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Independência da índia

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Aula elaborada para os alunos e alunas do terceiro ano do Colégio Militar de Brasília. Liberado o uso com os devidos créditos.

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Independência da índia

  1. 1. INDEPENDÊNCIA DA ÍNDIA A Companhia das Índias Orientais, fundada em 1600, iniciou em 1757 a colonização de partes da Índia. A resistência ao domínio inglês sempre existiu e um dos exemplos é Guerra dos Cipaios (1857-58). Tropas indianas no exército britânico tiveram papel vital em ambas as guerras mundiais. Filme indiano sobre a Revolta ou Guerra dos Cipaios.
  2. 2. 3  Resistência não violenta.  Desobediência civil.  Partido do Congresso (1885) MAHATAMA GANDHI E PANDIT NEHRU 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes INDEPENDÊNCIA DA ÍNDIA
  3. 3. INDEPENDÊNCIA DA ÍNDIA  A Liga Muçulmana (All-India Muslim League) foi fundada por Aga Khan III, em 1906.  No início, tinha como objetivo garantir uma educação moderna para os muçulmanos, os direitos dos comerciantes e negociar com o governo inglês.  A primeira proposta de uma Índia Muçulmana independente foi Muhammad Iqbal, em 1930.  Teve papel ativo na independência da Índia, mas não foi banida durante a II Guerra, como o Partido do Congresso, por apoiar o esforço de guerra britânico.
  4. 4. 5 Marcha do Sal ou Satyagraha, ocorreu entre 12/03- 06/04/1930 se estendeu por mais de 400 quilômetros. 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes INDEPENDÊNCIA DA ÍNDIA
  5. 5.  Usando da resistência não-violenta ao colonialismo britânico, homens como Mahatma Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru e Muhammad Ali Jinnah, levaram a região à independência do Reino Unido, em 1947.  No entanto, a unidade durou pouco e o subcontinente foi partilhado entre a República da Índia, secular e democrática, e a República Islâmica do Paquistão. 604/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes INDEPENDÊNCIA DA ÍNDIA
  6. 6.  Tanto o Partido do Congresso, quanto a Liga, lutaram pela independência, no entanto, não houve acordo que permitisse a proteção dos direitos políticos, econômicos e religiosos dos muçulmanos.  Sob a liderança da Liga Muçulmana, foi criado o Paquistão.  A partilha fez com que seis milhões de pessoas tivessem que se mudar. Este fato provocou 500 mil mortos. 704/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes INDEPENDÊNCIA DO PAQUISTÃO
  7. 7. INDEPENDÊNCIA DO PAQUISTÃO • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) 8  Líder da Liga Muçulmana (1906), não aceitou o modelo de estado organizado sob a liderança da maioria hindu.  Acreditava que os muçulmanos seriam marginalizados. 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes
  8. 8. 9 Islamabad, capital do Paquistão, é uma cidade planejada e construída com lagos artificiais na mesma época que acontecia a construção de Brasília. 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes INDEPENDÊNCIA DO PAQUISTÃO
  9. 9. ASSASSINATO DE GHANDI 10  Em 30/01/1948, Gandhi foi morto a tiros, em Nova Délhi, por Nathuram Godse, um radical hindu que queria uma índia sem muçulmanos.  Godse foi depois julgado, condenado e enforcado, a despeito do último pedido de Gandhi, que não punissem o seu assassino. 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes
  10. 10. ÍNDIA PARTIDA 11  1947 → Índia (hindus) e Paquistão (muçulmanos).  1948 → Sri Lanka (Ceilão) independente → um país para os budistas.  1971 → o Paquistão Oriental tornou-se Bangladesh. 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes
  11. 11. CONFLITOS E PROBLEMAS DO SUBCONTINENTE INDIANO 12  Disputas Fronteiriças e pela Caxemira.  Corrida Armamentista entre Paquistão e Índia, ambas potências nucleares.  Índia acusa o Paquistão de apoiar grupos terroristas.  O crescimento do radicalismo político- religioso no Paquistão (Talebã).  Ação dos Tigres de Tamil no Sri Lanka.  Feticídio de Meninas e a permanência da violência contra as mulheres.  Permanência da sociedade de castas. 04/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes
  12. 12. CONFLITOS E PROBLEMAS DO SUBCONTINENTE INDIANO 1304/08/2015Prof.ª Valéria Fernandes

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