Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
+




Forms of Condensation and
Precipitation Chapter 5
+




5.1 Cloud Formation
+
 Cloud Formation

 A cloud  is a visible aggregate of small water
  droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in
  th...
+
 Cloud Formation

 Condensation  aloft:
 Adiabatic cooling causes clouds to form as
  water vapor condenses in the atm...
+
 Cloud Formation

 Growth   of cloud droplets:
 Hygroscopic (water-seeking) nuclei are most
  effective for condensati...
+




5.2 Cloud Classification
+
 Cloud Classification
 Clouds     are classified on the basis of two criteria.
 1. Form:

  Cirrusare high, white, and...
+
 Cloud Classification


 2.   Height:
     High clouds are above 6000 m.
     Middle clouds range between 2000–6000 m....
+
 Cloud Classification
+
 Cloud Classification
+
 Cloud Classification- High Clouds

 Low  temp and small amount of water vapor at
  high altitudes equal high clouds, t...
+
+
 Cloud Classification- High Clouds

 Cirrostratus
   Transparent,whitish cloud veils with fibrous or
    sometimes smo...
+
+
 Cloud Classification- High Clouds

 Cirrocumulus
   White patches composed of small cells or
   ripples resembling fi...
+
+
 Cloud Classification- Medium
 Clouds
 Altocumulus
   Tend to form in large patches composed of
    rounded masses or ...
+
+
 Cloud Classification- Medium
 Clouds
 Altostratus
   Formless   layer of grayish clouds that cover all
    or portion...
+
+
 Cloud Classification- Low Clouds

 Stratus
   Uniform   layer covers much of the sky
   Ones with scalloped bottom a...
+
Cloud
Classification
- Low Clouds

  Nimbostratus
   Rain   clouds
+
 Clouds of Vertical Development

 Cumulus    humilis
   Dense,  billowly clouds with tops resembling
    cauliflower. ...
+
+
 Clouds of Vertical Development

 Cumulonimbus
   Large  dense billowly clouds of considerable
    vertical extent in ...
+
+
 Cloud Classification

 Cloud   varieties:
   Uncinus  are hooked shaped clouds, often
    precursors to bad weather.
...
+
 Cloud Classification
+




5.3 Types of Fog
+
 Types of Fog

 Fog is defined as a cloud with its base at or
  very near the ground.
 Fog  results from cooling or wh...
+
 Fog Formed by Cooling

  Radiation
           fog results from radiation cooling of the
  ground and adjacent air.
  ...
+
+
 Fog Formed by Cooling

  Advection fog is a blanket of fog caused by warm,
  moist air blowing over a cold surface.
  ...
+
+
 Fog Formed by Cooling

 Upslope  fog is created when relatively humid
  air moves up a sloping landform or up the
  st...
+
 Fog Formed by Cooling

 There   are two types of evaporation fog.
   Frontal (precipitation) fog
    Occurs when rai...
+
 Fog Formed by Cooling

 Steam   fog
   Occurs when cool air moves over warm water.
   Moisture evaporates and satura...
+
+




5.4 How Precipitation Forms
+
 How Precipitation Forms

  Clouddroplets are about 20 micrometers in
  diameter. A human hair is about 75
  micrometer...
+
 How Precipitation Forms
+
 How Precipitation Forms

  Process that generates precipitation in the middle
  latitudes
  The Bergeron Process depe...
+
 How Precipitation Forms

 So,  imagine a cloud at -10°C where each ice
  crystal (snow crystal) is surrounded by thous...
+
 How Precipitation Forms

 So the growth of ice crystals is fed by
  continued evaporation of liquid droplets
 When   ...
+
 How Precipitation Forms

 The  type of precipitation (snow, sleet, rain, or
  freezing rain) depends on the temperatur...
+
 How Precipitation Forms

 The Bergeron process
  (precipitation from cold
  clouds) depends on the
  coexistence of wa...
+
 How Precipitation Forms

 The collision-coalescence process
  (precipitation from warm clouds) occurs as
  copious rai...
+
 How Precipitation Forms
+
 How Precipitation Forms
+




5.5 Forms of Precipitation
+
    Forms of Precipitation
+
 Forms of Precipitation

 Rainis restricted to droplets of water with a
  diameter at least 0.5mm.
 Cloudbursts   are ...
+
 Forms of Precipitation

 Virga   is rain that evaporates above ground.
 Fallstreaks are ice crystals that sublime in ...
+Virga
+
 Forms of Precipitation

  Snow is precipitation in the form of ice crystals or
  aggregates of ice crystals.
  Size,
...
+
Forms of Precipitation
Sleet   is clear to
  translucent particles of
  ice, rain drops freeze
  while falling.
Freezi...
+
 Forms of Precipitation
 Hail is precipitation in the
  form of hard, rounded
  pellets of ice.
   Itis produced in
  ...
+
 Forms of Precipitation

 Rime  is a deposit of ice crystals, formed on
  surface objects by super-cooled fog or cloud
...
+




5.6 Precipitation Measurement
+
 Precipitation Measurement

 Standard   instruments:
   A standard rain gauge catches rain water and
   conducts it th...
+
 Precipitation Measurement

 A tipping  bucket has two compartments (or
  buckets). When one bucket fills, it tips and
...
+
 Precipitation Measurement

  Whenmeasuring snowfall, two measurements are
  normally taken.
   The depth is measured ...
+




5.7 Intentional Weather
Modification
+
 Intentional Weather Modification

 Intentional  weather modification, such as
  cloud seeding, is deliberate human
  i...
+
 Intentional Weather Modification

  Hailsuppression has been shown to be
  ineffective.
   Anti-hail cannons produced...
+
 Intentional Weather Modification

 Several   methods of frost prevention are being
  used.
   Water  sprinklers add h...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

of

Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 1 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 2 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 3 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 4 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 5 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 6 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 7 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 8 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 9 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 10 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 11 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 12 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 13 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 14 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 15 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 16 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 17 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 18 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 19 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 20 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 21 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 22 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 23 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 24 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 25 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 26 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 27 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 28 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 29 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 30 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 31 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 32 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 33 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 34 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 35 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 36 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 37 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 38 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 39 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 40 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 41 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 42 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 43 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 44 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 45 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 46 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 47 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 48 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 49 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 50 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 51 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 52 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 53 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 54 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 55 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 56 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 57 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 58 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 59 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 60 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 61 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 62 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 63 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 64 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 65 Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Slide 66
Upcoming SlideShare
Precipitation presentation
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

10 Likes

Share

Download to read offline

Forms of Condensation and Precipitation

Download to read offline

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Forms of Condensation and Precipitation

  1. 1. + Forms of Condensation and Precipitation Chapter 5
  2. 2. + 5.1 Cloud Formation
  3. 3. + Cloud Formation A cloud is a visible aggregate of small water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere above the earth’s surface Lifting condensation level  The ascending parcel of air is cooled to its dew point temperature and triggers condensation
  4. 4. + Cloud Formation Condensation aloft: Adiabatic cooling causes clouds to form as water vapor condenses in the atmosphere. The air becomes saturated and there must be a surface. Condensation nuclei act as surfaces, on which the water vapor can condense.
  5. 5. + Cloud Formation Growth of cloud droplets: Hygroscopic (water-seeking) nuclei are most effective for condensation. Growth is rapid at first, then slows as water vapor is consumed. Hygrophobic (water-fearing) nuclei are not efficient condensation nuclei but could droplets will form on them when the relative humidity reaches 100%
  6. 6. + 5.2 Cloud Classification
  7. 7. + Cloud Classification Clouds are classified on the basis of two criteria. 1. Form:  Cirrusare high, white, and thin forming delicate veil like patches or wisplike strands often have a feathery appearance  Cumulus clouds are globular, usually exhibiting a flat base and appear as rising domes or towers.  Stratus clouds are best described as layers or sheets covering much of the sky.
  8. 8. + Cloud Classification 2. Height:  High clouds are above 6000 m.  Middle clouds range between 2000–6000 m.  Low clouds are at altitudes of less than 2000 m.  Clouds of vertical development extend upward to span more than one height range.
  9. 9. + Cloud Classification
  10. 10. + Cloud Classification
  11. 11. + Cloud Classification- High Clouds Low temp and small amount of water vapor at high altitudes equal high clouds, thin, white and made of ice crystals Cirrus  Delicate, icy filaments. Winds cause the filaments to bend or curl
  12. 12. +
  13. 13. + Cloud Classification- High Clouds Cirrostratus  Transparent,whitish cloud veils with fibrous or sometimes smooth appearance covering whole sky.  Produce halos around the the sun or moon
  14. 14. +
  15. 15. + Cloud Classification- High Clouds Cirrocumulus  White patches composed of small cells or ripples resembling fish scales
  16. 16. +
  17. 17. + Cloud Classification- Medium Clouds Altocumulus  Tend to form in large patches composed of rounded masses or rolls that may or may not merge  Composed of water not ice droplets  The individual cells have a more distinct outline
  18. 18. +
  19. 19. + Cloud Classification- Medium Clouds Altostratus  Formless layer of grayish clouds that cover all or portions of the sky.  Sun is visible as a big bright spot with the edge of it’s disc not discernible; no halos  Infrequent snow or drizzle.  Commonly associated with approaching warm fronts thicken into nimbostratus (which = lots of rain)
  20. 20. +
  21. 21. + Cloud Classification- Low Clouds Stratus  Uniform layer covers much of the sky  Ones with scalloped bottom and appears as long parallel rolls or broken patches are called stratocumulus
  22. 22. + Cloud Classification - Low Clouds  Nimbostratus  Rain clouds
  23. 23. + Clouds of Vertical Development Cumulus humilis  Dense, billowly clouds with tops resembling cauliflower. Often form on clear days  Known as fair weather clouds  Humilis are smaller
  24. 24. +
  25. 25. + Clouds of Vertical Development Cumulonimbus  Large dense billowly clouds of considerable vertical extent in the form of huge vertically towers  Tops spread out into an anvil shape  Towers produce heavy precipitation with lightening, thunder, and occasionally hail
  26. 26. +
  27. 27. + Cloud Classification Cloud varieties:  Uncinus are hooked shaped clouds, often precursors to bad weather.  Fractus or fractured clouds are stratus or cumulus clouds that appear broken.  Mammatus clouds have udder-shaped protuberances on their bottom surfaces and are associated with stormy weather.  Lenticular clouds are lens shaped and are common in rugged or mountainous topographies.
  28. 28. + Cloud Classification
  29. 29. + 5.3 Types of Fog
  30. 30. + Types of Fog Fog is defined as a cloud with its base at or very near the ground. Fog results from cooling or when air becomes saturated through the addition of water vapor  Radiation  Advection  Upslope  Evaporative
  31. 31. + Fog Formed by Cooling  Radiation fog results from radiation cooling of the ground and adjacent air.  Night time phenomena requiring clear skies and relatively high humidity  The high humidity can cause a small amount of cooling to lower the temperature to the dew point.  To be extensive, there should be a slight breeze.  It is usually thickest in valleys.
  32. 32. +
  33. 33. + Fog Formed by Cooling  Advection fog is a blanket of fog caused by warm, moist air blowing over a cold surface.  Some turbulence is needed (10–30 kph winds).  Turbulence facilitates cooling through a thicker layer of air and carries it to greater heights  Wintertime fog in the midwest  This fog is thick and produces hazardous driving conditions
  34. 34. +
  35. 35. + Fog Formed by Cooling Upslope fog is created when relatively humid air moves up a sloping landform or up the steep slopes of a mountain.  Theupward flow causes the air to expand and cool adiabatically resulting in fog.
  36. 36. + Fog Formed by Cooling There are two types of evaporation fog.  Frontal (precipitation) fog  Occurs when rain droplets falling from relatively warm air above a frontal surface evaporates into the cooler air below and causes it to become saturated.
  37. 37. + Fog Formed by Cooling Steam fog  Occurs when cool air moves over warm water.  Moisture evaporates and saturates the air above it.  Rising water vapor meets the cool air, condenses and rises. Looks like steam.  Steam fog is very common over lakes.
  38. 38. +
  39. 39. + 5.4 How Precipitation Forms
  40. 40. + How Precipitation Forms  Clouddroplets are about 20 micrometers in diameter. A human hair is about 75 micrometers  A rain droplet is about 2 mm or 100 times the average cloud droplet  Volume is 1 million times greater
  41. 41. + How Precipitation Forms
  42. 42. + How Precipitation Forms  Process that generates precipitation in the middle latitudes  The Bergeron Process depends on the process of the coexistence of water vapor, liquid cloud droplets and ice crystals.  Cloud droplets do not freeze at 0°C. It freezes at -40°C. it is super cooled.  The saturation vapor pressure above ice crystals is slightly lower than above super cooled liquid droplet
  43. 43. + How Precipitation Forms So, imagine a cloud at -10°C where each ice crystal (snow crystal) is surrounded by thousands of liquid droplets. Because air is saturated at 100% with respect to liquid water, it will be super saturated (above 100%) with respect to the newly formed ice crystals. At this result of this supersaturation, the ice crystals collect water, lowering relative humidity, the water droplets shrink to replenish what was lost
  44. 44. + How Precipitation Forms So the growth of ice crystals is fed by continued evaporation of liquid droplets When ice gets large enough they fall, they grow as they intercept cloud droplets on their fall. A chain reaction ensues and produces many snow crystals= snow flakes
  45. 45. + How Precipitation Forms The type of precipitation (snow, sleet, rain, or freezing rain) depends on the temperature in the lower few km of the atmosphere When the surface temperature is above 39°F snow usually melts before it hits the ground
  46. 46. + How Precipitation Forms The Bergeron process (precipitation from cold clouds) depends on the coexistence of water vapor, liquid cloud droplets, and ice crystals
  47. 47. + How Precipitation Forms The collision-coalescence process (precipitation from warm clouds) occurs as copious rainfall associated with clouds located below the freezing level (called warm clouds), especially in the tropics.  Small droplets hit other droplets and become larger.  They collide with more droplets and their falling velocity increases.
  48. 48. + How Precipitation Forms
  49. 49. + How Precipitation Forms
  50. 50. + 5.5 Forms of Precipitation
  51. 51. + Forms of Precipitation
  52. 52. + Forms of Precipitation Rainis restricted to droplets of water with a diameter at least 0.5mm. Cloudbursts are unusually heavy rainfalls. Drizzleare fine, uniform droplets with a diameter less than 0.5mm. (not really considered rain)
  53. 53. + Forms of Precipitation Virga is rain that evaporates above ground. Fallstreaks are ice crystals that sublime in the dry air below Mist contains the smallest droplets.
  54. 54. +Virga
  55. 55. + Forms of Precipitation  Snow is precipitation in the form of ice crystals or aggregates of ice crystals.  Size, shape and concentration depend to great extent on the temp at which they form  Low temperature, the moisture is low = very light fluffy snow made up of individual 6 sided crystals  Warmer temperature at about 23°F, ice crystals join together into large clumps of tangled crystals
  56. 56. + Forms of Precipitation Sleet is clear to translucent particles of ice, rain drops freeze while falling. Freezing rain (glaze) are rain drops that become super-cooled, hit a surface, and freeze immediately.
  57. 57. + Forms of Precipitation Hail is precipitation in the form of hard, rounded pellets of ice.  Itis produced in cumulonimbus clouds.  Hail stones begin as small ice pellets and grow as they are propelled by updrafts and downdrafts through the cloud.
  58. 58. + Forms of Precipitation Rime is a deposit of ice crystals, formed on surface objects by super-cooled fog or cloud droplets.  Itoccurs when the surface temperature of an object is below freezing.
  59. 59. + 5.6 Precipitation Measurement
  60. 60. + Precipitation Measurement Standard instruments:  A standard rain gauge catches rain water and conducts it through a narrow opening into a cylindrical measuring tube.  The gauge is 20 cm in diameter and can measure rainfall to the nearest 0.025 cm.  < 0.025 cm = trace
  61. 61. + Precipitation Measurement A tipping bucket has two compartments (or buckets). When one bucket fills, it tips and empties its water and the other bucket takes its place at the funnel. A weighing gauge collects rain fall in a cylinder that rests on a spring balance. As the cylinder fills, the movement is transmitted to a pen that records the data.
  62. 62. + Precipitation Measurement  Whenmeasuring snowfall, two measurements are normally taken.  The depth is measured with a calibrated stick.  To obtain the water equivalent, snow is melted and then weighed or measured as rain.  Weather radar uses radio waves to measure precipitation.  The radio waves penetrate small droplets, but are reflected off larger ones. Echoes are sent back and displayed.
  63. 63. + 5.7 Intentional Weather Modification
  64. 64. + Intentional Weather Modification Intentional weather modification, such as cloud seeding, is deliberate human intervention to influence processes that constitute the weather.  Snow and rain making  Silver iodide crystals act as freezing nuceli.  Fog and cloud dispersal  Cloud seeding with dry ice into super-cooled fog or stratus clouds helps to disperse them to improve visibility.
  65. 65. + Intentional Weather Modification  Hailsuppression has been shown to be ineffective.  Anti-hail cannons produced a loud whistling noise and a large smoke ring thought to suppress hail.  Cloud seeding with silver iodide crystals was also employed to disrupt the growth of hailstones.
  66. 66. + Intentional Weather Modification Several methods of frost prevention are being used.  Water sprinklers add heat from water and from the latent heat of fusion when the water freezes.  Air mixing uses wind machines to mix warm and cool air.  Orchard heaters produce the most successful results, but fuel cost can be significant.
  • AviKaRaJput

    Jul. 8, 2018
  • AbdulAziz826

    Apr. 24, 2018
  • saikumarreddybathula

    Mar. 25, 2018
  • SudiptaSahoo3

    Nov. 4, 2017
  • AngelieNicoleTorres

    Dec. 4, 2016
  • MirfatAlahdali

    Mar. 21, 2016
  • KunalChaudhari5

    Jul. 8, 2015
  • rogenmae25

    Dec. 13, 2014
  • tataroge

    Dec. 13, 2014
  • mfmmujahid

    Jul. 15, 2014

Views

Total views

7,258

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

149

Actions

Downloads

209

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

10

×