APPLICATION OF DOMAINAND WAVEGUIDESTRUCTURES IN CRYSTALSFOR NONLINEAR OPTICS
Optical technologies vs. othersData storage Magnetic Optical (CD, DVD,...)Sensors Electrical OpticalDisplay Cathode Ray Tube Optical Flat PanelsMaterialprocessing Mechanical OpticalLong haul data Copper Cable Optical Fibre Cabletransmission 1900 1950 2000 2050 2
1. ICT & Consumer PhotonicsDisplays Optical Data Storage• Microdisplays • CD and DVD media recorders, and• Televisions 2D and 3D Blu-ray• Holographic displays • Workstation and PC network data• Advertising, indoor and outdoor storagemessaging systems• Low-power displays Consumer Products• Projection and light shutters • Mobile phones: displays, cameras,• Low-and high resolution displays and LEDs • Flat panel high definition LCD TVs:Optical Communications displays and backlights• Internet: Voice over IP, music, • Portable music and video players:email, Web, eCommerce displays• Fibre to the premises : Video on • Digital camera: displays, imageDemand, telemedicine sensor and flash • Entertainment: displays, data 3 storage, communications
2. Life Sciences & HealthcareBiophotonics• Diagnostics: non invasive imaging• Treatment: laser surgery (cutting, drilling), Photodynamic Therapy• Pathogen detection: Raman spectroscopy• Drug development• Biometrics Bio-chipInstrumentation• Microscopy (confocal, etc)• Endoscopy• Genomics/proteomics• Biosensors: Pulse Oximetry 4• Cellular and Clinical imaging: 4D studies, Tomography
3. Defence and SecurityCommand, Control, Communications Computers, and Intelligence• Secure communications: Quantum computing and Quantum Cryptography• Optical fibre: RF signal processing and transmissionSurveillance, Targeting Acquisition, and Reconnaissance• Visual sights, periscopes• Displays• Lasers: range-finding, laser imaging, systems• Remote sensing: typically employing multi-spectral techniques or passive IRsensors• Forward Looking IR-imaging (thermal)• Perimeter security: IR sensors, image processing, optical sensors• Checkpoint/Port/Airport security:THz imaging, Raman spectroscopy andimage processing• Target imaging and identification 5• Unmanned Aerial Vehicles• Sensing: Chemical & biohazard, structural health monitoring
4. Lighting and EnergySolid State Lighting• Architectural, amenity, messaging systems, signal, commercial andresidential lighting: - Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes, - Organic Light Emitting DiodesPhotovoltaics• Solar cellsFuel AnalysisEnergy InfrastructureSecurity 6
5. Industrial PhotonicsLasers• Cutting, welding, drilling and marking• Micromachining• Non-contact metrology and reverse engineering• Material processing including surface hardening• Scanning and positioning Sensing• Security and intrusion• Chemical and Biological agents• Smart industrial and powerutility monitoring• Biophotonic/medical applications• Positioning and control• Traffic monitoringImaging• Quality control and inspection• Automated recognition• Thermal imaging 7• Security certification• Document scanning
Example 1Information & Communication Technologies 8The Network of the Future: broadband networks and ultra high speed
NONLINEAR CRYSTALS FOR LASER AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3 ) Potassium niobate (KNbO3) Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP, KTiOPO4) The “KTP family” of materials also includes KTA (KTiOAsO4), RTP (RbTiOPO4) and RTA (RbTiAsPO4).A block of LBO and some crystals cutfrom such material. KDP crystals, including one with very large size.
TECHNIQUE OF PLANARPERIODICALLY-POLED STRUCTURES(PPS) FABRICATION Ferroelectric domain invertedgratings were fabricated by aset of local e-beam irradiationsin a scanning electron Schematic presentation of direct e-beam writing upon Y-cut surface by the setmicroscope with the use of the local irradiations to fabricate a planarNanoMaker program to domain gratingconstruct the set ofirradiations and to vary dosesof them.
VISUALIZATION OF IMAGE BY CHEMICAL ETCHINGThe surface of one LiNbO3crystal that was chemicallyetched.Application of this methoddoesn’t permit further use ofcrystal as radiation converter. Photo of PPS fragment obtained by chemical etching of Y-cut Zn:LiNbO3 waveguide
Photos of different PPS obtained by chemical etching of nominally pureY-cutLiNbO3
Fragment for image of PPS obtained in Y-cut LiNbO3 sample by themethod of the second harmonic microscopy by the objective with thezoom 20* and digital camera-ocular DCM 310