26 intro to the animal kingdom

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26 intro to the animal kingdom

  1. 1. Introduction to the Animal Kingdom Chapter 26
  2. 2. What is an Animal? <ul><li>They share certain characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies contain tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Either invertebrates or vertebrates </li></ul>
  3. 3. Invertebrates <ul><li>95% of all animals are here </li></ul><ul><li>These animals DO NOT have a backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Dust mites, giant squids, worms, insects, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Vertebrates <ul><li>Other 5% of the animals </li></ul><ul><li>HAVE a backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Fish, amphibians, reptiles birds and mammals </li></ul>
  5. 5. What animals do to survive <ul><li>Animals carry out the following essential functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Feeding <ul><li>Animals need to eat food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detritivores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter feeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic relationship </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Feeding <ul><li>http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/bugs-animals/ants-and-termites/ant_caterpillarsymbiosis.html </li></ul>
  8. 8. Respiration <ul><li>Take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Some rely on diffusion through their skin </li></ul><ul><li>Other have complex tissue and organ systems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Circulation <ul><li>Diffuse oxygen, waste, and nutrients through the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Have circulatory systems </li></ul>
  10. 10. Excretion <ul><li>Remove ammonia from cells and body </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia has nitrogen; in large amounts it can kill an animal </li></ul><ul><li>Removes other metabolic wastes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Response <ul><li>Response to environmental events by using specialized cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples are: responses to light, sound, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Movement <ul><li>The ability to be motile </li></ul><ul><li>Have muscles that move supported by a skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>In sedentary animals- muscles feed and pump water and other fluids through the body </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reproduction <ul><li>Sexually </li></ul><ul><li>Asexually </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trends in Animal Evolution <ul><li>Different phyla are related through a common evolutionary heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Cell specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Internal body organization </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral body symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalization </li></ul><ul><li>Body cavity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cell Specialization <ul><li>Blastopore formed from blastula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protosome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deuterostome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells form in 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoderm- Inner most layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoderm- Middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectoderm- Outer most layer </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Body Symmetry <ul><li>Radial Symmetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body parts repeat around the center of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- Bike wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bilateral Symmetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 equal halves from the plane of symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- Cray fish or Humans </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cephalization <ul><li>Concentration of sense organs and never cells in the front of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior end move forward </li></ul>
  18. 18. Body Cavity Formation <ul><li>Allows for the formation of organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspended and protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not pressed on by muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not twisted out of shape by movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves room for growth and expansion </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Body Cavity Formation <ul><li>In other animals, the space contains fluids for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excreting </li></ul></ul>

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