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     Introduction to the Atmosphere
     Chapter 1

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+




     1.1 Meteorology, Weather, and
     Climate
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Focus on the Atmosphere

         Weather                     in the United States:
              Theweather in the...
+
   Focus on the Atmosphere
         Meteorology
             Study               of atmosphere
         Weather
     ...
+
   Focus on the Atmosphere
         Meteorology,                     Weather, and Climate




Copyright © 2013 Pearson ...
+
   Focus on the Atmosphere

         Element-    quantities or properties that are
             measured regularly to h...
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         Atmospheric Hazards:
         Assault by the Elements

         Lightning                        Tornadoes

 ...
+


      Atmospheric
    Hazards: Assault
    by the Elements




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+




     1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry


Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   The Nature of Scientific Inquiry

         Scientific   inquiry is a collection of facts,
             observations,...
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   The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
         Scientific                       Methods:
              Are not recipes
 ...
+




     1.3 Earth’s Spheres

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
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   Earth’s Spheres




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Earth’s Spheres

         The             Earth is made up of four spheres.
              Geosphere- Solid Earth
  ...
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   Geosphere

         The             geosphere consists of the solid Earth.
         It  extends from the surface to...
+
   Atmosphere

         99%     of the atmosphere is within 30 km of
             Earth’s surface.
         It       p...
+
   Earth’s Spheres




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Hydrosphere

         Oceans                    make up 71% the Earth’s surface.
              Average             ...
+




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Biosphere

         The             biosphere includes all life on Earth.
                      On  the ocean floor...
+




     1.4 Earth as a System

Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Earth as a System

          Earth     system science:
              Scientists have recognized they must learn how...
+
   Earth as a System

         Contains                         subsystems- i.e. carbon cycle
         Spatial        ...
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   Composition of the Atmosphere
   Major                 components:
        The  composition
         varies from ti...
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   Composition of the Atmosphere

         Carbon                    dioxide:
              0.0391%   of atmosphere
  ...
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   Composition of the Atmosphere




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Composition of the Atmosphere
         Variable                    components:
              Water  vapor
         ...
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   Composition of the Atmosphere

         Variable                    components:
              Ozone                ...
+




     1.5 Ozone Depletion- A Global
     Issue
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue

         Chlorofluorocarbons              (CFCs):
              CFCs break down ozo...
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   Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue
          The
             Antarctic
             ozone hole




Copyright © 2013 Pea...
+
   Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue

         Effects                  of ozone depletion:
              It causes more ...
+




     1.6 Vertical Structure of the
     Atmosphere
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Vertical
   Structure of
   the
   Atmosphere




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
+
   Vertical Structure of the
   Atmosphere
         Pressure                     changes:
              An    increase...
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   Vertical Variations in Composition

          Homosphere:                             Heterosphere:
              ...
+
   Vertical Variations in Composition

         Ionosphere:
              The  ionosphere is located 80–400 km above t...
+




Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
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   Vertical Variations in Composition


         Troposphere:
              Temperature                 decreases with...
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   Vertical Variations in Composition

         Stratosphere:
              Temperature   increases with altitude.
   ...
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   Vertical Variations in Composition
         Mesosphere:
              Temperature  decreases with altitude.
       ...
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   Vertical Variations in Composition

         Auroras:
              Aurora  borealis (northern hemisphere)
        ...
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Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 1 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 2 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 3 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 4 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 5 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 6 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 7 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 8 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 9 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 10 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 11 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 12 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 13 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 14 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 15 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 16 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 17 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 18 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 19 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 20 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 21 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 22 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 23 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 24 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 25 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 26 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 27 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 28 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 29 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 30 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 31 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 32 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 33 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 34 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 35 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 36 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 37 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 38 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 39 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 40 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 41 Introduction to the Atmosphere Slide 42
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Introduction to the Atmosphere

  1. 1. + Introduction to the Atmosphere Chapter 1 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. + 1.1 Meteorology, Weather, and Climate Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. + Focus on the Atmosphere Weather in the United States:  Theweather in the U.S. varies greatly.  Weather influences our daily lives. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. + Focus on the Atmosphere  Meteorology  Study of atmosphere  Weather  State of atmosphere at any given time & place  Climate  “Average weather”  Generalized weather variation for a given place  Climate data can not predict weather. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. + Focus on the Atmosphere Meteorology, Weather, and Climate Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. + Focus on the Atmosphere Element- quantities or properties that are measured regularly to help explain the nature of weather and climate 1. Air temperature 2. Air humidity 3. Type and amount of cloudiness 4. Type and amount of precipitation 5. Air pressure 6. Speed and direction of wind Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. + Atmospheric Hazards: Assault by the Elements Lightning Tornadoes Thunderstorms Blizzards Hurricanes Heat waves Cold Waves Fog Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. + Atmospheric Hazards: Assault by the Elements Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. + 1.2 The Nature of Scientific Inquiry Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. + The Nature of Scientific Inquiry Scientific inquiry is a collection of facts, observations, or measurements.  Hypothesis:  Remember before a hypothesis can become accepted as a theory it must pass objective testing and analysis  Theory:  Hypothesis that has passed many tests Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. + The Nature of Scientific Inquiry Scientific Methods:  Are not recipes  Involve creativity and insight  Raise questions  Collect data  Raise questions leading to hypotheses  Cause hypotheses to be accepted or rejected  Create results shared with the scientific community for further testing Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. + 1.3 Earth’s Spheres Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. + Earth’s Spheres Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. + Earth’s Spheres The Earth is made up of four spheres.  Geosphere- Solid Earth  Atmosphere- Gaseous Envelope  Hydrosphere- Water  Biosphere- All life All the spheres are intertwined.  Soil is part of all 4 spheres. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. + Geosphere The geosphere consists of the solid Earth. It extends from the surface to the center, which is approximately 6400 km. 3 Principal Regions:  Core  Mantle  Crust Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. + Atmosphere 99% of the atmosphere is within 30 km of Earth’s surface. It protects the Earth. Weather occurs in the atmosphere.  Weather is affected by the interactions between the atmosphere and earth, and the atmosphere and space Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. + Earth’s Spheres Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. + Hydrosphere Oceans make up 71% the Earth’s surface.  Average depth of 3800 km (12500 feet) Additional parts of the hydrosphere:  Lakes  Rivers,streams  Glaciers  Underground water Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. + Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. + Biosphere The biosphere includes all life on Earth.  On the ocean floor  In boiling hot springs  On air currents in the lower atmosphere Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. + 1.4 Earth as a System Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. + Earth as a System  Earth system science:  Scientists have recognized they must learn how the Earth’s individual components (land, water, air, and life-forms) are interconnected.  System:  A system is a group of interacting or interdependent parts that form a complex whole. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. + Earth as a System Contains subsystems- i.e. carbon cycle Spatial Scales  Fractions of mm to thousands of km Time scales  ms to billions of years Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. + Composition of the Atmosphere Major components:  The composition varies from time to time.  Oxygen and nitrogen make up 99% of the volume. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. + Composition of the Atmosphere Carbon dioxide:  0.0391% of atmosphere  Absorbs energy- great absorber of heat  Part of the carbon cycle Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. + Composition of the Atmosphere Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  27. 27. + Composition of the Atmosphere Variable components:  Water vapor  0–4% by volume  Clouds and precipitation  Aerosols  Very small solid and liquid particles like dust, soot, sea salts  Absorb or reflect radiation  Cause cloud formation and red/orange sunrises and sunsets Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. + Composition of the Atmosphere Variable components:  Ozone (O3)  There is much less ozone in the lower atmosphere.  At higher altitudes, in the stratosphere, (10–50 km), ozone absorbs UV radiation.  Ozone absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  29. 29. + 1.5 Ozone Depletion- A Global Issue Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  30. 30. + Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs):  CFCs break down ozone in the upper atmosphere.  CFCs are common in refrigerants and aerosol products. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  31. 31. + Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue  The Antarctic ozone hole Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  32. 32. + Ozone Depletion—A Global Issue Effects of ozone depletion:  It causes more UV radiation to reach the surface.  UV radiation is known to cause cancer.  It impacts the human immune system.  UV radiation can also promote cataracts. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  33. 33. + 1.6 Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  34. 34. + Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  35. 35. + Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Pressure changes:  An increased altitude decreases pressure, because atmospheric pressure is the weight of air above you Temperature changes:  Increasing altitude causes a decreased temperature in the troposphere. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  36. 36. + Vertical Variations in Composition  Homosphere:  Heterosphere:  Lower layer, < 80  Uppermost layer, > 80 km km  Roughly the same  Occurs in shells proportion of  Lower shell—N2 component gases  Next shell—O2  Next shell—He  Outermost shell—H Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  37. 37. + Vertical Variations in Composition Ionosphere:  The ionosphere is located 80–400 km above the Earth’s surface.  At this altitude, atoms of oxygen and nitrogen become ionized and absorb shortwave solar energy. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  38. 38. + Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  39. 39. + Vertical Variations in Composition Troposphere:  Temperature decreases with altitude.  Environmental lapse rate 6.5° C/km (variable)  The tropopause marks the top and the lowest temperature. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  40. 40. + Vertical Variations in Composition Stratosphere:  Temperature increases with altitude.  The ozone layer is concentrated in the stratosphere.  Remember ozone absorbs the suns rays  The stratopause marks the top and the highest temperature. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  41. 41. + Vertical Variations in Composition Mesosphere:  Temperature decreases with altitude.  The mesopause marks the top and its lowest temperature. Thermosphere:  The thermosphere has no well-defined upper limit.  Temperature rises.  There are 3 layers of varying ion density, D, E, and F. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  42. 42. + Vertical Variations in Composition Auroras:  Aurora borealis (northern hemisphere)  Aurora australis (southern hemisphere)  Occur in the ionosphere  Earth’s magnetic field traps solar particles.  Auroras emit light. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
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