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Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes
OH MY!!
           Chapters 10 and 11
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Thunderstorms
Sections 10.1 to 10.6
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    What’s in a Name?


    Cyclone refers to the circulation around a
     low-pressure center.
      Hurricanes
    ...
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    Thunderstorms

     Thunderstorms     generate lightning, thunder, winds,
     and hail.
     There   are two type...
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    Air-Mass Thunderstorms
    Air-mass   thunderstorms—mT air masses
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    Air-Mass Thunderstorms

    Cumulus    stage:
      Warm,   humid air rises creating clouds that won’t
       evap...
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    Air-Mass Thunderstorms


    Mature   stage:
      Thisis the most intense phase.
          This results in heavy...
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    Air-Mass Thunderstorms
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    Air-Mass Thunderstorms


    Occurrence:
      Mountainous  regions, such as the Rockies and
      the Appalachian...
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    Severe Thunderstorms

    Severe    thunderstorms:
      Heavy   downpours
      Flash flooding
      Straight l...
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    Supercell Thunderstorms
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    Supercell Thunderstorms


     Supercells
      These storms can produce extremely dangerous
       weather.
     ...
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    Supercell Thunderstorms


    Squall     lines:
      Squall  lines are narrow bands of thunderstorms.
      cT (...
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    Supercell Thunderstorms


    Squall   lines
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    Lightning and Thunder


     Lightning   strokes:
      The   flash (total discharge) lasts a few tenths of a
    ...
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    Lightning and Thunder


    Thunder:
      The  air is heated quickly to as much as
       33,000°C.
      It exp...
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    Lightning and Thunder


    What   causes lightning?
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Tornadoes
Section 10.7 to 10.10
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    Tornadoes


    Tornadoes   (twisters, cyclones):
      These   are violent windstorms with a rapidly
       rotat...
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    Tornadoes
+ The Development and Occurrence
 of Tornadoes
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    The Development and Occurrence
    of Tornadoes
    Mesocyclones     form
      Winds  are stronger aloft producin...
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    The Development and Occurrence
    of Tornadoes

    The  mesocyclone, vertical cylinder of air, is
     establishe...
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    The Development and Occurrence
    of Tornadoes

    Profile   of a tornado:
      Average  diameter 150–600m
    ...
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    Tornado Destruction
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Hurricanes
Chapter 11
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    Profile of a Hurricane

     Hurricanes:
      Hurricanes  are intense centers of low pressure.
      They form o...
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    Profile of a
    Hurricane
Eye  wall: doughnut
 shaped wall of
 intense convective
 activity surrounding
 the eye.
...
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    Hurricane Formation and Decay


    Hurricanes:
      Hurricanes are fueled by the latent heat of
       condensed...
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    Hurricane Formation and Decay

    Hurricane    formation:
      Tropical disturbances,
       such as disorganize...
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    Hurricane Formation and Decay

 Hurricane     formation:
     As  areas within tropical disturbances get warmer, s...
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    Hurricane Formation and Decay


    Hurricane   decay:
      Decay  occurs when latent heat is cut off.
      A h...
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Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 1 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 2 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 3 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 4 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 5 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 6 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 7 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 8 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 9 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 10 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 11 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 12 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 13 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 14 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 15 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 16 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 17 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 18 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 19 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 20 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 21 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 22 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 23 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 24 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 25 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 26 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 27 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 28 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 29 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 30 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 31 Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My! Slide 32
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Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes Oh My!

  1. 1. + Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes OH MY!! Chapters 10 and 11
  2. 2. + Thunderstorms Sections 10.1 to 10.6
  3. 3. + What’s in a Name? Cyclone refers to the circulation around a low-pressure center.  Hurricanes  Midlatitude cyclones  Tornadoes
  4. 4. + Thunderstorms  Thunderstorms generate lightning, thunder, winds, and hail.  There are two types of thunderstorms.  Air-mass thunderstorms are associated with warm, humid air that rises in unstable environments; cumulonimbus clouds, and mT (maritime tropical) air masses.  Severe thunderstorms may produce high winds, hail, flash floods, and tornadoes.  They are the result of uneven heating, frontal lifting, and diverging winds.
  5. 5. + Air-Mass Thunderstorms Air-mass thunderstorms—mT air masses
  6. 6. + Air-Mass Thunderstorms Cumulus stage:  Warm, humid air rises creating clouds that won’t evaporate.  A cumulonimbus tower develops as water vapor moves from the surface to greater heights.  Clouds pass freezing zone and Bergeron process starts.  Rain accumulation is too great for updraft so it falls creating a downdraft via entrainment (influx of cool dry air. Remember cold air gets heavy and sinks).
  7. 7. + Air-Mass Thunderstorms Mature stage:  Thisis the most intense phase.  This results in heavy rain and possibly small hail.  Cool downdrafts exist next to updrafts. Dissipating stage:  Thisstage is dominated by downdrafts and entrainment causing evaporation.
  8. 8. + Air-Mass Thunderstorms
  9. 9. + Air-Mass Thunderstorms Occurrence:  Mountainous regions, such as the Rockies and the Appalachians, experience a greater number of air-mass thunderstorms.
  10. 10. + Severe Thunderstorms Severe thunderstorms:  Heavy downpours  Flash flooding  Straight line wind gusts  Hail, lightning  Wind shear- change in wind speed or direction at different heights  Can overshoot (enter stratosphere)  Downdraft preceding (gust front)
  11. 11. + Supercell Thunderstorms
  12. 12. + Supercell Thunderstorms  Supercells  These storms can produce extremely dangerous weather.  They consist of a single, powerful cell that can extend to heights of 20 km or more.  The clouds can measure 20–50 km in diameter.  Mesocyclone:  Verticalwinds may cause the updraft to rotate, which forms a column of cyclonically rotating air.  Tornadoes often form.
  13. 13. + Supercell Thunderstorms Squall lines:  Squall lines are narrow bands of thunderstorms.  cT (continental tropical) air is pulled into the warm sector of a midlatitude cyclone.  Mammatus skies sometimes precede squall lines. (dark cloud rolls that have downward pouches)  These can also form along a dryline, where there is an abrupt change in moisture.
  14. 14. + Supercell Thunderstorms Squall lines
  15. 15. + Lightning and Thunder  Lightning strokes:  The flash (total discharge) lasts a few tenths of a second.  It is what we see and it contains multiple strokes.  The leader is the ionized air, which forms a conductive path.  A step leader extends earthward in a short, nearly invisible burst.  The return stroke extends upward from ground to cloud.
  16. 16. + Lightning and Thunder Thunder:  The air is heated quickly to as much as 33,000°C.  It expands explosively, which produces sound waves that travels at 330 mps.  If lightning is more than 20 km away, thunder is not heard.
  17. 17. + Lightning and Thunder What causes lightning?
  18. 18. + Tornadoes Section 10.7 to 10.10
  19. 19. + Tornadoes Tornadoes (twisters, cyclones):  These are violent windstorms with a rapidly rotating column of air, or vortex.  Pressures within tornadoes can be as much as 10% lower than immediately outside the storm.  It may consist of single or multiple vortices.
  20. 20. + Tornadoes
  21. 21. + The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes
  22. 22. + The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes Mesocyclones form  Winds are stronger aloft producing rolling motion about a horizontal axis  Stronger thunderstorm updrafts tilt the horizontal rotating air to a nearly vertical alignment
  23. 23. + The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes The mesocyclone, vertical cylinder of air, is established. It stretches vertically and narrows horizontally causing wind speeds to accelerate inward creating a vortex.  FunnelCloud- vortex emerges from cloud  Tornado- vortex touches the ground
  24. 24. + The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes Profile of a tornado:  Average diameter 150–600m  Travels ~45 kph  Path about 26 km long  Most travel to the NE  Exist between <3 min to >3 hours  Wind speeds between <150 kph to >500 kph  Between 90- 300mph
  25. 25. + Tornado Destruction
  26. 26. + Hurricanes Chapter 11
  27. 27. + Profile of a Hurricane  Hurricanes:  Hurricanes are intense centers of low pressure.  They form over tropical/subtropical oceans.  These storms have intense convective activity and rotary circulation and can have wind speeds in excess of 74mph.  They are usually 100–1500 km in diameter, form between 5° and 20° latitude and have a steep pressure gradient.  Hurricanes are called typhoons in the NW Pacific and cyclones in the SW Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  28. 28. + Profile of a Hurricane Eye wall: doughnut shaped wall of intense convective activity surrounding the eye. Eye: Center of hurricane where wind and rain cease
  29. 29. + Hurricane Formation and Decay Hurricanes:  Hurricanes are fueled by the latent heat of condensed water vapor.  Most are formed from late summer to early fall.  Sea-surface temperatures of 27°C or higher provide the necessary heat and moisture.
  30. 30. + Hurricane Formation and Decay Hurricane formation:  Tropical disturbances, such as disorganized cloud arrays and thunderstorms, occasionally grow larger and develop strong cyclonic rotation.  Easterly waves gradually move from east to west.
  31. 31. + Hurricane Formation and Decay  Hurricane formation:  As areas within tropical disturbances get warmer, several factors help form hurricanes.  Surface pressure drops creating a region of weak low pressure and cyclonic circulation.  Higher pressure develops at the top of the storm causing an outward flow of air from the top.  If wind speeds do not reach 63 kph, it is called a tropical depression.  When winds exceed 61 kph, it becomes a tropical storm and is given a name.
  32. 32. + Hurricane Formation and Decay Hurricane decay:  Decay occurs when latent heat is cut off.  A hurricane moves over cooler water or land.  When large scale flow aloft is unfavorable, they diminish in intensity.
  • KBBrown

    Feb. 22, 2018
  • ShadayDelgado

    May. 19, 2015
  • arilifia

    Feb. 11, 2014

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