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Skills of writing in corporate world.


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Writing letters and application in today's business world.

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Skills of writing in corporate world.

  1. 1. Unit - 3
  2. 2.  Writing is the formal way of expressing our thoughts.  Written communication is transmitted by written words in the form of letters, reports, notices etc.  It generally moves downwards.  Written communication has great significance in today‘s business world.
  3. 3.  Used to issue specific instructions and orders to the subordinates  It is the only way out when the message is quite lengthy and it is not possible to convey all the points through oral communication.  It serves as a reliable record for future reference.  It is more clear and specific  Feedback is generally well thought out because the receiver gets the sufficient time to understand and evaluate the message.
  4. 4.  Written communication is time-consuming  Feedback is not immediate  If the message is poorly drafted, it may create misunderstanding and confusion in the mind of the receiver.  If the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.  Once a written message has been dispatched, there is little scope left for making amends for the inaccuracy that may have crept into it.
  5. 5. The first task of writing effectively is to identify the purpose of the communication. There are mainly two purpose of writing-  To inform : When the writer seeks to give information and offer to explain it, the writing is called informative writing. The focus of informative writing is on the subject of the matter under discussion. It presents the information and not opinions.  To persuade: It aims at convincing the reader about the matter. It expresses opinions rather than facts. It focuses on the reader. Writer attempts to change the reader‘s thinking, and bring it closer to his own way of thinking. There has to be supporting evidence or facts to back the writer‘s opinion or point of view.
  6. 6. Effective business writing meets five basic principles :-  Clear  Complete  Correct  It saves the reader‘s time  It builds goodwill.
  7. 7. Writing Skills Amendment Editing First Drafting Planning
  8. 8. In the initial phase of writing skill that is planning which involves a close study or examination of the basic elements of a message such as, purpose of communication, medium, selection of thoughts, audience analysis, statistics related to the message and to prepare the message in an organized and meticulous manner. The thought process should also be considered for planning. The following 5 points deserve attention:- i) object of communication ii) audience analysis iii) selection of thoughts iv) collection of data and facts according to thoughts v) to prove proper sequence of message.
  9. 9. ― Two of the most important positions in any business message are the opening and closing paragraphs.‖ -- Murphy Remember : “ First impressions are lasting”. & “ We remember best what we read last ”.
  10. 10.  Here the contents of the first draft are prepared according to which the thoughts are translated in words and words into sentences are divided into paragraphs.  The relevant facts and quotations are also incorporated to substantiate the message which may be formal or informal.  First draft can follow the following styles: (i) Linear style (ii) Circular style
  11. 11.  Linear Style : in this, the thoughts are assorted one after the other.  Circular Style : in this, the thoughts are presented in a circular style which is more flexible and the facts are juxtaposed simultaneously in this style. While preparing the first draft, more emphasis should be given to your style, tone and use of attitude(positive), as it must help to establish credibility.
  12. 12.  It refers to an overhauling the draft by excluding the unwanted or surplus or ineffective elements and including something more viable.  It also involves grammatical corrections along with the collection of thoughts and their denotative or connotative words are re-examined, the language re-structured before giving any definite stage.  The stage can also be termed as ―under-treatment‖ or ―rewriting‖.
  13. 13.  This is the final or concluding phase in the process and the art of writing skill is a subject to rigorous analysis.  In editing, it is reviewed and examined if any shortcoming is left in the structure of the message. In this condition, sentence formation, pronunciation or accent and grammatical accuracy, etc., can be improved upon. The following steps has to be taken care of :- 1. Use of pure and comprehensive vocabulary. 2. Use of strong words as far as possible. 3. Use of familiar but effective words. 4. Use of short words to minimize misunderstanding. 5. Editing 6. The subject matter be paragraphed.
  14. 14.  The answers to the following queries lead to an effective writing: 1) Why to write? 2) For whom to write? 3) What to write? 4) Where to write? 5) When to write? 6) How to write?
  15. 15. The solution to the problems lies here under:  Writing should be practical.  Writing should be epigrammatic and terse.  Unity in Writing.  Precision cum concision in language.  Comprehensive Writing.  Avoid using undesirable words.  Always use polite and courteous and familiar words.  Avoid inflammatory or inciting language.  Writing should be real and believable.  Writing should be according to the subject.  Writing must be brief.
  17. 17.  ―Written business communication in the modern times refers to letters, advertisements / memos, reports, speech- writing and many other writing – activities.‖  Few examples and means of written business communication are given as here under : 1) Newspapers, magazines, bulletins, hand-books and diaries. 2) Suggestions 3) Business journals 4) Organizational schedules 5) Standing orders, rules and regulation book 6) Teleprinter 7) Annual reports 8) Agenda, minutes, publications and reports, etc.
  18. 18.  Validity  Compulsory need  Stability  Reality
  19. 19.  More effective than personal contact  Easy maintenance  Redressal of grievance / complaints  Expansion of business area  Multiple contacts  More effective  Goodwill  Easy disapproval of unpleasant message  Creativity  Inexpensive  Proof
  20. 20.  Unity  Emphasis  Completeness  Clarity  Conciseness  Accuracy
  21. 21.  In business communication, the sender should ensure that he or she I communicating with you-attitude.  You-attitude means conveying the message from reader's point of view and emphasizing on the contents that reader intends to know while showing him respect.  You-attitude is a style of writing that -  Looks at things from the reader‘s point of view.  Respects the reader‘s intelligence.  Protects the reader‘s ego.  Emphasizes what the reader wants to know.  You-attitude is a concrete way of showing empathy for the reader.
  22. 22. 1) Talk about the receiver not about yourself 2) Do not talk about feelings 3) Use ―You‖ and ―We‖ more than ―I‖ in positive situation 4) Avoid ―You ‖ in negative situation.
  23. 23.  To bring accuracy, brevity, and clarity in the business writing, following rules are recommended for the use of words.  Use simple and familiar words.  Use positive words.  Use short words.  Use exact words and phrases.  Avoid excessive use of jargons.
  24. 24.  Business correspondence is an instrument of decision making in the business world.  Business Correspondence is a link between people.  It helps to reinforce professional exchange of ideas, opinion and information.
  25. 25.  Business letters are important and indispensable part of the business communication.  Business letters are relied upon as one of the best ways to ensure conveying of accurate as well as detailed message.  “A business letter is a typed out talk.”  Like a person incapable of a good conversation proves ineffective, similarly an unplanned letter fails to deliver the message.  Thus, writing like speaking is also an art.
  26. 26.  Record and reference:-  Business letters works as a permanent records of dealing with customers, suppliers and governments agencies and serve as ready reference if further quarries arises.  Evidence of contracts:-  Act as valid document and evidence of the contracts between two parties.  A letter signed by managing director is an authentic proof.
  27. 27.  Public relations:-  Business letters serve as formal as well as informal business relations even without personal contacts.  Helps in making goodwill and positive image of company in front of customers, creditors and other parties.  Business in remote:-  Letters also serve business in case of dealing with person operating in remote area, where transport and communication is not developed or distance is too long to deal with economically.
  29. 29.  Private letters are usually exchanged b/w family members, friends and other near and dear ones which do not strictly follow any rules and regulations such as father/son, brother/sister and other relatives, etc.
  30. 30.  Business letters are those which are written b/w business people for the purpose of business, e.g., rate inquiry letters, order for goods, letter for payment of balance amount, etc.
  31. 31.  These are the ones which are written by government employees or officials in connection with some govt. affairs e.g., SDM, Deputy commissioner or any govt. employee, etc.
  32. 32.  Record and Reference  Evidence of Contracts  Public Relations  Business in remote  Business Upliftment and Development  Business Goodwill
  33. 33.  To encourage sales and purchase  To establish contacts with new clients  Resurrection dead (old)customers and revival of old business relationships.  To re-establish and pre-establish business connections.  Service s after sales.  Source of encouragement, inspiration and motivation to business personnels.
  34. 34.  To establish goodwill in business.  Recovery of old debit and credit.  Redressal of grievances.  Creating interest in business activities.  Exploring new business avenues.  Realization of outstanding payments.  Making the job of touring salesmen easy.
  35. 35.  Letter behavior assists in business  Letter behavior should be effective.  Business letters are less expensive.  Business letters – a written documentary testimony.  Business letters – an advertising substitute.  Making new contacts.  Letter as a vehicle of expression of thoughts and feelings.  Easy confirmation of facts.
  36. 36. Quality related to subject -matter Quality related to exterior form
  37. 37.  Clarity  Continuity  Compactness  Correctness  Conciseness  Completeness  Comprehensiveness  Consideration  Courtesy  Creativity  Cleanliness  Effectiveness
  38. 38.  Paper for a letter  Envelops  Typing  Aesthetic aspect  Margin  Tidiness  New paragraph  Uniformity  Underline  Enveloping the paper  Stamping  Dispatching
  39. 39. 1. Heading 2. Date 3. Inside address 4. Salutation 5. Reference 6. Body 7. Complimentary close 8. Signatures 9. Reference initials 10.Enclosures.
  40. 40. 1) Heading : the heading of a letter consists of the printed letterheads, mentioning the name of the company, its address, telephonic and e-mail address, symbols and trademarks. 2) Date : two or three lines below the letterhead, the date when the letter was typed should be mentioned. This serves an important reference for the future. The date of the letter can be written in any of the following ways:- Telephone No. Fax No. SUREKA TRADERS Stockiest and Distributors of Rubber Chemicals November 30, 2013; 20 July, 2013; 1st April, 2013; 10 January, 2014
  41. 41. 3) Inside Address : below the date line the inside address is mentioned. It contains the name, title or division or department (if any), mailing address or pin code of the receiver. 4) Salutation : below the inside address the complimentary greeting, which is called salutation is made on the right or left side. Mr. S.N.Narainswamy, Accountant, Finance & Accounting Department, Krishna Financers, 12, Sardar Patel Road Hyderabad Dear Sir / Madam or Sir / Madam Dear Mr. Amit Sharma or Dear Ms. Anita Used when there is a close relationship b/w two parties. used in case of more formal relations for e.g., writing to superior officers, editor of newspapers, etc.
  42. 42. 5) Reference Lines : for inviting special attention to the subject matter of the letter or singling out the person to whom the letter is addressed reference line is inserted below the inside salutation with word ‗Subject‘ or ‗Attention‘. Mr. Manish Malhotra Tirupathi, Rama Tower Tilak Road, Hyderabad Subject : Supply of 60 Engines. Or Dear Sir, Finance Department, Punjab Tractors Limited, Phase II, Mohali Attention- Mr. Rajeev Tandon, Accountant
  43. 43. 6) Body : Body is the main part of the letter with preceding and succeeding parts as its ancillaries. These ancillaries are formalities, yet convey certain message. The body of the letter starts two lines down the salutation either in block style with no paragraphs, indentation‘s or semi block style with indented paragraphs. There is no hard and fast rule regarding adoption of the style; any style can be applied. 7) Complementary Close : after the body of the letter, complimentary close is typed whether on left or right side of the letter. This is conventional and polite way of ending letter. Sincerely Yours sincerely Truly Yours truly Faithfully Yours faithfully
  44. 44. 8) Signatures : while typing the letter, two orthree lines below the complimentary closures, are left blank for the signatures of the writer in ink. Just below, his name and designation are typed. 9) Reference Initials : below the name and designation of the sender, the sender of the letter puts his initials, which is called ‗Reference Initials.‘ 10) Enclosures : this the certain material enclosed with the letter for its indication. Enclosures are put at the end of the letter.
  45. 45. 1) Full Block : in this, all lines – date, inside address, salutation, paragraphs, complimentary closure, are flush with left margin. It concentrates too much on left rather than right. It is popular due to its pleasant and informal look. 2) Block : in this, all lines – except date and complimentary closure along with signatures (right margin)are flush from left margin.
  46. 46. 23-87 Queens Boulevard Bayside, New York 10022 June 7, 200X South Bank Billing Inquiries Division 1042 Broadway New York, New York, 10032 Dear Sir or Madam: Subject: Correction of incorrect bill Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Respectfully, Charles Dalloway
  48. 48. 23-87 Queens Boulevard Bayside, New York10022 June 7 2003 South Bank Billing Inquiries Division 1042 Broadway New York, New York, 10032 Dear Sir or Madam :Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Respectfully, Mr. Charles Dalloway
  49. 49. BLOCK FORMAT
  50. 50. 3) Semi Block : in this, (A) date and complimentary closure along with signatures are flush with right margin, (B) inside address & salutation are set flush with the left margin, and (C) paragraphs are indented. It is most popular among business world but requires extra typing adjustment, compared with block format. 4) Simplified : in this like full block format all lines are flush with the left margin but there is no salutation and complimentary closures. it eliminate the gender specific salutations [Sir / Madam]. Because of its simple and direct form and quality of time saving, it is popular in Western business world, but not in Indian business world.
  51. 51. 23-87 Queens Boulevard Bayside, New York10022 June 7 2003 South Bank Billing Inquiries Division 1042 Broadway New York, New York, 10032 Dear Sir or Madam, :Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx XxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx XxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx XxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx XxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Respectfully, Mr. Charles Dalloway
  53. 53. 23-87 Queens Boulevard Bayside, New York 10022 June 7, 200X South Bank Billing Inquiries Division 1042 Broadway New York, New York, 10032 CORRECTION OF INCORRECT BILL Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx CHARLES DALLOWAY
  55. 55.  Enquiry letters  Quotation & offers  Orders & execution  Circular letters  Sales letters  Complaint letters  Adjustment letters  Apologizing  Status enquiry & credit letters  Collection letters  Bad news letters
  56. 56.  Writing business correspondence with banks does not require any special training.  A business house has to correspond with bank for the following reasons :  Opening account  Procuring various loans or credit  Opening letter of credit  Stop payments  Hypothecation of documents of titles to property, goods, life insurance policy, etc.  Honoring customers‘ cheques  Collection of customers‘ cheques, bills, dividends, etc.  Paying insurance premiums  Providing facilities like online banking, internet banking  Transferring money from one place to another, etc.
  57. 57.  Specimen letter for opening a current a/c.  Specimen letter for opening a saving bank a/c.  Specimen letter for stopping payment of cheque.  Specimen letter for vehicle loan.  Specimen application form for loan.  Specimen letter asking for overdraft facility.  Specimen letter from bank informing irregularities in loan.  Specimen letter asking bank to cancel fixed deposit.  Specimen letter asking bank to cancel the draft.  Specimen letter to bank asking regulation of entries.  Specimen letter asking bank to operate (activate) the saving bank a/c.  And many more.
  58. 58.  In business, like private life, there are risks of many kinds- death, accident, fire, storm, burglary, perils of sea, etc.  Insurance is a mechanism of protecting and providing financial security against these possible risks by spreading the losses to many people. A pool is created by getting small contributions called premiums from persons and out of that a certain agreed sum is paid according to settled terms and conditions in form of claim.  The person seeking safety called Insured or assured, pays premium to the insurer or underwriter- the Insurance Corporation.
  59. 59.  Life Insurance  Fire Insurance  Marine Insurance  General Insurance
  60. 60.  Life insurance (or commonly life assurance) is a contract between an insured (insurance policy holder) and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the "benefits") in exchange for a premium, upon the death of the insured person.  Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness may also trigger payment. The policy holder typically pays a premium, either regularly or as a lump sum. Other expenses (such as funeral expenses) are also sometimes included in the benefits.  Life policies are legal contracts and the terms of the contract describe the limitations of the insured events. Specific exclusions are often written into the contract to limit the liability of the insurer; common examples are claims relating to suicide, fraud, war, riot and civil commotion.
  61. 61.  A fire insurance is a contract under which the insurer in return for a consideration (premium) agrees to indemnify the insured for the financial loss which the latter may suffer due to destruction of or damage to property or goods, caused by fire, during a specified period.  The contract specifies the maximum amount , agreed to by the parties at the time of the contract, which the insured can claim in case of loss. This amount is not , however , the measure of the loss. The loss can be ascertained only after the fire has occurred. The insurer is liable to make good the actual amount of loss not exceeding the maximum amount fixed under the policy.  The insurable interest in goods may arise out on account of (i) ownership, (ii) possession, or (iii) contract.
  62. 62.  Marine insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or cargo by which property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and final destination.  Cargo insurance — is a sub-branch of marine insurance, though Marine also includes Onshore and Offshore exposed property (container terminals, ports, oil platforms, pipelines); Hull; Marine Casualty; and Marine Liability.  When goods are transported by mail or courier, shipping insurance is used instead.
  63. 63.  General insurance or non-life insurance policies, including automobile and homeowners policies, provide payments depending on the loss from a particular financial event. General insurance typically comprises any insurance that is not determined to be life insurance. It is called property and casualty insurance in the U.S. and Canada and Non- Life Insurance in Continental Europe.