Introduction to the Atmosphere

1,294 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Introduction to the Atmosphere

  1. 1. + Introduction to the Atmosphere Chapter 1Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. + 1.1 Meteorology, Weather, and ClimateCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. + Focus on the Atmosphere Weather in the United States:  Theweather in the U.S. varies greatly.  Weather influences our daily lives.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. + Focus on the Atmosphere  Meteorology  Study of atmosphere  Weather  State of atmosphere at any given time & place  Climate  “Average weather”  Generalized weather variation for a given place  Climate data can not predict weather.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. + Focus on the Atmosphere Meteorology, Weather, and ClimateCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. + Focus on the Atmosphere Element- quantities or properties that are measured regularly to help explain the nature of weather and climate 1. Air temperature 2. Air humidity 3. Type and amount of cloudiness 4. Type and amount of precipitation 5. Air pressure 6. Speed and direction of windCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. + Atmospheric Hazards: Assault by the Elements Lightning Tornadoes Thunderstorms Blizzards Hurricanes Heat waves Cold Waves FogCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. + Atmospheric Hazards: Assault by the ElementsCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. + 1.2 The Nature of Scientific InquiryCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. + The Nature of Scientific Inquiry Scientific inquiry is a collection of facts, observations, or measurements.  Hypothesis:  Remember before a hypothesis can become accepted as a theory it must pass objective testing and analysis  Theory:  Hypothesis that has passed many testsCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. + The Nature of Scientific Inquiry Scientific Methods:  Are not recipes  Involve creativity and insight  Raise questions  Collect data  Raise questions leading to hypotheses  Cause hypotheses to be accepted or rejected  Create results shared with the scientific community for further testingCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. + 1.3 Earth’s SpheresCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. + Earth’s SpheresCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. + Earth’s Spheres The Earth is made up of four spheres.  Geosphere- Solid Earth  Atmosphere- Gaseous Envelope  Hydrosphere- Water  Biosphere- All life All the spheres are intertwined.  Soil is part of all 4 spheres.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. + Geosphere The geosphere consists of the solid Earth. It extends from the surface to the center, which is approximately 6400 km. 3 Principal Regions:  Core  Mantle  CrustCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. + Atmosphere 99% of the atmosphere is within 30 km of Earth’s surface. It protects the Earth. Weather occurs in the atmosphere.  Weather is affected by the interactions between the atmosphere and earth, and the atmosphere and spaceCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. + Earth’s SpheresCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. + Hydrosphere Oceans make up 71% the Earth’s surface.  Average depth of 3800 km (12500 feet) Additional parts of the hydrosphere:  Lakes  Rivers,streams  Glaciers  Underground waterCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. +Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. + Biosphere The biosphere includes all life on Earth.  On the ocean floor  In boiling hot springs  On air currents in the lower atmosphereCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. + 1.4 Earth as a SystemCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. + Earth as a System  Earth system science:  Scientists have recognized they must learn how the Earth’s individual components (land, water, air, and life-forms) are interconnected.  System:  A system is a group of interacting or interdependent parts that form a complex whole.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. + Earth as a System Contains subsystems- i.e. carbon cycle Spatial Scales  Fractions of mm to thousands of km Time scales  ms to billions of yearsCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. + Composition of the Atmosphere Major components:  The composition varies from time to time.  Oxygen and nitrogen make up 99% of the volume.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. + Composition of the Atmosphere Carbon dioxide:  0.0391% of atmosphere  Absorbs energy- great absorber of heat  Part of the carbon cycleCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. + Composition of the AtmosphereCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  27. 27. + Composition of the Atmosphere Variable components:  Water vapor  0–4% by volume  Clouds and precipitation  Aerosols  Very small solid and liquid particles like dust, soot, sea salts  Absorb or reflect radiation  Cause cloud formation and red/orange sunrises and sunsetsCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. + Composition of the Atmosphere Variable components:  Ozone (O3)  There is much less ozone in the lower atmosphere.  At higher altitudes, in the stratosphere, (10–50 km), ozone absorbs UV radiation.  Ozone absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from the sunCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  29. 29. + 1.5 Ozone Depletion- A Global IssueCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  30. 30. + Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs):  CFCs break down ozone in the upper atmosphere.  CFCs are common in refrigerants and aerosol products.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  31. 31. + Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue  The Antarctic ozone holeCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  32. 32. + Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue Effects of ozone depletion:  It causes more UV radiation to reach the surface.  UV radiation is known to cause cancer.  It impacts the human immune system.  UV radiation can also promote cataracts.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  33. 33. + 1.6 Vertical Structure of the AtmosphereCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  34. 34. + Vertical Structure of the AtmosphereCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  35. 35. + Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Pressure changes:  An increased altitude decreases pressure, because atmospheric pressure is the weight of air above you Temperature changes:  Increasing altitude causes a decreased temperature in the troposphere.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  36. 36. + Vertical Variations in Composition  Homosphere:  Heterosphere:  Lower layer, < 80  Uppermost layer, > 80 km km  Roughly the same  Occurs in shells proportion of  Lower shell—N2 component gases  Next shell—O2  Next shell—He  Outermost shell—HCopyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  37. 37. + Vertical Variations in Composition Ionosphere:  The ionosphere is located 80–400 km above the Earth’s surface.  At this altitude, atoms of oxygen and nitrogen become ionized and absorb shortwave solar energy.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  38. 38. +Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  39. 39. + Vertical Variations in Composition Troposphere:  Temperature decreases with altitude.  Environmental lapse rate 6.5° C/km (variable)  The tropopause marks the top and the lowest temperature.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  40. 40. + Vertical Variations in Composition Stratosphere:  Temperature increases with altitude.  The ozone layer is concentrated in the stratosphere.  Remember ozone absorbs the suns rays  The stratopause marks the top and the highest temperature.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  41. 41. + Vertical Variations in Composition Mesosphere:  Temperature decreases with altitude.  The mesopause marks the top and its lowest temperature. Thermosphere:  The thermosphere has no well-defined upper limit.  Temperature rises.  There are 3 layers of varying ion density, D, E, and F.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  42. 42. + Vertical Variations in Composition Auroras:  Aurora borealis (northern hemisphere)  Aurora australis (southern hemisphere)  Occur in the ionosphere  Earth’s magnetic field traps solar particles.  Auroras emit light.Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

×