Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

- CA 5.12 Acceleration Transformation by Stephen Kwong 726 views
- CA 6.01 Light Speed Constancy by Stephen Kwong 177 views
- Physic by hasnida rahman 1694 views
- Islam and human right by Naim Ahmed 403 views
- Lab. 9 péndulo simple – acelerac... by ffreddd 4391 views
- Caida Libre Ejercicios Resueltos by areaciencias 5114 views

3,725 views

Published on

No Downloads

Total views

3,725

On SlideShare

0

From Embeds

0

Number of Embeds

22

Shares

0

Downloads

84

Comments

0

Likes

2

No embeds

No notes for slide

- 1. Constant Velocity<br />Chapter 4<br />Section 4.1-4.3 and 4.7 <br />
- 2. What do you think?<br />Is the book on your instructor’s desk in motion?<br />Explain your answer.<br />What are some examples of motion?<br />How would you define motion?<br />
- 3. One-Dimensional Motion<br />It is the simplest form of motion<br />This is motion that happens in one direction<br />Example:<br />Train on the tracts moving forward or backward<br />
- 4. Displacement (x)<br />Change in position<br />Can be positive or negative<br />It describes the direction of motion<br />You will see me use d instead of xfor displacement<br />
- 5. Displacement (x)<br />Displacement is not always equal to the distance traveled<br />A gecko runs up a tree from the 20 cm marker to the 80 cm marker, then he retreats to the 50 cm marker?<br />
- 6. Displacement (x)<br />In total it traveled 90 cm, however, the displacement is only 30 cm<br />x or d= 50cm- 20cm = 30 cm<br />If the gecko goes back to the start<br />The displacement is zero<br />
- 7. Displacement<br />What is the displacement for the objects shown?<br />Answer: 70 cm<br /><ul><li>Answer: -60 cm</li></li></ul><li>Average Velocity<br /><ul><li>Average velocity is displacement divided by the time interval.</li></ul>d df-di<br />Basically velocity is distance/time<br />
- 8. Average Velocity<br />The units can be determined from the equation.<br />SI Units: m/s<br />Other Possible Units: mi/h, km/h, cm/year<br />Velocity can be positive or negative but time must always be positive<br />
- 9. Average Velocity<br />You travel 370 km west to a friends house. You left at 10am and arrived at 3pm. What was your average velocity?<br />Vavg = d = -370 km<br />Δt 5.0h<br />Vavg= -74 km/h or 74 km/h west<br />
- 10. Classroom Practice Problems <br />Joey rides his bike for 15 min with an average velocity of 12.5 km/h, how far did he ride? <br />Vavg = d <br />Δt<br />d = (12.5 km/h) (0.25h)<br />d = 3.125 km<br />
- 11. Speed<br />Speed does not include direction while velocity does.<br />Speed uses distance rather than displacement.<br />In a round trip, the average velocity is zero but the average speed is not zero. <br />
- 12. Graphs of Motion<br />On a speed-versus-time graph the slope represents speed per time, or acceleration. <br />
- 13. Graphs of Motion<br />Equations and tables are not the only way to describe relationships such as velocity and acceleration. <br />Graphs can visually describe relationships. <br />
- 14. Graphs of Motion<br />Speed-Versus-Time<br />On a speed-versus-time graph, the speed v of a freely falling object can be plotted on the vertical axis and time t on the horizontal axis. <br />
- 15. Graphs of Motion<br /> This particular linearity is called a direct proportion, and we say that time and speed are directly proportional to each other.<br />
- 16. Graphs of Motion<br />The curve is a straight line, so its slope is constant. <br />Slope is the vertical change divided by the horizontal change for any part of the line.<br />
- 17. Graphs of Motion<br />Distance-Versus-Time<br />When the distance d traveled by a freely falling object is plotted on the vertical axis and time t on the horizontal axis, the result is a curved line. <br />
- 18. Graphs of Motion<br />This distance-versus-time graph is parabolic.<br />
- 19. Graphs of Motion<br />The relationship between distance and time is nonlinear. <br />The relationship is quadratic and the curve is parabolic—when we double t, we do not double d; we quadruple it. Distance depends on time squared!<br />
- 20. Acceleration<br />Chapter 4<br />Sections 4.4- 4.6 <br />
- 21. What do you think?<br />Which of the following cars is accelerating?<br />A car shortly after a stoplight turns green<br />A car approaching a red light<br />A car with the cruise control set at 80 km/h<br />A car turning a curve at a constant speed<br />Based on your answers, what is your definition of acceleration?<br />
- 22. Acceleration<br />What are the units?<br />SI Units: m/s2<br />Other Units: (km/h)/s or (mi/h)/s<br />Acceleration = 0 implies a constant velocity (or rest)<br />
- 23. Acceleration<br />In physics, the term acceleration applies to decreases as well as increases in speed. <br />The brakes of a car can produce produce a large decrease per second in the speed. This is often called deceleration. <br />
- 24. Acceleration<br />A car is accelerating whenever there is a change in its state of motion. <br />
- 25. Acceleration<br />A car is accelerating whenever there is a change in its state of motion. <br />
- 26. Acceleration<br />A car is accelerating whenever there is a change in its state of motion. <br />
- 27. Classroom Practice Problem<br />A bus slows down with an average acceleration of -1.8m/s2. how long does it take the bus to slow from 9.0m/s to a complete stop?<br />Find the acceleration of an amusement park ride that falls from rest to a velocity of 28 m/s downward in 3.0 s.<br />9.3 m/s2 downward<br />
- 28. Acceleration<br />Displacement with constant acceleration<br />d = ½ (vi + vf) Δt<br />Displacement= ½ (initial velocity + final velocity) (time)<br />
- 29. Example<br />A racecar reaches a speed of 42m/s. it uses its parachute and breaks to stop 5.5s later. Find the distance that the car travels during breaking. <br />Given: vi = 42 m/s vf= 0 m/s<br />t = 5.5 sec d = ?? <br />
- 30. Example<br />d = ½ (vi + vf) Δt<br />d = ½ (42+0) (5.5)<br />d = 115.5 m<br />
- 31. Acceleration<br />Final velocity<br />Depends on initial velocity, acceleration and time<br />Velocity with constant acceleration<br />vf = vi + aΔt<br />Final velocity = initial velocity + (acceleration X time)<br />
- 32. Acceleration<br />Displacement with constant acceleration<br />d = viΔt + ½ a (Δt)2<br />Displacement = (initial velocity X time) + ½ acceleration X time2<br />
- 33. Example<br />A plane starting at rest at one end of a runway undergoes uniform acceleration of 4.8 m/s2 for 15s before takeoff. What is its speed at takeoff? How long must the runway be for the plane to be able to take off?<br />Given: vi = 0 m/s a= 4.8m/sst= 15s<br />vf = ?? d= ??<br />
- 34. Example<br />What do we need to figure out?<br />Speed at takeoff<br />How long the runway needs to be<br />vf = vi + aΔt<br />vf = 0m/s + (4.8 m/s2)(15 s)<br />vf = 72m/s<br />
- 35. Example<br />d = viΔt + ½ a (Δt)2<br />d = (0m/s)(15s) + ½ (4.8m/s2)(15s)2<br />d = 540 m<br />
- 36. Acceleration<br />Final velocity after any displacement<br />vf2 = vi2 +2ad<br />Final velocity2 = initial velocity2 + 2(acceleration)(displacement)<br />
- 37. Example<br />An aircraft has a landing speed of 83.9 m/s. The landing area of an aircraft carrier is 195 m long. What is the minimum uniform acceleration required for safe landing?<br />
- 38. Example<br />vf2 = vi2 +2ad<br />02= (83.9)2 + 2a (195)<br />0= 7039.21 + 390a<br />-7039.21 = 390a<br />a = -18.0 m/s2<br />
- 39. Classroom Practice Problems<br />A bicyclist accelerates from 5.0 m/s to 16 m/s in 8.0 s. Assuming uniform acceleration, what distance does the bicyclist travel during this time interval?<br />Answer: 84 m<br />
- 40. 2.3 Falling Objects<br />and section 6.6<br />
- 41. Free Fall<br />The motion of a body when only the force due to gravity is acting<br />Acceleration is constant for the entire fall<br />Acceleration due to gravity (ag or g)<br />Has a value of -9.81 m/s2 (we will use 10m/s2)<br />Negative for downward<br />Roughly equivalent to -22 (mi/h)/s<br />
- 42. Free Fall<br />In Galileo’s famous demonstration, a 10-kg cannonball and a 1-kg stone strike the ground at practically the same time.<br />
- 43. 6.6 Free Fall Explained<br />The ratio of weight (F) to mass (m) is the same for the 10-kg cannonball and the 1-kg stone.<br />
- 44. 6.6 Free Fall Explained<br />The weight of a 1-kg stone is 10 N at Earth’s surface. Using Newton’s second law, the acceleration of the stone is<br />The weight of a 10-kg cannonball is 100 N at Earth’s surface and the acceleration of the cannonball is<br />
- 45.
- 46. Free Fall<br />Acceleration is constant during upward and downward motion<br />Objects thrown into the air have a downward acceleration as soon as they are released. <br />
- 47. Free Fall<br />The instant the velocity of the ball is equal to 0 m/s is the instant the ball reaches the peak of its upward motion and is about to begin moving downward.<br />REMEMBER!!! <br />Although the velocity is 0m/s the acceleration is still equal to 10 m/s2<br />
- 48. Example<br />Jason hits a volleyball so that it moves with an initial velocity of 6m/s straight upward. If the volleyball starts from 2.0m above the floor how long will it be in the air before it strikes the floor?<br />We want to use our velocity and acceleration equations<br />
- 49. Example<br />Given: vi = 6m/s a= 10m/s2<br />d= -2.0m t = ?? vf = ??<br />vf2= vi2 + 2ad<br />vf= at + vi<br />
- 50. Free Fall<br />For a ball tossed upward, make predictions for the sign of the velocity and acceleration to complete the chart.<br />
- 51. Graphing Free Fall<br />Based on your present understanding of free fall, sketch a velocity-time graph for a ball that is tossed upward (assuming no air resistance).<br />Is it a straight line?<br />If so, what is the slope?<br />Compare your predictions to the graph to the right.<br />

No public clipboards found for this slide

×
### Save the most important slides with Clipping

Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. You can keep your great finds in clipboards organized around topics.

Be the first to comment