Shonima-Seminar Report Redtacton


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Shonima-Seminar Report Redtacton

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT IS REDTACTON? Human society is entering an era of omnipresent computing, when networks are seamlessly interconnected and information is always accessible at our fingertips. The practical implementation of omnipresent services requires three levels of connectivity: • Wide Area Networks (WAN), typically via the Internet, to remotely connect all types of severs and terminals; • Local Area Networks (LAN), typically via Ethernet or WiFi connectivity among all the information and communication appliances in offices and homes. • Human Area Networks (HAN) for connectivity to personal information, media and communication appliances within the much smaller sphere of ordinary daily activities-- the last one meter. NTT's RedTacton is a break-through technology that, for the first time, enables reliable high-speed HAN. Human Area Networking (HAN) is a technology that safely turns the surface of the human body into a data transmission path at speeds up to 10 Mbps between any two points on the body. 1
  2. 2. 1.2 HISTORY OF HAN In the past, Bluetooth, infrared communications (IrDA), radio frequency ID systems (RFID), and other technologies have been proposed to solve the "last meter" connectivity problem. However, they each have various fundamental technical limitations that constrain their usage, such as the precipitous fall-off in transmission speed in multi-user environments producing network congestion. • The concept of intra-body communication was first proposed by IBM in 1996. • This communication mechanism was later evaluated and reported by several research groups around the world. All those reported technologies had two limitations. 1. The operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of centimeters. 2. The top communication speed was only 40 bit/s!! These limitations were overcome by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) located in Tokyo, Japan by using photonic electric field sensors and finally came up with a human area networking technology called ‘RedTacton’. 1.3 OVERVIEW OF REDTACTON • RedTacton is a new innovative Human Area Networking technology that turns the surface of the human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path. 2
  3. 3. • RedTacton takes a different technical approach. Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data, RedTacton uses weak electric fields on the surface of the body as a transmission medium. • Using RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations according to the user's natural, physical movements. • Communication is possible using any body surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or toes. RedTacton works through shoes and clothing as well. • Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared. A transmission path is formed at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a RedTacton transceiver, physically separating ends the contact and thus ends communication. • A RedTacton transmitter couples with extremely weak electric fields on the surface of the body. The weak electric fields pass through the body to a RedTacton receiver, where the weak electric fields affect the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal. The extent to which the optical properties are changed is detected by laser light which is then converted to an electrical signal by a detector circuit. • NTT developed super sensitive Photonic electric field sensor for detecting minute electric field emitted on the surface of the human body. 3
  4. 4. The electro-optic sensor has three key features: • It can measure electric fields from a device under test (DUT) without contacting it, which minimizes measurement disturbance. • Ultra wide-band measurement is possible. • It supports one-point contact measurement that is independent of the ground, Which is the most significant feature in the present context. NTT utilized this third feature to fabricate an intrabody communication receiver. For its human area networking technology, which is called RedTacton. Meaning Of RedTacton? TACTON: - “touch-act-on” Meaning “action triggered by touching”. RED: - It is an auspicious color according to Japanese culture. RedTacton transceiver Figure 1.1 shows a photograph of the RedTacton transceiver connected to a PDA. 4
  5. 5. • The transmitter consists of a transmitter circuit that induces electric fields toward the body and a data sense circuit, which distinguishes transmitting and receiving modes by detecting both transmission and reception data and outputs control signals corresponding to the two modes to enable two-way communication. • Implementation of receive-first half-duplex communication scheme that sends only after checking to make sure that there is no data to receive in order to avoid packet collisions. • RedTacton takes advantage of the long-overlooked electric field that surrounds the human body. 5
  6. 6. NARRATION 2.1 HOW REDTACTON WORKS? Figure 2.1 shows the working of the RED TACTON device over the surface of our body 1. The RedTacton transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body. 2. The RedTacton receiver senses changes in the weak electric field on the surface of the body caused by the transmitter. 6
  7. 7. 3. RedTacton relies upon the principle that the optical properties of an electrooptic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field. 4. RedTacton detects changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal using a laser and converts the result to an electrical signal in a optical receiver circuit. Multiple transceivers can be used simultaneously. This is because RedTacton uses a proprietary CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) protocol that allows multiple access with the same medium from multiple nodes. 2.2 MECHANISM OF COMMUNICATION WITH REDTACTON Data is received using a photonic electric field sensor that combines an electrooptic crystal and a laser light to detect fluctuations in the minute electric field. The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam. 7
  8. 8. Figure: 2.2 Figure shows the various electric fields on the surface of our body induced by the RedTacton device. Only a portion of the induced electric field is sensed by the receiving RedTacton device. The remaining electric fields are dissipated to the ground. The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam. 8
  9. 9. Fig.2.3.Figure illustrating the transfer of data 9
  10. 10. 2.3 RED TACTON TRANSCEIVER Figure below shows the block diagram of a RED TACTON transceiver. The signal from the interface is sent to the data sense circuit and the transmitter circuit. The data sense circuit senses the signal and if the data is present it sends control signal to the transmitter which activates the transmitter circuit. The transmitter circuit varies the electric field on the surface of our body. This change in the electric field is detected by the electro-optic sensor. The output of the electro-optic sensor is given to the detector circuit, which in turn given to the interface of the receiving RED TACTON device. Fig.2.4. Block diagram of Red TACTON transceiver 10
  11. 11. 2.4 FUNCTIONAL FEATURES: 1. A communications path can be created with a simple touch, automatically initiating the flow of data between a body-centric electronic device and a computer that is embedded in the environment. For example, two people equipped with RedTacton devices could exchange data just by shaking hands. A wide range of natural human actions grasping, sitting down, walking, or standing in a particular place can be used to trigger RedTacton to start a networked process. 11
  12. 12. 2. Using a RedTacton electro-optic sensor, two-way communication is supported between any two points on the body at a throughput of up to 10 Mbps. Communication is not just confined to the surface of the body, but can travel through the user's clothing to a RedTacton device in a pocket or through shoes to communicate with a RedTacton device embedded in the floor. Unlike wireless technologies, the transmission speed does not deteriorate even in the presence of large crowds of people all communicating at the same time in meeting rooms, auditoriums or stores. Because the body surface is the transmission path, increasing the number of connected users directly increases the available number of individual channels. 3. RedTacton can utilize a wide range of materials as a transmission medium, as long as the material is conductive and dielectric, which includes water and other liquids, various metals, certain plastics, glass, etc. Using ordinary structures such as tables and walls that are familiar and readily available, one could easily construct a seamless communication environment at very low cost using Red Tacton. (Note that constraints are imposed by the length and environment of the propagating conductor, and by the thickness of the dielectric.) 2.5 System Safety NO current flows into human body from RedTacton devices. RedTacton uses the Electric field that occurs naturally on the surface of the human body for Communication. Transmitter and receiver electrodes are covered with an Insulating films. RedTacton is in conformity to the "Radiofrequency-exposure 12
  13. 13. Protection” standard (RCR STD-38)" issued by the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) 2.6 FEATURES OF RED RedTacton has three main functional features 13
  14. 14. 1. Touch: Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data. Fig.2.8.Figure illustrating that RedTacton device can be triggered by touching, gripping, sitting, walking and stepping. 2. Broadband and interactive: Bandwidth does not deteriorate even with duplex operations and simultaneous access by many users. Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a speed of 10Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, 14
  15. 15. transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time. Maximum communication speed may be slower than 1 environment.possible at a maximum 10Mbps depending on the usage environment. 3. Media: RedTacton can utilize a wide range of materials as a transmissionmedium, as long as the material is conductive and dielectric, which includes water and other liquids, various metals, certain plastics, glass, etc. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination. 15
  16. 16. Conductor Dielectrics Both conductor and dielectric 16
  17. 17. 2.7 COMPARISON WITH OTHER HUMAN COMMUNICATION METHODS Figure 2.10 1. RedTacton does not require the electrode to be in direct contact with the skin. 2. With the electric amperage method, electrode must be in direct contact with the skin. 17
  18. 18. APPLICATIONS 3.1 SIX MAJOR APPLICATION FIELDS USING REDTACTON ARE INTRODUCED: 3.1.1 One to One services With the ability to send attribute data from personal information devices worn on the body to computers embedded in the environment, one-to-one services could be implemented that are tailored to the individual needs of the user. 3.1.2 Intuitive operation of personal information Communication is triggered by totally natural human actions and behavior, so there is no need to insert smart cards, connect cables, tune frequencies, or any of the other inconveniences usually associated with today's electronic devices. Fig.3.3. A simple handshake can transfer data. 3.1.3 Device personalization Setup, registration, and configuration information for an individual user can all be uploaded to a device the instant the device is touched, eliminating the need for the device to be registered or configured in advance. 18
  19. 19. 3.1.4 New behavior patterns Tables, walls, floors and chairs can all act as conductors and dielectrics, turning furniture and other architectural elements into a new class of transmission medium. For example, a user could have instant access to the Internet merely by placing a laptop onto a conductive tabletop. 3.1.5 Marketing applications When a consumer stands in front of an advertising panel, advertising and information matching his or her attributes is automatically displayed. By touching or standing in front of items they are interested in, consumers can get more in-depth information. Fig.3.4. A customer touching the advertising panel and getting information about that advertisement through RedTacton device 3.1.6 Security applications RedTacton could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such that each secure access could be initiated and authenticated 19
  20. 20. with a simple touch. At the same time, all the transaction details and relevant user attributes (personal identity, security clearance, etc.) could be logged by the security system. An Alarm sounds automatically to avoid accidental medicine ingestion Touch advertising and receive information. 3.2 COMPARISON WITH OTHER NETWORKS The chart below shows the positioning of RedTacton with respect to existing communication technologies. The focus on ubiquitous service has brought about the shortening of distances in communication. RedTacton is positioned as the last 1m solution to ultimate close-range communication. Wireless communication creates connections when signals arrive, allowing for easy connections because connectors are unnecessary. However, seen from another aspect, the arriving signals can be intercepted, so security becomes an issue. Wired communication transmits data between two connection points, so interception is difficult and security can be considered to be high. However, connectors and cables are a nuisance. Taking the above points in account, RedTacton is situated directly between wireless and wired communication. In other words, RedTacton allows for easy connection without connectors, while at the same time allowing transmission of data only between two contact points. It thus has the feature of being difficult to intercept. 20
  21. 21. Fig.3.5.Figure shows the comparison of RED TACTON device with other networks with respect to distance 21
  22. 22. 3.3 ADVANTAGE OVER BLUETOOTH The system envisioned by NTT, utilizes a conversion method which takes digital data into a stream of low-power digital pulses. These can be easily transmitted and read back through the human electric field. While it is true that similar personal area networks are already accessible by using radio-based technologies like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, this new wireless technology claims to be able to send data over the human skin surface at transfer speeds of up to 10Mbps, or better than a broadband T1 connection. Receiving data in such a system is more complicated because the strength of the pulses sent through the electric field is so low. RedTacton solves this issue by utilizing a technique called electric field photonics: A laser is passed though an electro-optic crystal, which deflects light differently according to the strength of the field across it. These deflections are measured and converted back into electrical signals to retrieve the transmitted data. According to Tom Zimmerman, inventor of the IBM personal networking system, body-based networking is more secure than broadcast systems such as Bluetooth, which have a range of about 10m.The issue is that with Bluetooth, it is difficult to rein in the signal and restrict it to the device you are trying to connect to. But in a busy place there could be hundreds of Bluetooth devices within range. 22
  23. 23. Moreover, body-based networking seems to allow for more natural interchanges of information between humans, as only when you are in true proximity you can make this system work. There are some specific applications that would appear as being ideal matches for RedTacton-like technologies. Advantages • Data transfer is faster and easier through this technology. • Data loss during transfer is less. • Use of minimum amount of power (of some mili volt range). • Security is more. Disadvantages • It can be useful within few centimeters. • Effects on human body is still under research. Scope of research • Communication between electronic devices on the human body(wearable computers) and ones embedded in our everyday environments can be possible • Wired connection can be replaced. • In the crowded areas such as meeting room due to many users throughput can be reduced by packet collision in case of Bluetooth and wireless LAN using RED TACTON this problem can be solved. 23
  24. 24. 3.4 PROTOTYPE DEVICES Fig.3.7.Transmission devices whose development is in progress 24
  25. 25. 3.5 PLANS FOR COMMERCIALIZATION • It seems like there was a press release event where they demoed the technology. The first demo was a PDA medication assistant that shows instructions relevant to touched medicine bottles. The second was a museum guide PDA whose contents was fed from a floor-embedded transmitter through a user’s feet. • NTT plans to develop transceivers with an emphasis on portability that are more compact and less power consumption. Through field testing, NTT will continue to investigate and improve the robustness of Human Area Networking and human body surface communication applications. 25
  26. 26. CONCLUSION RedTacton is an exciting new technology for human area networking. We have developed a transceiver that uses the human body as a data transmission medium based on an electric-field sensor that uses an electro-optic crystal and laser ight. Using this transceiver, we succeeded in achieving 10BASE communication in accordance with IEEE 802.3 through a human body from one hand to the other hand. While our immediate objective is to implement a RedTacton system supporting twoway intrabody communication at a rate of 10 Mbit/s between any two points on the body, our longer-term plans include developing a mass-market transceiver interface supporting PDAs and notebook computers while continuing efforts to reduce the size and power consumption of the transceiver to enhance its portability. NTT is committed to using its comprehensive commercialization functions to push this research out to the marketplace as quickly as possible while moving ahead With tests and trials in collaboration with commercial partners as necessary. The need for artificial body implants to communicate with each other as well as to report back to a portable device could have quite some value. In fact, according to other researchers, the most important application for bodybased networking may well be for these type of communications within, rather than on the surface of, or outside, the body. 26
  27. 27. RedTacton technology is expected to dominate Bluetooth technology in the future. RedTacton technology could put the use of cables to an end. The problem faced by the RedTacton technology is the cost of development. This technology brings a new dimension of communication which effectively links the user to anyone he wants to communicate. Since it provides high speed communication, it can provide seamless service wherever, whenever and whoever uses it. 27
  28. 28. REFERENCES • • • • • • • • 28