o Process Management
o Process Control
o Process improvement (KAIZEN)
o KAIZEN Implementation
o Benefits of KAIZEN
o Planning and administrating the activities necessary to
achieve high quality in business processes; and also
identifying opportunities for improving quality and
operational performance – ultimately, customer
o Process simplification reduces opportunities for errors
o Processes are of two types – value-added processes
and support processes.
o Value-added processes – those essential for running
the business and achieving and maintaining
competitive advantage. (Design process,
o Support processes – Those that are important to an
organization’s value-creation processes, employees
and daily operations.
o Value creation processes are driven by external
customer needs while support processes are driven by
o To apply the techniques of process management, a
process must be repeatable and measurable.
o Process owners are responsible for process
performance and should have authority to manage the
process. Owners could range from high-level
executive to workers who run a cell.
o Assigning owners ensures accountability.
o Control is the activity of ensuring the conformance
to the requirements and taking corrective action
o Two reasons for controlling the process
1. Process control methods are the basis of effective daily
management of processes.
2. Long-term improvements can not be made to a process
unless the process is first brought under control.
o Short-term corrective action should be taken by the
process owners. Long-term remedial action should
be the responsibility of the management.
o Japanese for gradual and orderly continuous
improvement over a long period of time with
minimum financial investment, and with participation
by everyone in the organization.
o It is also a process that, when done correctly,
humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard
work, and teaches people how to perform experiments
on their work using the scientific method and how to
learn to spot and eliminate waste in business
o Improvement in all areas of business serves to
enhance quality of the firm.
o The five foundation elements of Kaizen
o Personal discipline
o Improved morale
o Quality circles
o Suggestions for improvement
Japanese English 5S Terms Definitions
Seiri Tidiness SORT Throw away rubbish and
Seiton Orderliness SET IN ORDER Set things in proper place
for quick retrieval/
Seiso Cleanliness SHINE Clean the workplace.
Everyone should be a
Seiketsu Standardization STANDARDIZE Standardize the way of
Shitsuke Discipline SUSTAIN Make it a way of life. This
Establish the objectives and Implement the new
processes necessary to processes on trial basis.
deliver results in Data collected and
accordance with the documented.
Measure the new processes and
Analyze the differences to compare the results against the
determine their cause. expected results to ascertain any
Revised plan differences.
PDCA Cycle or PDCA Wheel
o Kaizen Reduces Waste in areas such as inventory, waiting
times, transportation, worker motion, employee skills, over
production, excess quality and in processes.
o Kaizen Improves space utilization, product quality, use of
capital, communications, production capacity and employee
o Kaizen Provides immediate results. Instead of focusing on
large, capital intensive improvements, Kaizen focuses on
creative investments that continually solve large numbers of
small problems. Large, capital projects and major changes
will still be needed, and Kaizen will also improve the
capital projects process, but the real power of Kaizen is in
the on-going process of continually making small
improvements that improve processes and reduce waste.