Health terminology blackboard

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  • http://www.merck.com/mmhe/resources/pronunciations/index/a.html http://www.merck.com/mmhe/about/front/medterms.html?qt=terminology&alt=sh
  • Inside or within
  • around
  • before
  • After so what would POSTPARTUM mean = after childbirth
  • Without Without or absent of
  • Single Two Can you give me any more examples of where the prefix of UNI or BI are used ? UNILATERAL – one side of the body/
  • Pronunciation site http://www.merck.com/mmhe/resources/pronunciations/index/a.html Abbreviations http://www.merck.com/mmhe/about/front/medterms.html?qt=terminology&alt=sh
  • Health terminology blackboard

    1. 1. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 1
    2. 2. ObjectivesResponding Appropriately to instructions which contain Basic Medical Terminology.  Receive, understand and document written and oral instructions. Including checklists.  Understand medical term abbreviations  Understand policy and procedures for medical terms  Seek clarification when necessary. Carry out routine Tasks:  Use Medical Terminology correctly and seek assistance when required  Communicate effectively using oral / written medical terms  Clients, Fellow workers and Health Professionals  Spelling and Pronounced correctly Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 2
    3. 3. When would HealthTerminology be used?Patients notesGeneral documents within the health environment (Assessment charts, Handover notes)Care PlansVerbal HandoversGiving informationReceiving InformationResearch materialResources Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 3
    4. 4. Strategies for New wordsRead it , Read it again then read it out aloudFind out the meaningUnderstand the meaning Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 4
    5. 5. Understanding Medical terms better?Don’t assume- Ask the question if you didn’t hear correctly or don’t understand something.Listen carefully- concentrateDouble check your spelling- Simple errors can make a huge difference. ( see list of misspelled words).Get yourself a portable medical dictionary- highlight the common words you use or misspell .Listen to peopleSpell it, Say it, write it and explain it’s meaning to someone Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 5
    6. 6. Understanding Health termsFind different resources to view and hear Health terminology Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 6
    7. 7. Web SitesPronunciation sitehttp://www.merck.com/mmhe/resources/pronunciati ons/index/a.htmlAbbreviationshttp://www.merck.com/mmhe/about/front/medterm s.html?qt=terminology&alt=sh Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 7
    8. 8. Guidelines for PronunciationWriting and Saying medical terminology is very different.To learn how to pronounce medical words you will need to say them out aloudUse a good medical dictionary that has how to pronounce the words. It will have the breakdown of the word and look like this : Addiction (say: uh-dik-shun)Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 8
    9. 9. Pronunciation of medical terminology Find an internet site that has audio pronunciation and listen and practice. Here is one you can start with. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/resources/pronunciation s/index/a.html Listen to others in the medical field and how they pronounce words, You can also listen to TV shows and watch medical videos to also here how it is said. Best of all practice , practice and practice Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 9
    10. 10. Health TerminologyLet’s have a look at some areas with HealthTerminology Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 10
    11. 11. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 11
    12. 12. Health Terminology in a Hospital setting Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 12
    13. 13. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 13
    14. 14. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 14
    15. 15. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 15
    16. 16. Medical Specialists Definitions Of Medical Specialties Handout is available in the resource section in Blackboard. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 16
    17. 17. Health Terminology: Basic Word StructureObjectivesrelate the study of medical terms to the study of a foreign languagelist all the possible component parts of a medical term, including the root, combining vowel, prefix, and suffix.build medical terms with a variety of component parts by following the rules for forming and spelling medical terms.define medical terms by analyzing their component parts. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 17
    18. 18. The Language of Medicine Studying medical terminology is very similar to learning a new language. This is because most medical terms stem from Greek or Latin origins. Other languages, such as German and French, have also influenced medical terminology. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 18
    19. 19. The Components of Medical TermsMedical terms are like individualjigsaw puzzles. They areconstructed from small pieces(prefixes, combining forms, andsuffixes) that make each termunique.Once you understand the basicmedical term structure and howthese components fit together,you will be able to “build” almostany medical term. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 19
    20. 20. Start with the ROOT of the termThe root is the foundation of the medical term. All medical terms haveone or more roots.Examples of medical term roots are: lip which means “fat” hemat which means “blood” cardi which means “heart” gastr which means “stomach” Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 20
    21. 21. The combining vowel (usually o) is used to link the root to the suffix orthe root to another root. The combining vowel has no meaning of itsown. When a vowel is linked to a root, this combination is called acombining form. lip + o = lipo = the combining form of “fat”When the suffix begins with a vowel, the combining vowel is dropped. lip + φ + oid = lipoid (“resembling fat”) Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 21
    22. 22. …Now add the SUFFIX The suffix is the term ending. All medical terms have a suffix. Examples of medical term suffixes are: –emia which means “blood condition” –itis which means “inflammation” –logy which means “study of” –ic which means “pertaining to” Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 22
    23. 23. The prefix is a small part that is attached to the beginning of a term.Not all medical terms contain prefixes, but if present, the prefix canhave an important influence on the meaning of the term.Examples of medical term prefixes are: hyper- which means “above or excessive” peri- which means “around or surrounding” epi- which means “upon, above, or beside” endo- which means “within” Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 23
    24. 24. You’ve got a medical term!Prefix + Root + Vowel + Suffix = Medical Term hemat o logy hematologyepi gastr φ ic epigastric cardi o pathy cardiopathyperi cardi φ itis pericarditis lip φ oma lipoma Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 24
    25. 25. a. A combining vowel is used to join root to root as well as root to anysuffix beginning with a consonant: electr + o + cardi + o + gram = electrocardiogram root + vowel + root + vowel + suffix (electrical record of the heart)b. A combining vowel is not used before a suffix that begins with avowel: vas + φ + ectomy = vasectomy root + no vowel + suffix beginning with (excision of a vessel) a vowel Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 25
    26. 26. You can usually define a term by interpreting the suffix first, then theprefix (if present), then the succeeding root or roots. For example: hyper lip emia = hyperlipemia prefix root suffix medical term blood blood condition of excessive fat condition excessive fat Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 26
    27. 27. You Gotta Have Heart…The following are examples and definitions of the various medical termsthat can be formed using the root “cardi” (heart):Root/Suffix Prefix/Root/Suffix Combining Form/Suffixcardi/ac epi/cardi/um cardi/o/logyheart/pertaining to upon/heart/tissue heart/study of(pertaining to the heart) (tissue upon the heart) (study of the heart)Combining Form/ Prefix/Prefix/Root/Suffix Prefix/Combining Form/Root/SuffixCombining Form/Suffix peri/cardi/o/mediastin/itiselectr/o/cardi/o/gram sub/endo/cardi/al surrounding/heart/mediastinum/electricity/heart/record beneath/within/heart/ inflammation(electrical record of the pertaining to (inflammation of the areaheart) (pertaining to beneath surrounding the heart and the and within the heart) mediastinum) Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 27
    28. 28. See if you can pick the correct definition for the following terms: pericarditis the study of blood epigastric pertaining to the interior of the abdomen hematology inflammation surrounding the heart endoabdominal pertaining to the area above the stomach Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 28
    29. 29. Here are the correct term-definition matches: pericarditis inflammation surrounding the heart epigastric pertaining to the area above the stomach hematology the study of blood endoabdominal pertaining to the interior of the abdomen Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 29
    30. 30. The important components of medical terms are:• Root: foundation of the term• Suffix: word ending• Prefix: word beginning• Combining vowel: vowel that links the root to the suffix of the root to another root.Remember• Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the beginning and then across. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 30
    31. 31. Studying medical terminology Which of the following is not is like learning a new ____ a medical term component?a language a rootb dance step b suffixc math skill c consonantd sport d combining vowel Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 31
    32. 32. The ___ is the foundation of The root plus vowel the medical term. combination is called the ___a suffix a prefixb root b suffixc prefix c medical termd vowel d combining form Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 32
    33. 33. Health Terminology and the body:AnatomyAna/tomy comes from Greek word anatome meaning cutting apart.Anatomy is the study of naming body structures. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 33
    34. 34. Skeletal systemProperty of CY O’Connor Institute – Author ShonaAndrews 34
    35. 35. Health Terminology and the bodyFemor/o = Femur Thigh bone, the longest bone in the body Femoral: Pertaining to femoral (thigh) boneCalcane/o = Calcaneus Calcaneum = Calcaneus bone, a heel bone Calcanealgia: Pain in the heelilium  ili/oili/ac crest is in pelvisNote: ileum  ile/o is a part of small intestine,Stern/o = Sternum Sternalgia, Sternodynia: Pain in the sternum Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 35
    36. 36. Health Terminology and the bodySpineCervical - Cervic/oThoracic – Thorac/oLumbar - Lumb/oSacral - Sacr/oCoccygeal - Coccyg/o Example: similar /different •Cervic/al: Pertaining to neck •Cervix is the neck of the uterus Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 36
    37. 37. Practice…The joint between the sacrum and the ilium Sacr/o/ili/ac joint = Sacroiliac jointPertaining to the thorax and lumbar spines Thorac/o/lumbar = ThoracolumbarPertaining to the sacrum and the sciatic nerve Sacr/o/sciat/ic = SacrosciaticRemoval of the coccy Coccyg/ectomy = Coccygectomy Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 37
    38. 38. Anatomical PositionThe science of anatomy describes all aspects of motion from the frame of reference of the anatomical position.The anatomical position is described as: Body upright in the vertical axis Legs and feet parallel Arms hanging by sides Palms and face are directed forward Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 38
    39. 39. Anatomical Position http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikibooks/en/e/e5/Body_chart.jpgProperty of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 39
    40. 40. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 40
    41. 41. Superficial =at the body’ssurface. Superficial DeepDeep =farthest fromthe body’ssurface http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/images/ency/fullsize/8912.jpg Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 41
    42. 42. Body RegionsBody regions identify areas that have a special nerve or vascular supply or those that perform a special function.The most widely used terms are those used to describe the regions in the abdomen and also the abdominal quadrants. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 42
    43. 43. Body Regions – Abdominal RegionsThe Abdominal area is divided up into nine http://gastroresource. regions: com/GITextbook/en/i Right and Left mages/imgchp1/fig6.g Hypochondriac if Epigastric Right and Left Lumbar (Lateral) Umbilical Right and Left Iliac (Inguinal) http://gastroresource.com/GITextbook/en/images/imgchp1/fig6.gif Hypogastric (pubic) Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 43
    44. 44. Reference Planes  Reference Planes are imaginary lines used to section the body and it’s organs.  These lines can run either longitudinally, horizontally, and on an angle.Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 44
    45. 45. Reference Planes The median sagittal plane passes through the centre of the body, dividing it into two equal right and left halves. The frontal plane, also called the coronal plane, passes at a right angle to the medial plane, dividing the body into front and back portions. The transverse, or horizontal plane is at a right angle to both the median and frontal planes; it divides the body into upper (superior or cephalic) and lower (inferior or caudal) sections. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 45
    46. 46. Body Cavities Body cavities are spaces within the body that contain internal organs. There are two main cavities which are called the dorsal and ventral cavities. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 46
    47. 47. BODY SYSTEMSOSTEO- BONESARTHRO- JOINTSCHONDRO- CARTILAGEMYO – MUSCLESCARDIO-HEARTPHLEB- VEINSARTERIO- ARTERIEHEPATO-LIVERNEPHR- OR REN- KIDNEYSENCEPHAL-BRAIN Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 47
    48. 48. BODY SYSTEMSHEMA- OR HEMAT- BLOODSPLENO- SPLEENNAS-NOSEPNUEMO-LUNGSORO-MOUTHGASTRO-STOMACHENTERO-SMALL INTESTINECOLO-LARGE INTESTINEMYELO-SPINAL CORDOPTHAL, OR OCUL- EYESOT-, ACOUST- EARSProperty of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 48
    49. 49. BODY SYSTEMS HEPATO-LIVER NEPHR- OR REN- KIDNEYS CYST-, VESSICO- URINARY BLADDER NEUR- NERVOUS SYSTEM ENCEPHAL-BRAIN MYELO-SPINAL CORD OPTHAL, OR OCUL- EYES OT-, ACOUST- EARS CUTAN-, DERMAT– SKINProperty of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 49
    50. 50. PrefixPrefixes may be divided into various categories of meaning depending on how they modify the stem, such as location, time, Negation (countable) amount,  color, size, orposition. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 50
    51. 51. Prefix- locationEndo- is a prefix meaning within or inside.Metro is the stem meaning uterus.Endometritis, then, is a word which means inflammation __________ the uterus. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 51
    52. 52. Prefix- locationPeri- is a prefix which means around or surrounding.Cardio is the stem for heart.Pericarditis, then, is a word which means inflammation __________ the heart. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 52
    53. 53. Prefix -timeThe prefixes ante- and pre- mean before.By combining the prefix ante-with the stem partum, you know that antepartum means __________ childbirth. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 53
    54. 54. Prefix -timeThe prefix post- also means after.Consequently, a postoperative complication is a complication which occurred ____________ surgery. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 54
    55. 55. Prefix –Negation (countable) The prefixes a- or- an mean without or absence of. Therefore, afebrile means __________ fever. The stem esthesia means feeling. Therefore, anesthesia means __________ feeling. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 55
    56. 56. Prefix-AmountUni- and mono- are prefixes which mean one or single. Monocyte, for example, refers to a __________ cell. A unicycle has one wheel.Bi- is a prefix indicating the number two. Bi- lateral, then, refers to __________ sides. A bicycle has two wheelsProperty of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 56
    57. 57. Prefix-AmountThe prefix for three is tri. Therefore, the valve in the heart which has __________ parts is called the tricuspid valve. A tricycle has three wheels.The prefix quadri- means four. A person with quadriplegia has paralysis in all __________ limbsProperty of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 57
    58. 58. Prefix-AmountThe prefixes multi- and poly- mean many or much. A person with polyneuritis has inflammation of __________ nerves.The prefixes hemi- and semi- mean half. A person with hemiplegia has paralysis on one-______ of the body. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 58
    59. 59. Prefix-Amount The prefix hypo- also means too little, or low. Therefore, a person with hypotension has __________ blood pressure. Hyper- is a prefix that is just the opposite of hypo-. Hyper means above or high. A person with hypertension, then, has blood pressure above the normal or __________ blood pressure. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 59
    60. 60. Prefix-AmountThe prefix for fast is tachy-. A person with tachycardia has an abnormally __________ heartbeat.The prefix for slow is brady-.A person with bradycardia has an abnormally __________ heartbeat. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 60
    61. 61. Prefix-ColourThe prefix leuko- means white.A leukocyte, then, refers to a __________ blood cell.Erythro- is a prefix meaning red.An erythrocyte, therefore, refers to a __________ blood cell. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 61
    62. 62. Prefix-colourCyano- is a prefix meaning blue.Cyanosis refers to a __________ condition of the skin.Melano- is a prefix meaning dark or black.A melanoma is a malignant or __________ tumor. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 62
    63. 63. Prefix-Size Micro- is a prefix meaning small. A cyte is a stem meaning cell. A microcyte, therefore, is a very ______ Macro- is a prefix which means the opposite of micro-large. Things that are macroscopic can be seen with the naked eye. Very large cells are called __________cytes. Mega- is also a prefix which means large. A megacolon is an abnormally __________ colon. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 63
    64. 64. SuffixMost suffixes are in common use in English, but a few are peculiar to medicine.The suffixes most commonly used to indicate disease are -itis, meaning inflammation;  -oma, meaning tumor; and -osis, meaning condition, usually morbid. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 64
    65. 65. Suffix-diagnosis The suffix -cele means hernia, protrusion, or tumor. A gastrocele, then, is a protrusion or __________ of the stomach. -emia is the suffix for blood. A word we are all familiar with is leukemia, which is an abnormal amount of immature white blood cells. Hypoglycemia is a low amount of sugar in the __________. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 65
    66. 66. Suffix-diagnosis The suffix for inflammation is -itis. Encephalitis, then, is __________ of the brain. The suffix for hardening is -sclerosis. The stem for artery, as you will recall, is arterio. Arteriosclerosis, then, is __________ of the arteries. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 66
    67. 67. Suffix-Symptons-algia is a suffix meaning pain. Dentalgia, then, is the medical term for a __________ in the tooth.-rrhagia is the suffix meaning excessive flow or discharge. Thus, hemorrhage is a term meaning __________ of blood. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 67
    68. 68. PROCEDURES- centesis:fluid removal (amniocentesis)- ectomy: removal- graphy, - gram: picture (arteriography, pyelogram)- plasty: to repair (rhinoplasty)- scopy: visual exam (colonoscopy, endoscopy) Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 68
    69. 69. AbbreviationsWhy would we use them? Quicker to right Quicker to say How would you make sure you were using the appropriate abbreviations for Your workplace? - Policies and procedures (see handout of Med terminology Policy abbreviations) Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 69
    70. 70. Abbreviations in action See if you can work out what each See if you can work out what each of the blue abbreviations mean. of the blue abbreviations mean. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 70
    71. 71. Pronunciation  Listen to how words are pronounced- You may need to listen more than once  Repeat it, repeat it and repeat it again until you are comfortable with the pronunciation  Use it on its own and then in a sentence  Knowing the meaning of the words you are saying make it easier to pronounce  Break the word into syllables to help in the understanding of the words Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 71
    72. 72. Web sites that may help Jukeboxhttp://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=GEN504Abbreviations with sound http://nursing.flinders.edu.au/students/studyaids/clinicalcomm unication/page_glossary.php?id=13 Medical words with soundhttp://ec.hku.hk/mt/pronunciation4.asp Pronunciation site http://www.merck.com/mmhe/resources/pronunciations/index/a.html Abbreviations http://www.merck.com/mmhe/about/front/medterms.html? qt=terminology&alt=sh Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 72
    73. 73. Documentation requirementslegible, concise, accurate, relevant, in chronological order and currentOnly abbreviations listed on the agency approved abbreviation list should be used.Should any errors in documentation require correction, a neat line should be ruled through the entry and ‘written in error’ stated followed by the date, name and designation of the author. Correction fluid should never be used on any documentation in health records. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 73
    74. 74. Think about how we communicate within different health Roles: Client colleagues Other Professionals Information given Uncomplicated More complex complex language language language within their role Face to face, Face to face, Face to face, Channel used written written, verbal, written, verbal, recorded, electronic electronic Amount of Minimal More information Specific information given information (as in detail information for needed) their role Your role Confidentiality , Know when and Know your role Know what you what to report to and are permitted to senior staff responsibilities say within your role Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 74
    75. 75. RememberYou wont remember every word that you hear or see and your not expected to.The more words you see, hear and say the more you will rememberPractice using the correct terminology whenever you can.Make it your plan to listen carefully whenever the opportunity arrives to hear medical/health terminologySay words out aloud , even if you have to read to your dog or cat it is good practise. Property of CY O’Connor Institute – Author Shona Andrews 75

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