operator know what pressure is in the boiler and steam system. Inaccurate or broken steam gages must be replaced.  Safety valves are designed to lift in the event the boiler pressure reaches the safety valve set point.  Properly set and operating safety valves will prevent a boiler from exploding due to an overpressure condition.Make -Up :  Feed water controls and water treatment programs are essential to boiler operation.  The make-up water and condensate return must be treated to remove scale and sludge producing elements.Scale :  Scale deposits adhering to waterside surfaces will insulate boiler steel and cause overheating.  Scale deposits will also cause the boiler to operate inefficiently by using more fuel to produce the steam your process requires, resulting in higher fuel costs. 26“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  27. 27. Cost :  Even if boiler insurance is available, the deductible will still account for expensive out-of-pocket costs.  Welded repairs and tube replacement are expensive and will include boiler and production downtime.  Having insurance may be of little comfort when your boiler is down and customers are waiting for service.  In addition, if you are trying to run a business, your customers or employees may not be too happy to hear that the system is down from minor maintenance oversights. 27“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  28. 28. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (E.T.P) Effluent Treatment Plants or ETPs are used by leading companies in thepharmaceutical and chemical industry to purify water and remove any toxic andnon effluent-treatment-plant toxic materials or chemicals from it. These plants areused by all companies for environment protection. An etp plant is a plant where thetreatment of industrial effluents and waste waters is done. Effluent treatment isbasically waste treatment.Importance of ETP Plants : The treatment of effluents in pharmaceutical industry is essential to preventpollution of the receiving water. The effluent water treatment plants are installed toreduce the possibility of pollution, biodegradable organics If left unsolved, thelevels of contamination in the process of purification could damage bacterialtreatment beds and lead to pollution of controlled waters.ETP Plants in Pharmaceutical Industry : The ETP plants are used widely in pharmaceutical industry to remove theeffluents from the bulk drugs. During the manufacturing process of drugs, variedeffluents and contaminants are produced. The effluent treatment plants are used inthe removal of high amount of organics, debris, dirt, grit, pollution, toxic, non toxicmaterials, polymers etc. from drugs and other medicated stuff. The ETP plants useevaporation and drying methods, and other auxiliary techniques such ascentrifuging, filtration, incineration for chemical processing and effluent treatment.Application of ETP Plants :  Pharmaceuticals  Chemicals  Water waste management systems  Leather industry and tanneries 28“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  29. 29. REVERSE OSMOSIS PLANTNeed :Scarcity of good quality water has increased our dependence on ground watersources. This brackish or saline water is unfit for drinking or for industrial useunless properly treated. Reverse osmosis, a membrane desalination processincreasingly used worldwide, purifies brackish water for drinking and industrialspurposes.Reverse osmosis membrane technology produces water with very low dissolvedsolids and which is also free from particulate, colloidal and organics matterFeatures :• Compact unit with robust mild steel powder coated frame .• Efficiently removes up to 95% of total dissolved solids (TDS) or salinity,producing water which is clear & pleasant to taste.• Range of models with capacities from 30 L/h up to 1000 L/h.• Built in safety features to protect high pressure pump & membranes.• Capable of handling waters with TDS levels between 1500 to 2500 ppmdepending on the model.• Fully assembled and tested before dispatch.• On-line device to monitor treated water quality.Operation : The raw water from over head tank is chlorinated for dis-infection and ispassed through a pressure sand filter to remove all suspended and turbid particleand through an activated carbon filter to remove any colour, sell excess then 29“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  30. 30. through softening plant for reduction of hardness. This process treated water isthen pumped through the R.O plant and PH is corrected to make potable.Advantages :•The most economical &efficient method of dissolved solids removal.• Easy to startup and uses very little space on solids in feed water.• Can handle fluctuations of total dissolved solids removal.• Easy availability of spares and service.• Short delivery periods.Applications :• Hygienic drinking water hotels ,restaurants, hospitals and residences.• Mineral water plants.• High purity water for hospital for use in dialysis units.• As a retrofit to de-mineralization’s plants in industries to reduce regenerationchemicals. 30“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  31. 31. AIR COMPRESSORS An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually from an electricmotor, a diesel engine or a gasoline engine) into kinetic energy by compressingand pressurizing air.Types of air compressor: 1. According to the design and principle of operation 1. Reciprocating compressor 2. Rotary screw compressor 2. According to the number of stages 1. Single stage compressor 2. Multi stage compressor 3. According to the pressure limits 1. Low pressure compressors 2. Medium pressure compressors 3. High pressure compressors 4. Super high pressure compressors 4. According to the capacity 1. Low capacity compressors 2. Medium capacity compressors 3. High capacity compressors 5. According to the method of cooling 1. Air cooled compressor 2. Water cooled compressorUses of Compressed air :  Operating tools in factories.  Operating drills and hammers.  For tunneling and milling.  Starting diesel engine.  Operating brakes on buses, trucks and trains.  In air conditioning system and ventilation 31“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  32. 32.  KIRLOSKAR PNEUMATIC CO. LTD, PUNE.Specifications : Model : TC200M SL.No : AB0592 Bore : 215.5mm Stroke : 190mm R.P.M : 525 Pressure : 7kg/cm2 Prime mover : 37kW F.A.D : 5.40 m3/min Capacity : 200 cfm  KHOSLA INDAIR LTD.Specifications : Type : VYDT Model : 10050 Capacity : 3.58 m3/min RPM : 800 Pressure : 7 kg/cm2 32“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  33. 33. KHOSLA air compressors model VYDT The compressor is a vertical, single cylinder , two stage , non lubricated ,water cooled machine. The differential type piston is designed such that air is compressed duringboth upward and downward stroke. The upper portion of piston dia 250mm acts aslow pressure piston whereas the bottom portion piston dia 210mm acts as highpressure piston. The piston is connected to the crankshaft through a piston rod, crosshead andconnecting rod. Air is sucked through suction filter and the suction valves in thecylinder during upward stroke and delivered through a water cooled intercoolerwhere is cooled near to ambient temperature. This air is sucked through suctionvalves in the bottom side of the cylinder during the upward stroke of the piston.Air is again compressed during the downward stroke and delivered to receiver tankthrough an after cooler 33“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  34. 34. Constructional Parts : 1. Frame : Made up of cast iron ,for maintaining accurate alignment of machine. 2. Crankshaft : This runs on white metal bearings and fitted with two counter weights for balancing all revolving masses. 3. Connecting rod : This connects crankshaft and piston. This helps to transmit power from crankshaft to piston. 4. Cross head and Cross head guide : For to provide maximum life to the piston rod and its packing. 5. Cylinder : Made of graded cast iron , is fitted one end with detachable cylinder head provided water jackets for efficient cooling . 6. Piston : Made of aluminum having low inertia. This is fitted with Teflon sealing rings and bearing rings. 7. Piston rod and gland packing : Made of forged steel chrome plated are fitted to have a wear resistance, gland packing are provided to seal the leakage of compressed air gas. 8. Valves : Alloy steel plate type valves with lift and large flow area are provided for longer life. Suction valve is sucks the air from atmosphere . Delivery valve is delivers the compressed air to the receiver. 9. Intercooler : mounted by side of the cylinder flanges and having copper tubes and water circulated outside the tubes. Thus effectively reduce the temperature of compressed air.Lubrication system :  Main parts are like bearings, big end and small end of connecting rod and guide are lubricated under by gear  Piston and cylinder are self lubricated as they are fitted teflon rings  Pressure should be always 1.5 to 2.0 kg/cm2. 34“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  35. 35. Recommended grades of Lub.oil  Servo System 121  Bharat turgona 30  Bharat Cabol 41  Stadela 30  Caltex algol oilWater Cooling systems :There are three arrangements for water cooling system. They are 1. Waste water cooling circuit. 2. Closed circuit with atmosphere cooling tank for discharge water pump to supply forced feed water 3. Closed circuit cooling system with an over head tank placed at height of minimum 8m for gravity feed and water pump with a float switch for pump control. Provision should be made for a tap in all cases for draining the cylinders where there is a risk of freezing.Quantity of water required : 30 liters per minMaintenance 1. Filtered air and good quality of oil should be used. 2. Hot Soap or potassium solution for the air circuit cleaning should be used. 3. Anticorrosive chemical solution should be used for removal scale formation. 4. Maintenance schedule for Khosla Air Compressor DAILY 1. Check oil level in crankcase and fill if necessary 2. Drain moisture from the air receiver . 3. Drain moisture from the moisture tap. 4. Drain moisture oil from Intercooler ,auxiliary air receiver. 35“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  36. 36. 5. Drain moisture from aftercooler , if provided. 6. Safety valves to be checked by manual operation. 7. Check the lub.oil pressure after starting. 8. Check pressure regulator functioning. EVERY 250 HOURS 1. Clean air suction filter element with compressed oil. 2. Check the V-belts tensions and adjust. 3. Clean the moisture trap felt element. 4. Check that safety valve blows at correct pressure. 5. Clean the Air filters on piston guide. EVERY 500 HOURS 1. Clean the suction filter element. 2. Check and clean pressure regulator. 3. Check safety valve setting. 4. Clean the moisture trap felt element. 5. Clean the air filters on piston guide. EVERY 1000 HOURS 1. Carry out servicing due at 250 and 500hrs 2. Clean the suction and delivery valve. check and replace the worn out parts. 3. Check and decompressor piston. 4. Open the inspection cover of cylinder water jackets and check for sludge and scale formation and clean if necessary. 5. Clean automatic moisture trap if provided. 6. Replace the filters on the piston guide For more maintenance procedure refer the user maintenance manual provided by manufacturer. 36“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  37. 37. Compressor AccessoriesNon return valves : 1. Stop valve : for unidirectional flow of air this valve is used. It is located between compressor delivery pipe and inlet pipe of receiver . Function: It prevents back pressure due to high pressure of air in receiver 2. Safety valve : It is mounted on the receiver which blows off the air when the pressure exceeds preset value Function : saves the unit from bursting or damaging. 3. Suction silencer : It is fitted on air intake pipe. Function: To damp the noise developed due to vibrations in sucked air 4. After cooler : To reduce temperature and contamination of the delivered air. 5. Moisture separator : To separate the moisture from delivered air. This device is put next to aftercooler. 6. Receiver : To store the compressed air . 7. Low water pressure safety switch : If the water pressure falls below the pre-determined , it stops the prime mover. This prevents the overheating. A alarm also connected electrically to sound as soos as . 8. Low oil pressure safety switch : If the oil pressure falls below the pre determined ,it stops the prime mover , it stops the prime mover. This prevents the overheating. A alarm also connected electrically to sound as soos as . 37“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  38. 38. DIESEL GENERATORS A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy. Diesel engine provides the most economical means of generating electricity.Area of application :  Used in places without connection to the power grid.  As emergency power-supply if the grid fails.  For more complex applications such as peak-lopping.Generator size: Generator size are indicated by load carrying capacity as in terms of kW orkVA. Generator size are vary from 8kW(11kVA) to 2000kW (2500kVA,threephase) 38“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  39. 39. General layout of diesel generator :General parts of Diesel Engine :1. Cylinder 2. Cylinder head Piston3. Piston 4. Piston rings5. Gudgeon pin 6. Connecting rod7. Crank 8. Crankshaft9. Engine bearing 10. Crank case11. Flywheel 12. Governor13. Valves and valve operating mechanism14. Fuel pump 15. Fuel injector 39“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  40. 40. Maintenance :Preventive maintenance :---Because of the durability of diesel engines, most maintenance is preventive innature. Preventive diesel engine maintenance consists of the following operations:• General inspection• Lubrication service• Cooling system service• Fuel system service• Servicing and testing starting batteries• Regular engine exerciseGeneral inspection :Exhaust system : Inspect the entire exhaust system including theexhaust manifold, muffler and exhaust pipe. Checkfor leaks at all connections, welds, gaskets andjoints, Repair anyleaks immediately.Fuel system : Inspect the fuel supply lines, return lines, filters andfittings for cracks or abrasions. Repair any leaks or alter linerouting to eliminate wear immediately.DC electrical system: Check the terminals on thestarting batteries for clean and tight connections.Loose or corroded connections create resistancewhich can hinder starting.Engine: Monitor fluid levels, oil pressure and coolanttemperatures frequently. Look and listen for changes inengine performance, sound, or appearance that willindicate that service or repair is needed. Be alert formisfires, vibration, excessive exhaust smoke, loss ofpower or increases in oil or fuel consumption. 40“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  41. 41. Lubrication service : Check the engine oil level when the engine is shut down.Keep the oil level as near as possible to the “full” markon the dipstick by adding the same quality and brand of oil.Cooling system service : Check the coolant level during shutdown periods.Remove the radiator cap after allowing the engine to cool and, if necessary, addcoolant until the level is about 3/4-inch below the radiator cap lower sealingsurface. Use a coolant solution as recommended by the engine manufacturer.Fuel system service : The charge-air piping and hoses should be inspected dailyfor leaks, holes, cracks or loose connections. Tighten the hose clamps as necessary.Also, inspect the charge-air cooler for dirt and debris that may be blocking the fins.Check for cracks, holes or otherdamage.Conclusion :Preventive maintenance for diesel engine generators plays a critical role inmaximizing reliability, minimizing repairs and reducing long term costs. 41“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  42. 42. Part – C(Production Departments) 42“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  43. 43. CONDOM PLANTPRIMARY PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT In this section the production is based on the Japanese technology withthe technical collaboration of M/s. OKAMOTO RIKEN GOMU CO. LTD.,Japan for manufacturing. The production/manufacturing involves three process.  Compounding  Moulding  Valcunizing In the compounding process the chemical dispersion is prepared using ballmill/attritor mill. After mixing the chemicals will be supplied through supply tankto the molding section. In molding dipping process is done and after undergoingseveral process like folding and washing the product pass on to the vulcanizingprocess. After the vulcanizing only we get the final product. All these process aredone through automatic machines. If automatic machines fails manual vulcanizing process is done. After theprocess the product may goes to the half product quality assurance departmentHighest production : 0.8462mpcs on 24/11/2011Lowest inspection rejection : 1.96mpcs on 26/09/2011 43“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  44. 44. Products of HLL Lifecare Limited :Popular brands which are produced by HLLNirodh – free supplyNirodh – New lubricatedDeluxeSuper deluxeSawanMastiBlissMoodsRakshakShareNymphUstadSparshPick-meCompany also export condoms to Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kenya, USA,Mauritius & Oman 44“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  45. 45. Introduction to the department : It is key dept. having compounding moulding and vulcanization as subsection of dept. Actual production of condoms up to half product stage ismanufactured Controlling officer Asst. G.M (primary) is responsible for allactivities pertaining to the dept.Strength of sectionJunior officers 02Supervisors 03Grade IV 17Grade I/II 06Grade I.D scale 11 45“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  46. 46. Inter-relation with other departments :Mechanical Engineering dept. -For various maintenance of machine pertaining to mechanical section.Electrical Engineering dept. - For various maintenance of machine pertaining to electrical section.Quality Control Lab dept -For getting feed back quality of product.Human Recourse dept. -For imparting training to employees in respect of SHEMS and QMS.Stores dept. -To know the latest position of Chemical.Purchase dept. -To know the emergency materials.Accounts dept. -For getting budget approval and Writing off materials.P.P.C dept. -For production planning.Safety dept. -For monitoring work environment and Employees safety.Quality Assurance dept. -For implementing and verifying the Predefined standards.First Aid -For getting first aid for injured employee at primary dept. 46“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  47. 47. Flow chart of primary department : Compounding & mixing tank ↓ Supply tank ↓ Dipping tank ↓ Drying & Pre-vulcanization ↓ Beading Edge Rolling Unit ↓ Pre-vulcanization Drying Unit ↓ Swelling Bath ↓ Anti-Sticking Bath Unit ↓ Stripping of dried condoms ↓ (Empty mould washing unit &re-circulation for dipping of empty moulds)Automatic vulcanizing of condoms 47“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  48. 48. Transfer of Raw latex & compounding , moulding & vulcanizingchemicals from stores : e Through IMIS material are obtained. Drum Trolley, Platform trolleyequipments are used for transportation of material from stores.Preparation of Dispersion solution :Purpose : To supply dispersion solution for compoundingProcedure :1. Check the ball weights periodically it should be 120kg ±5 for Porcelain balls & 200kg ±5 for Zirconium balls. 2. Add 25±1 liters of 1% ammonia in Attritor mill & then switched on the Attritor mill & kept run for 8hr. 3. After completion of milling time it should be stopped. 4. Check the settling time of dispersion. 5. If settling time is less than 190sec, then Attritor mill can be operated another half an hour. 6. Repeat this until settling time reaches above 190sec. 7. Then unload the Dispersion from Attritor mill. 8. Weights of balls should be checked once in two months.Preparation of 3% to 5% Liquid Ammonia :Purpose : To supply 3 to 5% ammonia solution for compounding, moulding & vulcanizing.Material and Equipment required : Ammonia absorption unitProcedure : connect ammonia cylinder to the absorption unit & adjust the flow rate of gas & water for getting required output.Preparation of 1% to 2% Liquid Ammonia :Purpose : To supply for compounding sectionMaterial and Equipment required : Preparation tankProcedure : 1. Cleaning tanks 2. Pumping 6 barrels of raw latex having 194 ±2kg of each. 3. Adjust required rpm 25±5 & switch on agitator in mixing tank. 4. Add 10% Casein to mixing tank as per PHR & 10±0.5 liters. 48“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  49. 49. 5. Wait for 10 minutes. 6. add set sit/ pilcure solution as per PHR diluted with 1% ammonia 10±0.5 liters 1% ammonia. 7. Wait for 10 minutes. 8. Add Nocceler TP/Robac SDBC as per PHR 1.4±0.11kg diluted to liters of 1% ammonia. 9. Wait for 30 minutes. 10. Pumping mixed dispersion dilution with 1% ammonia solution 45±0.5 liters. 11. Add 1% ammonia solution 28±0.5liters. 12. Stop agitator & adjust agitator speed for 15±5 rpm then start agitator for 2hr. 13. Set temperature 56±2oC & start the heat for required duration by opening steam valve. 14. After required duration heating stop the steam valve & open the process cool this mixture to room temperature. 15. Sending of sample to lab for skin material test. 16. Compounding latex which is being as per specification to be transferred to the supply tank for maturation. After maturation this will be required to supply to dipping tank for moulding purpose. 17. checking of cure of supply tanks before supply to dipping tanks. 18. supply of compounded latex to moulding section for dipping .Preparation of Casein solution :Purpose : To supply 10% Casein solution for compounding process.Material and equipment : Steel bucket, weighing balanceProcedure : 1. Weight 10% of required quantity of Casein powder in a container & mix with 80% of required quantity of lukewarm soft water. 2. Add 10% of required quantity of 3 to 5% NH4 solution & stir well 49“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  50. 50. Procedure to adjust TS & Viscosity of Compound latex :Purpose : To adjust parameter of compounded latex within range.Procedure : 1. If viscosity & TS of compounded latex found to be more than limit , it has to be adjusted by adding 1% to 2% NH4 2. If viscosity & TS of compounded latex found to be less the limit, then it has to be adjusted by adding compounded +latex of TS 55 /-2%.Pink pigment preparation for moulding pink condoms :Purpose : To adjust colour of latex to pink for the moulding of pink CondomsMaterial & equipment required : weighing balanceProcedure : 1. Pink is arrived by adding red & violet paste. 2. For 100kgs DRC compounded latex Red-FP 551-50 gms & mixed with violet FP 591-14 gms.Moulding and vulcanizing condoms :Purpose : To manufacture of latex condoms.Material and equipment : Moulding machine , vulcanizing machine, chemical dozing pump, weighing balance, image printerprocedure : 1. Before starting of machine check the required parameter. a) dipping temperature b) level of latex in the range of 160 to 165 mm before dipping. c) drying temperature d) Beading unit e) Swelling tank f) Antisticking bath 2. Test the cure of concerned supply tank. If cure is not ok adjust the cure or over cure latex to required cure. 3. Check the dipping tank latex cure chloroform test & adjust the cure if required. 4. Dip the moulds in dipping tank as per the validated chain speed 50“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  51. 51. & depending upon the drying conditions and output required. 5. Ensure the identification mark on the condoms after first dip, the identification mark first digit indicates name of manufacturer, second digit indicates year of manufacture, third digit indicates scheme of product. 6. Check the drying of condoms in drying chamber & condoms before entering for second dipping & adjust the conditions as per required drying & specification. 7. Adjust edge roll formation on the glass mould to required specification after getting feed back from QC dept. 8. Check the pre-vulcanization temperature as per specification. 9. Check the proper swelling of condoms in stripping area. 10. Check the % of NH4 in swelling tank. 11. Check the condition of anti-sticking bath. 12. & replenish the tank with the anti-sticker as per norms. 13. Stripping of swelled condoms with the help of silica slurry pump in stripping unit. 14. Check the water rinsing of stripped moulds. 15. Washing of stripped glass tank with soap solution & replenishing the washing tank with soap solution as per norms. 16. Check the proper functioning of washing brushes . 17. Dipping of fresh moulds after cooling. 18. Adjust the steam soaking inside the dipping room in range of 0.2 to 2.00 kg/cm2 51“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  52. 52. Stopping procedure of moulding machine at the time scheduledclarification, annual maintenance, process problems, mechanical/electrical breakdown & holiday : 1. Switch of all drying & vulcanizing heaters & blowers. 2. After 10 min close the valve of latex supply to dipping tank. 3. Close the steam –soaking valve. 4. Take dipping tank down. 5. Cover the dipping tank with PVC plastic cover if latex withdrawal is late. 6. Strip single dip condom by water at waste strip unit. 7. Switch off the beading unit. 8. Stop the slurry pump. 9. Drain anti=sticking bath 10.Take the swelling tank down & drain the NH3 11.Switch off the air cleaning unit. 12.Close the particular steam valve at steam header. 13.Take over the latex from dipping tank for filtering / centrifuging. 14.After withdrawal of compounded latex clean the dipping tank thoroughly with water, sponge /cloth. 15.Clean the inside channel of dipping tank with the help of rope & plug. 16.Incase of delay in the withdrawal of compounded latex / to start process the dipping temperature should be maintained less than 20oC. 17.Switch off the chain conveyor movement after stripping all single dipped condoms. 18.Switch off the washing unit. 19.Switch off the hot water pump. 20.Switch off the recycle water pump. 52“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  53. 53. Procedure for scheduled clarification :Purpose : To keep machine performance good.Procedure : 1. Clarification shall be taken twice in month for individual machine. 2. Stopping the machine as per schedule & allotting the required works to the concerned workmen. 3. Chalking work list & communicating with engineering dept. 4. Monitoring & completion of work & giving clean chit to engineering dept.Procedure for Annual Clarification :Purpose : To keep the machine in good condition.Procedure : 1. Annual clarification or preventive maintenance is to be taken once in two years for individual machine. 2. Chalking of work list & communicating to engineering dept. 3. Monitoring the work & completion of work as per schedule.Corrective action for defects :Purpose : To check the HP rejection.Nature of defects. 1. Inside sticking 2. Twisted edge roll & bad edge roll 3. Lip cut 4. High JIS rate (Japanese Industries Standard) 5. Weak spot 6. Wrinkle 7. High body thickness 8. Low length 9. Bump 53“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  54. 54. Procedure : 1. For inside sticking check the concentrated of slurry & maintain it as per working parameter. Check the cure of dipping latex. check the dozing of NH3 in swelling tank. Check the foam formation in slurry pit. 2. For twisted edge roll & bad edge roll. Check the cure of dipping latex & adjust to slight under to correct cure if required. Check the drying condition & keep required temperature. Check the level of dipping & adjust if required. 3. For lip cut defects ,check the drying condition and maintain temperature. Check the cure of dipping latex and adjust to correct cure or slight under cure ,check the thickness of edge roll & adjust as required. Reduce the chain speed looking at drying condition. 4. For high JIS rate (water leakage) or low resistance, check the contamination of dipping latex due to silica falling on it from chain. Check proper drying of dipping moulds. Check the proper alignment of slurry jet. Check the proper mould washing. Check foreign particles in dipping & swelling tank. Check mould collision due to improper tension of chain. 5. For defects like wrinkle ,check the conc. Of swelling bath & add 3 to 5% NH3 if required. Check slurry conc. Shall be 2.5 % to 7%. 6. For high body thickness ,add required quantity of 1% or 2% ammonia in dipping tank latex. Adjust the chain speed & soaking to be maintained. 7. For Bump defects, check the looseness of chain, adjust the position of sprocket, check the correct mounting of moulds -retighten the moulds, check latex coagulation touching the moulds, clean the dipping tank wall & remove coagulum. 54“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  55. 55. Vulcanization process :The reaction between rubber and sulphur is known as vulcanization.Matt & equipment required : vulcanizing machine, dust collector, slurry pump, moisture balance.Procedure : 1. Prepare the slurry and maintain slurry total solid as per validated parameter in slurry pit, check the slurry total solid twice in a shift. 2. Collection of condoms for vulcanization to mesh barrel with the help of pneumatic pipeline. 3. Setting of vulcanization temperature as per norms. 4. collect the dust from dust collector min twice in week & Dumped to waste silica sludge pit.Manual vulcanization process :Procedure. 1. This activity is to be done when automatic vulcanization machine is under breakdown or under observation. 2. Set the vulcanization temperature as per norms & transfer the condoms to vulcanization chamber. 3. Vulcanize the condoms for 30 to 45 minutes. 4. Transfer the vulcanized lots to quenching barrel for quenching the product. 5. Transfer the quenched condoms to HP section for quality check. Operators has ensure the gloves & mask during handling. 55“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  56. 56. Working standard parameters & standard norms of consumingchemicals : Working parametersCompounding section :Pre-vulcanization time : 10 to 18 hrsPre-vulcanization temp : 50 to 58oCAttritor mill time : 6 to 10 hrsSize of porcelain/zirconium balls in attritor mill : 4mm to 8mmAmmonia conc.for praperation : 3 to 5 %Maturation of compounded latex : 50 to 120 hrsDispersion solution setting time : above 190 secMoulding section :Chain speed : 7.5 to 11.50 m/minDipping tank latex temp. : 27 to 31oCHot air fan temp : 130 to 152 oCHot air blower speed : 800 to 1300 rpmTemp first drying booth : 65 to 120 oCTemp after in edge roll : 65 to 110 oCConc. Of ammonia in swelling bath : 1 to 5 %Temp of swelling bath : 25 to 50 oCTemp of washing bath : 30 to 50 oCTemp of hot water : 70 to 90 oCHCL for mould cleaning : 20±5 litersHydro fluoride : 20±5 litersVulcanization section :temp of hot air supply :units to dehydrator : 90 to 150 oCvulcanization temp : 75 to 100 oCmanual vulcanization : 75 to 100 oCconc. of slurry : 3 to 7 % 56“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  57. 57. Working norms for the consumption of chemicals :Items norms kgs/mpcsRaw latex 2184Ammonia 150Sulphur 20Zinc oxide 13Nocceler TP/SDBC 2.89Anti-oxidant 0.7Darvan-I 0.67Darvan-II 0.67Tamol 0.2Casein 1.60Pigment paste red 1.00 for pink condomsPigment paste violet 0.3 ---------------------Pigment paste 1.5 for violet condomsPigment paste blue 1.5 for violet condomsPigment paste green 2.5 for violet condomsPigment paste orange 2.00 for violet condomsMoulding & vulcanization :Items norms kgs/mpcsAnti-sticking agent 35Silica 175De-foaming agents 22Washing agents 03Latex skin controlled parameters :For mixing tank latex :Viscosity :24 to 40 centipoiseTS :53 to 57%MST :190 to 1500 secHST :635 to 900 secFor supply tank :Viscosity :17 to 24 centipoiseTS :49 to 53%HST :635 to 900 secCompounding ratio : parts per hundred ratio 57“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  58. 58. For preparation of dispersion :Sulphur : 1.50Zinc oxide : 0.90Anti-oxidant : 0.50Darvan-I : 0.045Darvan–II : 0.045Tamol : 0.01410% casein soln : 0.128For compounding raw latex :Raw latex : 1001 to 2 % ammonia solution : 0.14710% casein solution : 0.02 to 0.1Set sit / pilcure : 0.50Nocculer TP/SDBC : 0.20Dispersion : as aboveRatio of colour pigment :Green : 160gm/100 rubberOrange : 125gm/100 rubberViolet : 100gm/100 rubberBlue : 100gm/100 rubberPink : 64gm/100 rubberSalvaging process :Procedure : 1. Allotment of lot to be salvaged to the employee who is going tosalvage.2. Salvaging of condoms by given employee as per training given to him.3. Entering data of salvaged condoms of good and bad in the format provided &giving lot for QC to check as per standards.4. If lot is rejected there by after salvaging by QC, the lot is re-salvaged & given toQC unit until it is passed in all defects.5. If lot is rejected due to ERM specification separate identify shall be maintain forinspection of lot with high voltage. Red colour bags shall be used instead of blackbag for continual improveness. 58“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  59. 59. Standard operating procedure for ink jet printers :Purpose : To operate printer in systematic way.Procedure :1. Switch on power supply to printer.2. Switch on printer.3. Create & select message to be printed on the condoms.4. Start printing on the single dipped condoms.5. Stop the printing when there is no condom on moulds. 59“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  60. 60. OCP PLANTThe manufacturing process for to make tablets.Granulation : A granulation is the formation of small agglomerates called“granules”. Each granule will contain a proper mix of the ingredients of theformula. Density of the granules can be control by the amount of liquid bindingsolution and the mechanical energy created by the type of machine used. Themachines used to blend powders and add liquid are called “granulators”. Somegranulators have the ability to dry the excess moisture. Many granulators do not have the ability to dry the wet massed granulation;therefore the wet granulation must be moved to the next unit operation which iscalled Drying. The Dry Granulation method uses mechanical force to densify andcompact powders together which forms dry granules . The final goal is to make a quality tablet with the following attributes:▪ Good Weight Control▪ Good Thickness Control▪ Good Hardness Control▪ Good Ejection▪ No Capping▪ No Lamination▪ No Sticking▪ Good Friability▪ Good Disintegration▪ Good DissolutionWhy Granulation ?  To improve powder flow.  To improve compressibility.  To reduce fines.  To control the tendency of powders to segregate.  To control density. 60“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  61. 61. Milling : Milling equipment is used to Improve flow, reduce segregation,enhance drying, and limit wide particle size distribution. Milling machinery used in the preparation of tablet & capsule formulationscan be categorized as to their mechanical energy; Low, Medium or High energymills will impart a force on the powders called shear force. Therefore, millingmachinery is defined by Low, Medium and High shear applications.Tablet Compression : While an experienced operator can take a marginal granulationand make a good quality tablet, an inexperienced operator will be unable toproduce a quality tablet. The final granulation to be compressed must have threebasic characteristics, all of which are critical: Flow, Compress and Eject .A tabletpress can be fully automated to the point that it can be operated in a lights outoperation.Tablet weight control : Having consistent flow of a granulation provides the needed avenues tocontrol tablet weights. Consistent tablet weight will result inrepeatable tablet hardness. Tablet hardness is a function of tablet thickness andtablet weight.Tablet Coating : Once a good tablet is made, we often need to add a coating.The coating can serve many purposes; it makes the tablet stronger and tougher, improves taste,adds color, and makes the tablet easy tohandle and package. The coating can be a thick sugar based coating or a very thin film. Mostpharmaceutical tablets are coated with a thin film coating. This coating is sprayed as a solution (amixture of solids in a liquid). Tablets must be tough enough to tumble while the solution isadded. The solution is distributed from tablet to tablet during the tumbling and drying process.The spraying, distribution anddrying all takes place at the same time.Coating Equipment : Tablet coating equipment combines several technologies and is commonlyreferred to as a coating system. This system consists of the coating pan, spraying 61“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  62. 62. system, air handling unit, dust collector and controls. The coating pan is really adrum within a cabinet, allowingfor control of air flow, air temperature and controlled solution application. Thespraying system consists of spraying guns, a solutionpump, tank & mixer and air lines. The solution is pumped into the guns and the aircombines with the solution for atomization into a very finemist. The air handling unit (AHU) is basically a way of heating and filtering theair. Dehumidification and/or humidification maybe be needed depending on yourlocation and application requirements. The Dust Collector collects the dust duringthe preheat and tumbling cycles and the Controls connect all of the componentscreating a complete coating system.Coating process :Tablets are loaded into the coating pan, creating a bed of tablets. There must beenough tablets to attain good mixing, but not too many or the tablets will spillwhen the door is opened. Consistent batch sizes are important to attain consistentresults. The tablet bed is tumbled slowly, as the warm air is introduced; the dustcollector pulls the dust off the tablets and into a collection bin. When the tablet bedtemperature reaches the proper temperature the spraying can begin. Once tabletshave an initial base coating the spray rate can be increased. The controls aremonitored by the operator or computer, recording data frequently. Tabletdefects can occur if the temperature, spray rate and air volume are allowed tofluctuate.Common tablet defects :  Weight variation  Friability variation  Picking & Sticking  Capping  Laminating  Chipping  Mottled  Double pressingPackaging Training : Commonly for packing Blister packing machines areused. Blister packing machine was formulated a few years later. The mostimportant reason for introducing blister packaging technology was to offer patients 62“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  63. 63. a clearly marked individual dose, enabling them to check whether they had takenthe prescribed drugs on a given day Moreover, the drugs that were not takenremained in the original package and were fully protected against adverse externalconditions. The patient could handle the blister package more easily and couldstore it more conveniently than conventional packages. It is easierto prove misuse with blister packaging than with conventional packaging. Thus,blister packages effectively meet the demand for tamper-evident packaging.Blister packaging components :The four basic components of pharmaceutical blister packages are the formingfilm, the lidding material, the heat-seal coating, and the printing ink. The forming film is the packaging component that receives the product indeepdrawn pockets. Plastic forming films such as PVC, polypropylene (PP), andpolyester (PET) can be thermoformed,but support materials containing aluminum are cold-formed. The lidding material provides the base or main structural component uponwhich the final blister package is built. The surfaceof the lidding material must be compatible with the heat-seal coating process. Heat-seal coatings provide a bond between the plastic blister and the printedlidding material. Printing inks provide graphics and aesthetic appeal. They can be applied tothe lidding material by letterpress, gravure, offset,flexographic, or silk-screen printingprocesses.Blister packaging machinery : The sequence involves heating the plastic, thermoforming it intoblister cavities, loading the blister with the product, placing lidding material overthe blister, and heat-sealing the package. This can be partially or fully automated.Capacity of machine : At 60 r.p.m , the cutting stroke blister packing machine is4strips per operating person 63“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  64. 64. BULK DRUG UNIT (B.D.U) This unit consists of reactors for stirring different acids or chemicals with steamfor obtaining chemical substance for various tablet production in steroidal or nonsteroidal plantProduct Name : Centchroman HCLGeneric name : Ormanloxifen HCLManufacturing process stagesStage 1 : Substitution reactionStage 2 : Freidel crafts & condensation reactionStage 3 : Demethylisation ReactionStage 4 : condensation reactionStage 5 : Grindnard reactionStage 6 : Hydrogen reactionStage 7 : Condensation & Isomerisation reactionStage 8 : Finished product acidificationStage 9 : centchroman HCL  Production of Centchroman Bulk Durg, which has annual production capacity of 1,000 kilograms.There are three main type of reactors : 64“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  65. 65. 1. Poly-propene (PP reactor) : To stir the acid with steams 2. Glassline reactor (GL reactor) : For final acidification process 3. Stainless steel (SS reactor. Each having a capacity of 2000liters and working pressure ranges between 1 to 1.8 kg/cm2Mechanical Utilities :Chiller unit : It supplies chilled water for reactors for various reactions.Raw water line : It supplies water to reactors if needed.Hot water line : It supplies hot water to reactorsDe mineralized water line : It supplies purified water if needed.Steam line : It supplies steam from boiler house to reactorsCompressed air : For various purposesAir Blowers : To suck the fumes and neutralize it.Vacuum pump : To suck the chemicals and then passed the reactors where it needed for process.Scrubber : To suck the chemicals and then passed the reactorsPulverizer : For milling powder lumps.Centrifuge : To separate solid from liquids.Tray drier : For drying wet granules of powder.Hydrogen Tank : It stores the hydrogen having capacity of 1200 liters. 65“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  66. 66. SANITARY NAPKIN PLANT (S.N.P)Scope of Plant :To address the menstrual hygiene needs of the adolescent girls of the country, theMinistry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi, has launched aprogramme to supply Sanitary Napkins in the brand name of Freedays atSubsidized rates.Plant Profile :The new plant was inaugurated on 23 April 2012 by Shri. M. Ayyappan, C&MD,HLL Lifecare Limited. The production starts from 1 May 2012 and the plant hasyearly 180 M.pcs of napkins production capacity. Daily approximately 4.5 lacks ofnapkins are going to produced in this plant. Till today 37 batches are produced. Inone batch there is 1.5 M.pcs napkins are produced.Products of Plant : Free days –for govt. of India Puthuyugam –for Tamilnadu govt.Raw material required :  Glue polytransparent release paper  Glue polytransparent construction  Roll fluff pulp  release paper width 50mm  Tissue paper width 155mm  Non-wooden sheath width 110mm  Pouches four colour print  master carton to pack 160 sanitary napkins  LDPE back sheath width 110mm 66“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical
  67. 67. Quality Control Procedure : during inprocess & finished products.  Core length : 204mm (210±10mm)  Core width : 69mm (60-75mm)  Thickness : 8.5mm(7-10)  Weight by weighing balance (7.5 to 10gm)  PH value by PH meter (6 to 8.5)  Absorbency not less than 20mlMachine description :Machine manufacturer Name : Fujian Peixin machine manufacturer industry coltd. Chaina.The machine following main units. They are as follows 1. Pulveriser 2. Web wheel 3. Tissue paper splicing unit 4. Core cutting unit 5. Glue spraying unit (non –wooven) 6. Round sealing unit 7. Release paper cutting & positioning unit 8. Round cutting unit 9. Wing release paper cutting positioning 10. Belt conveyorThe machine fully automatic with servo control. It has capacity of 400-450 napkinproducing capacity in one minute. It has 130 kw power consumption capacity.Packing department : This is done manually. It includes printedpouches, napkins, cartons. In one pouch there are 6 napkins are packed.160 pouches are packed in one master carton box 67“Industrial Inplant Training” by Shreenath Metri BE IV Mechanical