Tools for Information Processes: Organising


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Organising as a process that links other information processes

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Tools for Information Processes: Organising

  1. 1. Tools for Information Processing
  2. 2. <ul><li>Organising is the process of arranging, representing or formatting data for the use of other information processes </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>how different methods of organising affect processing, for example: </li></ul><ul><li>letters of the alphabet represented as images rather than text </li></ul><ul><li>numbers represented as text rather than numeric </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Data that has been collected needs to be processed before being used, however processing can support any stage of the information processes </li></ul><ul><li>The organising process can have major effects on other processes, eg, when you scan something as an image rather than text </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Practical Task: </li></ul><ul><li>Type up the following in MS Word. </li></ul><ul><li>Save as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Word document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF (You will need to print as…PDF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RTF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TXT </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still pictures can be either bit mapped or vector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint graphics are saved as bit-maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each individual pixel is saved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixel = Pic ture El ement (smallest part of the image </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Note the pixels when the image is enlarged
  8. 10. <ul><li>Stored as Vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinates needed to define the shapes are saved </li></ul>5,5 1,1 5,2 0,0 0,4 0,0 0,10
  9. 11. <ul><li>Image Pallete: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg, Gif are limited to 256 colours (for compression) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RGB vs CMKY </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Format Adv antages Disadvantages BMP Gif Jpeg/jpg png WMF Flash .swf
  11. 13. <ul><li>Data is stored as a wave, with corresponding points stored. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Sound is analog data: it has continuous variable points </li></ul><ul><li>Audio is sound which has been digitised by a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Sound is converted to audio via the sound card which is a d  a and a  d converter </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Sampling has 3 characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling rate: number of times a sample (Slice) is taken from a sound wave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher sampling rate, the better quality the sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two common sampling Rates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44.1kHz (44100 samples per second) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22.05kHz (22050 samples per second) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Sample size is the number of bits per sample (number of possible points) </li></ul><ul><li>More bits= higher quality sound </li></ul><ul><li>8 bit 16 bit </li></ul>
  15. 17. Format Compression Features MP3 Ogg Vorbis WMA WAV
  16. 18. <ul><li>Animation is the movement of a graphic that is the result of still images placed together in a sequence and run over time </li></ul><ul><li>Video combines pictures and sounds displayed over time. Video (as opposed to animation) starts with a continuous event and breaks it up into frames, whereas an animation starts with frames. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Analog signals (pictures and audio) are converted to digital signals via a video capture card </li></ul><ul><li>A video or animation is made up of frames: individual pictures that are put together to create the illusion of movement. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Video files are very large, which is an important factor in deciding what hardware to use to store the video files. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed is an issue in video and animation…the frame rate is the number of frames per second that are shown </li></ul><ul><li>Higher frame rate = higher quality, smoother video= more file size needed </li></ul>
  19. 21. Compression Features FLV SWF AVI MPEG4 MOV