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1. 1. Shreehari D. Dhat
3. 3. IP Address  To have a communication between computers, printers, scanners etc.  To identify each computer uniquely on the network. 3
4. 4. IP Address continued  IP address is implemented in software.  IP addressing mechanism is done at ‘Network’ layer of OSI model.  Two types of IP address are designed  IPv4 (32 bit long) and IPv6 (128 bit long)  With IPv4 we can have 4294967296 = 232 addresses.  With IPv6 we can have 2128 addresses. 4
5. 5. Format of IP address  IP address is denoted as binary number of 32 bit  E.g. 00001010 00001001 01001000 00010111 IP address can also be denoted in human readable format. 00001010 00001001 01001000 00010111 10 . 9 . 72 . 23 5
6. 6. Classes of IP address  IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) has defined standards for classifying the IP address space.  IPv4 has an address space 4294967296 = 232 Classes of IP address:- Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D & E 6 A B C D E
7. 7. Classes of IP address contd.  Classes are identified based on 1st byte of the IP address (i.e. leading bits also) as follows.  Class A :- 00001010 00001001 01001000 00010111  Class B :- 10001010 00001001 01001000 00010111  Class C :- 11001010 00001001 01001000 00010111 7
8. 8. Classes of IP address contd.  Class D :- 11101010 00001001 01001000 00010111  Range of 1st octet for each class Class A :- 0-127 Class B :- 128-191 Class C :- 192-223 Class D :- 224-239 Class E :- 240-255 (reserved) 8
9. 9. Class A of IP address  Class A occupies largest number of IP addresses. 0 127 0.0.0.1 .... 0.10.2.9 …0.255.255.254 10.0.0.1 … 10.22.10.2 … 10.255.255.254 126.0.0.1 … 126.100.10.3…126.2555.255.254  Contiguous 128 blocks of IP addresses.  16777216 IP addresses per block.  1st and last IP address of each block is reserved. 9
10. 10. Class B of IP address 128 191 128.0.0.1 … 128.0.12.3 … 128.0.255.254 162.0.0.1 … 162.0.12.21… …162.0.255.254 191.0.0.1 … 191.0.12.21… 191.0.255.254  64 contiguous block of IP addresses.  65536 IP addresses per block.  1st and last IP address of each block is reserved. 10
11. 11. Class C of IP address 192 223 192.0.0.1 ….. 192.0.0.23…. 192.0.0.254 210.0.0.1…. …. 210.0.0.255… 223.0.0.1 ….. 223.0.0.254  32 Contiguous blocks of IP address.  256 IP addresses per block.  1st and last IP address of each block is reserved. 11
12. 12. Identifying the IP address  By referring to the IP address’s first octet IP address class can be identified. e.g. 10.134.12.33 belongs to class A. 198.99.23.2 belongs to class C. 145.23.24.55 belongs to class B.  There are some ranges of IP address reserved for private and public use.  Private IP addresses are used at organization level. 12
13. 13. Private IP addresses 13 Router INTERNE T 10.192.2.1 …10.192.2.2….10.192.2.6 10.192.2.7 121.12.13.2
14. 14. Private IP address contd.  Ranges of private IP address. Class A :- 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 Class B :- 172.16.0.0-172.32.255.255 Class C :- 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 Remaining are used as Public IP addresses. 14
15. 15. NetID and HostID  Each IP address is interpreted in two parts  Class A:- 1st byte  Class B:- 1st two bytes  Class C:- 1st three bytes 15 NetID HostID NetID HostID NetID HostID NetID HostID
16. 16. Netmask mechanism  The Netmask is used to identify the Network id (Net ID) of the network.  Each class has default netmask.  Class A:- 255.0.0.0  Class B:- 255.255.0.0  Class C:- 255.255.255.0 How to identify the NetID ? 16
17. 17. Netmask mechanism contd.  To identify the Net ID from IP address e.g. Class A IP address 12.12.3.4 Netmask :- 255.0.0.0 & IP address:- 12.12.3.4 i.e. 1111 1111 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 & 0000 1100 . 0000 1100 . 0000 0011 . 0000 0100 ============================== 0000 1100 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 => 12.0.0.0 is Net ID 17
18. 18. IP Subnetting  Lets take an example of Class A private IP address  IP address range is 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255  So 16777216 IP addresses can be used.  All of these IP addresses are assigned to devices/computers.  So the network diagram will look like… 18
19. 19. IP Subnetting contd.  10.0.0.0 Network-> Router 19
20. 20. IP Subnetting contd.  With this network diagram the problem is when there is broadcast coming from outside network to this network the router will send that broadcast over the network to all hosts.  This will cause network congestion on the network.  So to overcome this subnetting is implemented to divide the broadcast domain. 20
21. 21. IP Subnetting contd.  Subnetting is done by borrowing some number of bits from host id part of IP address.  Class A example 10.0.0.0-255.0.0.0 0000 1010 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 Net ID Host ID Lets borrow 2 bits from host id 0000 1010 . 00 00 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 Sub Net ID Host ID 21 NetID HostID
22. 22. IP Subnetting contd.  So with two bits borrowed from hostid we can have 4 subnets 0000 1010 . 00 00 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 = 10.0.0.0 Subnet #1 0000 1010 . 01 00 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 = 10.64.0.0 Subnet #2 0000 1010 . 10 00 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 = 10.128.0.0 Subnet #3 0000 1010 . 11 00 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 = 10.192.0.0 Subnet #4 Sunet Mask would be 1111 1111 . 11 00 0000 . 0000 0000 . 0000 0000 = 255.192.0.0 22
23. 23. IP Subnetting contd.  So the 4 sub networks would be designed as Edge Router 23 10.192.0.0 10.64.0.0 10.0.0.0 10.128.0.0
24. 24. References  http://www.subnet-calculator.com/  Computer Networks by Forouzan. 24