Organic Rankine cycle macro power plant


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one of the renewable energy resources project that help me lot to my carrier in research field : this slide is for the prototype model that i design actual full scale size may be bit of different from my calculations and data's

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  • ORC have advantages over conventional steam cycles for particularly low power plants and the recovery of waste heat And It is based on experimental data, and thermodynamic models.
  • Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. As the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor. The input energy required can be easily calculated using steam tables. Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur. The output in this process can be easily calculated using the steam tables.Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to become a saturated liquid.
  • Organic Rankine cycle macro power plant

    1. 1. (An institute of national importance) Major project on ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELORS OF TECHNOLOGY IN PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Submitted by Sh. Anandkumar singh 091116257 B.Tech Production and industrial engineering VII Sem to VIII Sem Guided by Asst Prof: Alok singh (Mechanical Engg. Dept.)
    2. 2. Introduction water vapor, as a working fluid Biomass Solar energy Heat sources Organic Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which convert thermal energy into mechanical energy ORC technology is similar to a traditional steam turbine, but important difference. vaporizes a highmolecular-mass organic fluid butane, pentane etc. Renewable energy sources excellent performance and several key advantages: slower turbine rotation, lower pressure, and no erosion of metallic parts and blades. Industrial waste heat Geothermal
    3. 3. Power Plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) have been increasingly employed over the last 10 years to produce power from clean energy renewable sources. The cycle is well adapted to low moderate temperature heat sources and is widely used for producing small scale to moderate power production (200KW to 10MW). These plants are environmentally friendly.
    4. 4. Power range and efficiency of common power plant power range [MW] The aim of this work is the study and the modeling of an Organic Rankine Cycle power plant for small scale purpose. And study of different working fluids selection criteria. Finally three prospective studies are propose Industrial Waste heat ORC efficiency [%] Link : [2] Biomass ORC Solar ORC
    5. 5. The Rankine Cycle The Rankine cycle is a cycle that converts heat into work. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop. This cycle generates about 90% of all electric power used throughout the world The Rankine cycle is the fundamental thermodynamic underpinning of the steam engine and thermal power plant Steam turbine Boiler Condenser There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. These states are identified by numbers in the above Ts diagram. Link : [3]
    6. 6. Rankine cycle Working fluid: usually water Advantages:  cheap, widely available  non toxic  high heat capacity: excellent medium for heat transport  chemical stable: less material requirements  low viscosity: low friction losses Disadvantages:  due to low condensation t°: very low pressure, high specific volume, big installations needed (turbine, condenser )  high pressure drop to become a high enthalpy drop: expensive multi stage turbines needed  expansion has to start in the superheated area to avoid too high moisture content after expansion: need of a high t°- heat source but very practically use because of this: efficiency loss and limited suitability to waste heat recovery
    7. 7. The Organic Rankine Cycle Disadvantages of water probably to correct using other working fluids, The ORC uses organic substances instead of water as working fluid : Organic Rankine Cycle working fluids are:  Toluene  Butane  Pentane  Ammonia  Refrigeration fluids  Silicone oils
    8. 8. Thermodynamic Process behind the Organic Rankine Cycle The ORC Turbogenerator uses medium-to-high-temperature thermal oil to preheat and vaporize a suitable organic working fluid in the evaporator (7,4). The organic fluid vapor rotates the turbine (4,5), which is directly coupled to the electric generator, resulting in clean, reliable electric power. The exhaust vapor flows through the regenerator (5-6), where it heats the organic liquid (2,7) and is then condensed in the condenser and cooled by the cooling circuit (6,1). The organic working fluid is then pumped (1,2) into the regenerator and evaporator, thus completing the closed-cycle operation.
    9. 9. Organic Rankine Cycle in the T-s diagram Link : [4]
    10. 10. Working Fluids Rankine cycle ORC Water • Silicone Oils • Hydrocarbons • Fluorocarbons Lower boiling temperature Very large flow rate No wear of blades and metal parts Small, fast-moving Molecules Erosion of blades and metal parts superheated water vapor steam required Multistage turbine and high mechanical stress Organic fluids lead to • higher turbine efficiencies due to the higher mass flow (leakage ↓) • low maintenance operation • good part load behavior
    11. 11. ORC Main Components Regenerator Condenser Thermo oil heat input Evaporator Turbine Generator Feed Pump Link : [7] ORC Unit from Turboden, Brescia Italy Organic fluid Cooling water
    12. 12. Applications: Solar Energy Biomass ORC unit ORC units Geothermal • Concentrating solar power systems with ORC units allow conversion of heat harnessed by solar collectors into electricity through an efficient thermodynamic cycle. • simple and efficient generation of electric power and heat from biomass • electricity from geothermal resources with medium-to-lowtemperatures, generally ranging between (90° C - 180° C). • by recovering heat from sources such as industrial processes, Waste heat
    13. 13. Advantage of ORC Technical Advantages  High cycle efficiency Very high turbine efficiency Low turbine mechanical stress due to low peripheral speed Low turbine rpm, allowing the direct drive of the electric generator without gear reduction in many applications No erosion of blades, thanks to the absence of moisture in the vapor nozzles Operational Advantages Simple start-stop procedures Automatic and continuous operation No operator attendance needed Quiet operation High availability (typically 98%) High efficiency at partial load Lower maintenance cost Long life
    14. 14. Appendix - 1 by taking R-123 as working fluid (2,2dichloro-1,1,1 trifluroethane) Physical properties Molecular weight 152.93 Boiling point 27.85 C At 1 atm Critical temp 183.6C Pressure 3668.0 kpa density 550.0 kg/m3 Why? R-123 Non inflammable Exposure time is longer easily available at Market We are taking max pressure at 1.2Mpa and heating the fluid upto 120C and minimum pressure 0.101Mpa (atm) and temp 28C (normal boiling) as a operating condition for ease of calculation. And mass flow rate at 0.2kg/s since our plant is for small kw of output Data Link [5]
    15. 15. Appendix - 2 Specification AC generator model no. F.D 3.0-300-72/144 Rated output 3kw Max output 7.5kw Min RPM 300 Max RPM 10000 Starting torque 1.8NM Effi. 80 % Wt. 85Kg Suction pump model No. SP2402A01-01 240watt Inlet dia 63mm Outlet dia 63mm Max head 9m Working voltage 110v-220vAC RPM 300-3300 Wt.3.4Kg Link : Dong Guan Youthen Metal Co., Ltd.
    16. 16. Appendix - 3 B= boiler P= feed pump T= turbine C= condenser
    17. 17. From the steam table of R-123 Data Link [5]
    18. 18. Appendix - 4 Calculation From steam table 2 at temp 120C and 1.2Mpa enthalpy H1= 448.6kj/kg Entropy S=1.6896 kj/kgK Specific volume V= 0.0136 m3/kg Specific heat Cp= 0.9393 From steam table 1 temp 28C and 0.10192Mpa Enthalpy of fusion Hf=226.4Kj/kg Enthalpy of vaporization Hg= 396.8kj/kg Latent enthalpy Hfg= 170.4kJ/kg Enthalpy at turbine outlet H2= Hf + x(Hg-Hf) x= 0.99 (properties of R-123) H2 = 226.4 + 0.99(396.8 – 226.4) H2 = 395.096kj/kg Turbine work output Wt = m* . (H1 - H2) m* = 0.2kg Wt = 0.2 (448.6 – 395.096) Wt = 10.708 kw Again taking the efficiency of steam expander (Turbine ) = 90% Power of shaft = 0.9 X 10.708 = 9.637kw Form our Ac generator efficiency = 80% Electrical power output = 0.8 X 9.637 = 7.7096 kw
    19. 19. Plan of the project Prototype ORC Unit This prototype is going to compete with photovoltaic cell.
    20. 20. References 1. Angelino, G. Invernizzi and Molteni, : The potential role of organic bottoming rankine cycle power station 1999 . Vol 231(A): page No. 75-91 2. Liu, B.T, chien K.H and Wang, : effect of working fluid on organic rankine cycle for waste heat recovery , 2004 vol 29 page No. 1207-1217. 3. ing. Bruno Vanslambrouck, Howest, dept Masters Industrial Sciences Laboratory of Industrial Physics and Applied Mechanics 4. Prof. Dr.-Ing. H. Spliethoff Technische Universität München : The Organic Rankine Cycle Power Production from Low Temperature Heat Institute for Energy Systems. 5. Experimental Study and Modeling of a Low Temperature Rankine Cycle for Small Scale Cogeneration. By Sylvain Quoilin may- 2007 6. ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY by Lucien Y. Bronicki, Chairman ORMAT International Inc. 980 Greg St., Sparks, Nevada 89431-6039 – USA Tel: +1 775 356 9029, Fax: +1 775 9039 7. Pratt & Whitney Power Systems
    21. 21. Thank You