"Prevalence and factors associated
with Methicillin Resistant
Staphylococcus aureus among Patients
with surgery visiting H...
INTRODUCTION: 
Rationale and Justification:
Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become a major
problem in many cou...
Methicillin (to treat penicillin resistance) also faced
resistance within 1 year
The first documented United States outb...
Nepal is lacking regulation regarding the use of antibiotics
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics without proven
susceptibi...
Research Questions
What is prevalence of MRSA in patients with surgery
visiting Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal?
Wh...
Objectives
To determine the prevalence of MRSA in surgical patients
at Hospital of Kathmandu Valley.
To analyze factors ...
Hypothesis
There are associations between Age, Gender, Antibiotics
use , Duration of stay at hospital, Types of disease o...
Conceptual Framework
Independent Variables Dependent Variables
• Age
• Gender
• Antibiotics use
• Duration of stay at hosp...
Literature Review
In USA approximately 60 % of all Staphylococcal
infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) found with
...
Literature review(Cont.)
The UK saw the greatest percentage increase, from
30.5% in 1999 to 44.5% in 2002.
Slovenia was ...
Cont.
 The prevalence of MRSA in Western Europe and the US
is equivalent, with the carriage rate in the UK, Ireland,
Fran...
Methodology
Study design:
A hospital based cross-sectional analytic study of surgical patients
visiting Hospitals of Kathm...
Inclusion and Exclusion
criteria
a) Inclusion:
Surgical Patients with all infections with result of culture of
bacteria.
...
Data collection
The data were collected from the hospital record
Research instrument:
The charts of the patients history...
Stastistics Used:
Descriptive: Percentage, proportion,frequency
Inferential: Chi square ,95% CI and odd ratio for
associ...
Results : General
CharacteristicsAmong 797 surgical patients, the maximum age was 88
years and the minimum age was under ...
Results (Cont.)
55.8% of patients were from IPD and remaining from
OPD.
Among the studied participants only13.0% were
ho...
Results (Cont.)
Out of 797 patients 79 patients were found to have
MRSA with prevalence of MRSA 9.9% among total
surgical...
Results: Prevalence
Age Group
Age Group(Years)
Total
Cases
MRSA
cases Prevalence
1-15 123 16 13.0
16-30 326 21 6.4
31-45 ...
Results: Prevalence (Cont.)
Seasonal Variation Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence
Spring 161 14 8.7
Summer 226 21 9.3
Monso...
Results: Prevalence (Cont.)
Days of Hospitalization Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence
No Hospitalization 352 34 9.7
< 5 da...
Results: Prevalence (Cont.)
Department Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence
IPD 445 45 10.1
OPD 352 34 9.7
Total 797 79 9.9
H...
Male carried maximum carrier rate. The factors
responsible may be as their active life, chances of more
contact with othe...
Patients Diagnostic Diseases:
Patients diagnostic Disease Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence
Trauma 319 31 9.7
Bacterimia ...
Association of Variables:
Factors MRSA(79)
Non-
MRSA(718)
OR
95% CI
P
Lower Upper
Age Senior Citizen 6 44 2.08 0.79 5.48 ....
Season Spring 14 147 0.87 0.38 1.99 0.73
Summer 21 205 0.93 0.43 2.01 0.86
Monsoon 17 134 1.15 0.52 2.57 0.72
Early Autumn...
Patients Diagnostic Disease
D isease Traum a 31 288 0.97 0.38 2.49 0.98
B acterim ia 12 107 0.96 0.30 3.12 0.87
Skin Infec...
It seemed that the MRSA should be responsible for the
skin infection most commonly, however the percentage
of MRSA isolat...
Resistant Pattern of
Antibiotics
Antibiotics Resistant Sensitive
Total Antibiotics
used
% of
Resistant
Oxacillin 79 0 79 1...
Multiple Drug resistant Pattern of
Antibiotics among MRSA patients
The antibiotics used for diagnosis of MRSA were
catego...
Multiple Drug resistant Pattern of
Antibiotics among MRSA patients (Cont.)
7. Carbapenems (imipenum, meropenum)
8. Others(...
Conclusion:
From this study, it could be concluded that the infection
rate of MRSA was higher in higher age group patient...
Conclusion (Cont.)
The resistant to antibiotics shows higher resistant to
oxacillin, methicillin, penicillin ,ampicillin,...
Recommendation
 Screening of methicillin resistance among S. aureus
should be performed in all hospital laboratory as wel...
Recommendation (Cont.)
 All the clinical microbiology laboratories should routinely
test for the MIC of vancomycin for MR...
Recommendation (Cont.)
 Early detection of MRSA through surveillance is
fundamental to preventing spread. Patients as wel...
Acknowledgement:
Thanks to
Chair Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ratana Somrongthong
Major supervisor Assoc. Prof Pipat Luksamijarulkul...
Prevalence of mrsa
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Prevalence of mrsa

657 views

Published on

Prevalence of MRSA among surgical patients

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
657
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Lowy FD (1998) Staphylococcus aureus infections. New Engl J Med 339: 520-32
  • CDC (2010) Staphylococcus aureus resistant to Vancomycin- United States. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51: 565-7.
  • Rice LB (2006) Antimicrobial resistance in gram positive bacteria. Am J Med 119 (Suppl 1): S11-9, S62-70.
    Diep BA, Villaruz AE, Braughton KR, Jiang X, DeLeo FR, Chambers HF, Lu Y, Otto M (2009) Evolution of virulence in epidemic community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA, 106: 5883-8
  • Sista RR, Oda G, Barr J (2004) Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in ICU patients. Anesthesiol Clin North America 22: 405-35.
  • Summer hot so may get chance of pus formation of wound and sweating and others may cause contamination of disease
  • Found high in age group 76 years above old age group,others among 46-60 and below 15 years. Due to contact with many people,sharing fomites ,aerobics, atheletes , swimming pools, contact with many people among these age gropus. Body resistant and immunity in elderly
  • More in late autumn due to beginning of cold season and contact with many people during that time, beginning of cold climate,
    Monsoon due to rainy season and contamination due to wet.and skin infections also.
  • Wound swab and tissue more prevalence.due to hidden disease as in latent form and may seen as symptoms.More confirmatory for diagnosisas other are in diluted form during sample collection.Staph mainly found in skin and air
  • Similar among IPD and OPD cannot get suffient evidence for CA MRSA or HA MRSA.
    Found more in case of patients of more than 5 days of hospitalization.As more than 5 days patients were severe cases and might have pre history of hospitalization and admission for more than 5 days may cause resistant for organism. Hospital environment and staph pathogens high in hodp enviroment
  • Similar prevalence among all as the cases of patients diagnostic disease only recorde and behavior practice of patinets with that disease not mentioned.
  • Compared to young adult group all other groups are of risk of getting MRSA as these groups are isolated and busy lifestyle on their carreer in their own work. But other s are atheletes, working group,
  • Resistance of Antibiotics shows resistance among oxacillin, methicillin, penicillin, Ampicillin group
  • Doctor should be aware when patient while treating for surgery of old, tissue,wounds. For recommendation of MRSA Vancomycin should be referred as it is sensitive to MRSA.
  • Prevalence of mrsa

    1. 1. "Prevalence and factors associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Patients with surgery visiting Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal" SHREEJEET SHRESTHA MPH(International) Faculty of Public Health, 2013 , Mahidol University
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION:  Rationale and Justification: Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become a major problem in many countries, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs S. aureus resistance trace back to 1941 when Penicillin was first introduced Initially, all S. aureus were sensitive to Penicillin. Within 2 years first penicillin resistant S. Aureus was identified Highly prevalent in the hospitals. Since 1960 it has spread through the community
    3. 3. Methicillin (to treat penicillin resistance) also faced resistance within 1 year The first documented United States outbreak of MRSA occurred in 1968 According to the Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC), Number of both community associated and hospital-acquired infections has increased in the past 20 years Each year in United States, more than 290, 000 hospitalized patients are infected with S. aureus and approximately, 126,000 are related to MRSA
    4. 4. Nepal is lacking regulation regarding the use of antibiotics Indiscriminate use of antibiotics without proven susceptibility testing has led to the development of resistant strains  Lack of MRSA carriage screening among healthcare workers and healthy carrier contributed to profound transmission not only in healthcare facilities but also among community settings  Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal are facing problem of nosocomial infection which includes antibiotic resistance.
    5. 5. Research Questions What is prevalence of MRSA in patients with surgery visiting Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal? What factors are associated with MRSA among patients with surgery at Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal?
    6. 6. Objectives To determine the prevalence of MRSA in surgical patients at Hospital of Kathmandu Valley. To analyze factors associated with MRSA in patients with surgery among patients visiting Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley.
    7. 7. Hypothesis There are associations between Age, Gender, Antibiotics use , Duration of stay at hospital, Types of disease of Patients, Seasonal variation ,pre hospitalization, types of sample used, and MRSA infection among surgical patients of Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley.
    8. 8. Conceptual Framework Independent Variables Dependent Variables • Age • Gender • Antibiotics use • Duration of stay at hospital • Patients diagnostic disease • Seasonal variation • History of previous hospitalization or admission • Types of sample • MRSA status -MRSA presence -MRSA absence
    9. 9. Literature Review In USA approximately 60 % of all Staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) found with MRSA The mortality rate associated with invasive MRSA is approximately 20 %. So it is leading cause of death by a single infectious agent In Sweden and Denmark, the prevalence was less than 1%. But in Greece and Italy, the prevalence was upwards of 40%.
    10. 10. Literature review(Cont.) The UK saw the greatest percentage increase, from 30.5% in 1999 to 44.5% in 2002. Slovenia was the only country to show a significant decrease, declining from 22.3% to 14.7%[32]. In US and some Asian countries, an increase in HA- MRSA has been observed. One study based in a large Taiwan university hospital found the prevalence of MRSA isolates increased from 26.7% of nosocomial infections in 1990 to 77% in 2001[33]
    11. 11. Cont.  The prevalence of MRSA in Western Europe and the US is equivalent, with the carriage rate in the UK, Ireland, France, Spain and Italy at 25 to 50 percent, with slightly lower rates in Germany and Eastern Europe. At TUTH , Nepal the most prevalent bacteria in the studied sample were S. aureus (60%) and about 23.5% were resistant to Methicillin MRSA was found in 31.4% of total S. aureus isolates from Kanti Children’s Hospital ,39.6% Methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates at College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital, Chitwan
    12. 12. Methodology Study design: A hospital based cross-sectional analytic study of surgical patients visiting Hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal was conducted. During the study period 797 surgical patients visited from January 2013 to December 2013. Study Site: The Hospitals of Kathmandu valley, Nepal were study site. Sample: The 797 surgical patients visiting hospitals of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal during the study duration(January 2013 to December 2013) were population sample .
    13. 13. Inclusion and Exclusion criteria a) Inclusion: Surgical Patients with all infections with result of culture of bacteria. Only the growth of bacteria within 48 hrs. b) Exclusion: The insufficient information of the patient history including antibiotic use. MRSA samples that was not labelled (age and gender) properly and with visible signs of contamination were excluded
    14. 14. Data collection The data were collected from the hospital record Research instrument: The charts of the patients history used in the hospital were research instrument for the study. Data Analysis: SPSS version 18 from Mahidol University Microsoft Excel
    15. 15. Stastistics Used: Descriptive: Percentage, proportion,frequency Inferential: Chi square ,95% CI and odd ratio for association(Binary logistic) Ethical consideration: From Hospital ethical committee Hospital director Ethical committee of Faculty of Public health, Mahidol University
    16. 16. Results : General CharacteristicsAmong 797 surgical patients, the maximum age was 88 years and the minimum age was under 1 year (including infants) with mean age of patients as 30.83 years and SD 17.25. Most surgical patients were female 72.9%. Based on seasonal variation, the highest number of patients got surgery on summer with 28.4% and least patients in early autumn with 6.8%. The highest number of urine samples were processed for diagnosis with 78.7% and only 2.4% of tissues were cultured as specimens of surgical patients.
    17. 17. Results (Cont.) 55.8% of patients were from IPD and remaining from OPD. Among the studied participants only13.0% were hospitalized for more than 5 days with mean days of hospitalization with 3.45 days. 52.9% of the studied participants were not hospitalized previously. 40% of patients have diagnostic disease as Trauma whereas 6.3% have Bone fracture.
    18. 18. Results (Cont.) Out of 797 patients 79 patients were found to have MRSA with prevalence of MRSA 9.9% among total surgical patients MRSA strains are usually resistant to several antibiotics that are used on large scale in the hospital. This mechanism of increased spreading under antibiotic misuse might have contributed to the worldwide increase in the prevalence of MRSA
    19. 19. Results: Prevalence Age Group Age Group(Years) Total Cases MRSA cases Prevalence 1-15 123 16 13.0 16-30 326 21 6.4 31-45 197 22 11.2 46-60 101 14 13.9 61-75 38 4 10.5 76-90 12 2 16.7 Total 797 79 9.9
    20. 20. Results: Prevalence (Cont.) Seasonal Variation Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence Spring 161 14 8.7 Summer 226 21 9.3 Monsoon 151 17 11.3 Autumn 148 16 10.8 Winter 111 11 9.9 Total 797 79 9.9 Gender Group Total Cases MRSA cases Prevalence Male 216 39 18.1 Female 581 40 6.9
    21. 21. Results: Prevalence (Cont.) Days of Hospitalization Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence No Hospitalization 352 34 9.7 < 5 days 387 36 9.3 > 5 days 58 9 15.5 Total 797 79 9.9
    22. 22. Results: Prevalence (Cont.) Department Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence IPD 445 45 10.1 OPD 352 34 9.7 Total 797 79 9.9 History of Hospitalization Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence No 422 42 10.0 Yes 375 37 9.9 Total 797 79 9.9
    23. 23. Male carried maximum carrier rate. The factors responsible may be as their active life, chances of more contact with other carrier, maximum exposure to outer environment, smoking habit or may be some other immunological and physiological phenomenon The carriage of MRSA among outpatients and inpatients has indicated the chances of transmission of the organisms to healthcare settings. Moreover, the inpatients are also susceptible to the staphylococcal infection of wounds and other sites from endogenous source during hospital stay. 
    24. 24. Patients Diagnostic Diseases: Patients diagnostic Disease Total cases MRSA cases Prevalence Trauma 319 31 9.7 Bacterimia 119 12 10.1 Skin Infection 108 11 10.2 UTI 77 8 10.4 Hemorrhoid 55 6 10.9 Tracheal infection 69 6 8.7 Bone Fracture 50 5 10.0 Total 797 79 9.9
    25. 25. Association of Variables: Factors MRSA(79) Non- MRSA(718) OR 95% CI P Lower Upper Age Senior Citizen 6 44 2.08 0.79 5.48 .135 Middle Aged 14 87 2.46 1.19 5.08 .015 Adult 22 175 1.93 1.03 3.65 .041 Children 16 107 2.43 1.23 4.81 .011 Young Adult 21 305 1.00 Gender Male 39 177 2.98 1.86 4.78 <0.001 Female 40 541 1.00 Department IPD 45 400 1.05 0.66 1.68 0.832 OPD 34 318 1.00 Days < 5 days 36 351 0.96 0.59 1.57 0.337 > 5 days 9 49 1.71 0.78 3.80 No Hospitalization 34 318 1.00
    26. 26. Season Spring 14 147 0.87 0.38 1.99 0.73 Summer 21 205 0.93 0.43 2.01 0.86 Monsoon 17 134 1.15 0.52 2.57 0.72 Early Autumn 1 53 0.17 0.02 1.37 0.09 Late Autumn 15 79 1.73 0.75 3.97 0.20 Winter 11 100 1.00 Samples Wound swab 33 18 36.25 18.60 70.64 <0.001 Tissue 15 85 27.19 10.28 71.85 <0.001 Not wound swab or Tissue swab 35 692 1.00 Hospitalization Yes 37 338 0.99 0.62 1.58 0.97 History No 42 380 1.00
    27. 27. Patients Diagnostic Disease D isease Traum a 31 288 0.97 0.38 2.49 0.98 B acterim ia 12 107 0.96 0.30 3.12 0.87 Skin Infection 11 97 1.06 0.35 3.24 0.97 U TI 8 69 0.98 0.37 2.56 0.80 H em orrhoid 6 49 0.82 0.27 2.50 0.95 Tracheal infection 6 63 0.93 0.41 2.11 0.94 B one Fracture 5 45 1.00
    28. 28. It seemed that the MRSA should be responsible for the skin infection most commonly, however the percentage of MRSA isolates from urine may be due to contamination during specimen collection by the patients and the higher percentage of MRSA from Tissue may be due to the low sample size of the specimen Risk factors for acquisition of MRSA include the administration of multiple antibiotics by patients
    29. 29. Resistant Pattern of Antibiotics Antibiotics Resistant Sensitive Total Antibiotics used % of Resistant Oxacillin 79 0 79 100.00 Methicillin 4 0 4 100.00 Penicillin 76 1 77 98.70 Ampicillin 61 1 62 98.39 Cloxacillin 16 1 17 94.12 Imipenum 26 3 29 89.66 Erythromycin 63 12 75 84.00 Cotrimoxazole 43 18 61 70.49 Ciprofloxacin 54 24 78 69.23 Amoxicillin 42 22 64 65.63 Ceftriazone 44 24 68 64.71 Meropenum 18 11 29 62.07 Ofloxacin 48 31 79 60.76 Gentamycin 44 33 77 57.14 Chloramphenicol 27 36 63 42.86 Amikacin 20 44 64 31.25 C+S 3 11 14 21.43 Vancomycin 0 67 67 0.00
    30. 30. Multiple Drug resistant Pattern of Antibiotics among MRSA patients The antibiotics used for diagnosis of MRSA were categorized in 7 main groups as 1. Penicillin(oxacillin,methicillin,penicillin,ampicillin,cloxacilli n,amoxicillin), 2. Quinolanes(ciprofloxacin,ofloxacin), 3. Aminoglycoside(amikacin,gentamycin), 4. Sulfonamides(cotrimoxazole), 5. Cephalosporin(ceftriazone, chloramphenicol),
    31. 31. Multiple Drug resistant Pattern of Antibiotics among MRSA patients (Cont.) 7. Carbapenems (imipenum, meropenum) 8. Others(Cefoxidime and sulbactum).  The highest number of antibiotics resistance found in pattern of a) Penicillin+ Quinolanes+ Aminoglycoside+ Sulfonamides+ Cephalosporin+ Carbapenems with 10 cases b) Penicillin+ Quinolanes+ Aminoglycoside+ Sulfonamides+ Cephalosporin with 9 cases
    32. 32. Conclusion: From this study, it could be concluded that the infection rate of MRSA was higher in higher age group patients (16.7%), male (18.1%), in late autumn season (16.0%), in wound swab (64.7%) and more than 5 days of hospitalization cases (15.5%). Similar type of prevalence was found in IPD and OPD department (10.1% vs 9.7%), previous hospitalization and no hospitalization (9.9% vs 10.0%) and patients diagnostic diseases with nearly 10 % in each.  All MRSA were multi drug resistant (MDR) which is the significant public health problem.
    33. 33. Conclusion (Cont.) The resistant to antibiotics shows higher resistant to oxacillin, methicillin, penicillin ,ampicillin, cloxacillin. Vancomycin was found to be sensitive, so it can be used as drug of choice for treatment of MRSA. Similarly amikacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin can also be used in certain extent. The MDR MRSA with pattern of resistance to Penicillin+ Quinolanes+ Aminoglycoside+ Sulfonamides+ Cephalosporin+ Carbapenems and Penicillin+ Quinolanes+ Aminoglycoside+ Sulfonamides+ Cephalosporin were found as common pattern of MDR.
    34. 34. Recommendation  Screening of methicillin resistance among S. aureus should be performed in all hospital laboratory as well as surveillance program for MRSA should be conducted in the community as well.  It is crucial importance to depict antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA in a country like Nepal where empirical therapy is unavoidable. Vancomycin can be used for the treatment of MDR MRSA infected patients. .
    35. 35. Recommendation (Cont.)  All the clinical microbiology laboratories should routinely test for the MIC of vancomycin for MRSA isolates because the trend of vancomycin concentration is increasing, for appropriate treatment of patients and implementation of infection control measures to prevent the spread of resistance.  Inappropriate or excessive antibiotic therapy and prophylaxis should be avoided in all healthcare settings Doctor should be aware while treating for surgery of old patients, tissue/ wound patients.
    36. 36. Recommendation (Cont.)  Early detection of MRSA through surveillance is fundamental to preventing spread. Patients as well as healthcare workers should be screened for MRSA in routine screening procedures and decolonization of nasal or body sites can be carried out in order to reduce the bacterial load, which in turn reduces the risk of spread and infection.  Programs to educate health care personnel about infection control precaution against MRSA with intermediate glycopeptide resistance should be developed and infection control specialist should monitor compliance.
    37. 37. Acknowledgement: Thanks to Chair Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ratana Somrongthong Major supervisor Assoc. Prof Pipat Luksamijarulkul Co supervisor Asst. Prof. Dr. Sukhontha Siri Program Director Assoc. Prof. Dr. Oranut Pacheun Hospital staffs Friends

    ×