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LEGAL ASPECTS OF
BUSINESS

1
UNIT -1

ESSENTIALS
OF A
CONTRACT
2
INTRODUCTION
The law of contract is the most important branch of
Mercantile Law.
 Without such a law it would be difficult, if not
impossible, to carry on any trade or business in a
smooth manner.
 The law of contract is applicable not only to
business but also to all day-to-day personal
dealings.


3
WHAT IS LAW?










Before learning the meaning of the term 'Law' you must
know as to why we need law.
No civilized society can exist without law. It is required
for the preservation of peace and orderliness in every
society.
Without law, no person will care for others and their
dealings may not materialize.
With the growth of society and the concept of welfare
state, it became necessary to regulate the conduct of
people and protect their property and contractual rights.
Hence, each country enacted laws suited to its various
needs and the value system it cherished.

4
DEFINE LAW…


"Law is a rule of civil conduct, prescribed by the
supreme power of stale, commanding what is right
and prohibiting what is wrong." -------

Blackstone.


'Law is the body of principles recognised and
applied by the state in the administrator of justice."
- Salmond.
5
MEANING OF MERCANTILE
LAW


Mercantile law or commercial law is not a separate
branch of law.



It is a part of civil law which deals with the
rights and obligations of mercantile
persons arising out of mercantile
transactions in respect of mercantile
property

6
SOURCES OF MERCANTILE LAW

7
ENGLISH MERCANTILE LAW:
Our laws are based primarily on the English laws
which developed through customs and usages of
Merchants or traders in England, These customs
and usages governed these merchants in their
dealings with each other. This law is also known as
'Common Law'.
 As a matter of fact, it is an unwritten law based on
customs, usages and precedents. The most
important part of mercantile law, namely, the Law of
Contracts, is still a part of Common Law in England.


8
INDIAN STATUTE LAW:
The Acts passed by the Indian Legislature are the
main source of 1ndian mercantile law.
 The important Acts passed by the Indian
Legislature are the Indian Contract Act 1872, The
Negotiable Instruments Act Essentials of a Contract
1881, The Sale of Goods Act 1930, The Indian
Partnership Act 1932, The Companies Act 1956,
and so on


9
JUDICIAL DECISIONS:







The past judicial decisions of courts are another
important source of law. They are generally followed by
the courts while deciding similar cases before them.
The past decisions have persuasive and guiding value.
Wherever the law is silent on a point, the judge has to
decide the case according to the principle of equity,
justice and good conscience.
The decisions of English courts are also frequently
referred to as precedents in deciding various cases and
for interpreting the Indian Statutes.
10
CUSTOMS AND USAGES:
The customs and usages of particular trade are yet
another important source of Indian mercantile law.
 They play an important role in regulating the
dealings between the merchants of that trade. But it
is necessary that such customs or usages must be
widely known, reasonable, constant and must not
be inconsistent with the law, The Indian Contract
Act recognises this fact by providing that "nothing
contained therein shall affect any usage or custom
of trade.”


11
INDIAN CONTRACT
ACT, 1872

12
WHAT IS A CONTRACT?








Broadly speaking, a contract is an agreement made between
two or more persons to do or to abstain from doing a
particular act. A contract invariably creates a legal obligation
between the parties by which certain rights are given to one
party and a corresponding duty is imposed on the other party.
A contract has been defined by different authorities in various
ways. Some of the important definitionsare as follows:
A contract is an agreement, creating and defining the obligations
between parties.
- Salmond
A contract is an agreement enforceable at law made between two or
more persons by which rights are acquired by one or more to acts or
forbearance on the part of others.
- Sir William Anson
Every agreement and promise enforceable at law is a contract.
- Sir Fredrick Pollock

13
A CONTRACT ESSENTIALLY
CONSISTS OF TWO ELEMENTS:

14
AGREEMENT
Section 2(e) of the Contract Act defines agreement
as “every promise and every set of promises
forming the consideration for each other.
 In this context a promise refer to a proposal (offer)
which has been accepted.
 For example, Ramesh offers to sell his ,scooter for
Rs. 8,000 to Shyam. Shyam accepts this offer. It
becomes a promise and treated as an agreement
between Ramesh and Shyam.
 In other words, an agreement consists of an offer
by one party and its acceptance by the other.


15
16
DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN :

17
CLASSIFICATION OF CONTRACTS

18
ON THE BASIS OF CREATION


A contract may be
(i) made in writing or by word of mouth
or
(ii) inferred from the conduct of the parties or
circumstances of the case.
The first category of contract is termed as
'express contract ' and the second as 'implied
contract'

19
EXPRESS CONTRACT


An express contract is one where the terms are
clearly stated in words, spoken or written.



For example,
A wrote a letter to B stating “ offer to sell my
car for Rs. 30,000 to you", B accepts the offer by
letter sent to A. This is an express contract.
Similarly, when A asks a scooter mechanic to
repair his scooter and the mechanic agrees, it is an
express contract made orally by spoken words.
20
IMPLIED CONTRACT




A contract may be created by the conduct or acts of
parties (and not by their words spoken or written). It may
result from a continuing course of conduct of the parties.
For example,
where a coolie in uniform carries the luggage of A
to be carried out of railway station without being asked
by A to do so and A allows it, the law implies that A has
agreed to pay for the services of the coolie. This is a
case of an implied contract between A and the coolie.
Similarly, when A boards a BMTC bus, an implied
contract comes into being. A is bound to pay the
prescribed fare.
21
ON THE BASIS OF EXECUTION


On the basis of the extent to which the contracts
have been performed, we may classify them as
(i) executed contracts,

and
(ii) executory contracts.

22
EXECUTED CONTRACTS:


It is a contract where both the parties have fulfilled
their respective obligations under the contract.



For example,
A agrees to sell his book to B for Rs. 30. A
delivers the book to B and B pays Rs. 30 to A. It is
an executed contract.

23
EXECUTORY CONTRACTS:






It is a contract where both the parties to the contract
have still to perform their respective obligations.
For example,
A agrees to sell a book to B for Rs. 30. If the book
has not been delivered by A and B has not paid the
price. the contract is executory.
A contract may sometimes be partly executed and partly
executory. It happens where only one of the parties has
performed his obligation.
In the example given above, if A has delivered the
book to B but B has not paid the price. the contract is
executed as to A and executory as to B.

24


On the basis of execution, a contract can also be
classified as unilateral or bilateral.
A unilateral contract is one in which only
one party has to perform his obligation, the other
party had fulfilled his part of the obligation at the
time of the contract itself. For example, A buys a
ticket from the conductor and is waiting in the
queue for the bus. A contract is created as soon as
the ticket is purchased. The other party is now to
provide a bus wherein he could travel.
A bilateral contract is one in which the
obligations on the part of both the parties are
outstanding at the time of the formation of the
contract.
25
ON THE BASIS OF
ENFORCEABILITY

26
VALID CONTRACT:



A contract which satisfies all the conditions
prescribed by law is a valid contract. If one or more
of these elements is/are missing, the contract is
either void, voidable, illegal or unenforceable.

27
VOID CONTRACT:









According to Section 2 (0) A contract which ceases
to be enforceable by law becomes void when it
ceases to be enforceable.
It is a contract without any legal effects and is a nullity.
A contract may become void due to impossibility of
performance, change of law or some other reasons.
Section 2(g) says that an agreement nor
enforceable by law is said to be void.
In the case of void agreement no contract comes into
existence. Such an agreement confers no rights on any
person and creates no obligations. It is void ab-intio
i.e., from the very beginning.
A void agreement never matures into a contract, it is
void from the very beginning.
28
VOIDABLE CONTRACT:
According to Section 2(i) of the Contract Act, An
agreement which is enforceable by law at
the option of one or more of the parties
thereon, but not at the option of the other
or others, is a voidable contract.
 Thus, a voidable contract is one which can be set
aside or repudiated at the option of the aggrieved
party. Until it is set aside or avoided by the party
entitled to do so, it remains a valid contract.


29
DISTINCTION BETWEEN:

30
ILLEGAL OR UNLAWFUL CONTRACT:






The word illegal' means contrary to law. You know that
contract is an agreement enforceable by law and therefore, it
cannot be illegal. It is only the agreement which can be
termed as illegal or unlawful. Hence, it is more appropriate to
use the term 'illegal agreement' in place of 'illegal contract'.
An 'illegal agreement' is one which has been specifically
declared to be unlawful under the provisions of the Contract
Act or which goes against the provisions of any other law of
the land. Such agreement cannot be enforced by law.
For example,
A agrees to pay Rs.50,000 to B if B kills C. This is an
illegal agreement because its object is unlawful. Even if B kills
C, he cannot claim the agreed amount from A.
31
UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACT:






It is a contract which is actually valid but cannot be
enforced because of some technical defect.
This may be due to non-registration of the agreement,
non-payment of the requisite stamp fee, etc.
Sometimes, the law requires a particular agreement to
be in writing. If such agreement has not been put in
writing, it becomes unenforceable.
For example,
an oral agreement, for arbitration are
unenforceable because the law requires that an
arbitration agreement must be in writing. It is important
to note that in most cases, such , contracts can be
enforced if the technical defect involved is removed.
32
ESSENTIALS OF A VALID
CONTRACT

33
34
35
PROPER OFFER AND PROPER
ACCEPTANCE:
In order to create a valid contract it is necessary
that there must be at least two parties, one making
the offer and the other accepting it.
 For example, the offer must be definite and duly
communicated to the other party. Similarly, the
acceptance must be unconditional and
communicated to the offeror in the prescribe mode,
and so on. Unless such conditions with regard to
the offer and the acceptance are satisfied the
agreement does not become enforceable.


36
OFFER OR PROPOSAL


Section 2(a) defines the term 'proposal' as follows:
When one person signifies to another
his willingness to do or to abstain from
doing anything, with a view to obtaining the
assent of that other to such act or
abstinence, he is said to make a proposal.

37
38
ACCEPTANCE


Section 2(b) of the Indian Contract Act defines the
term 'acceptance' as "when the person to
whom the proposal is made signifies his
assent thereto, the proposal is said to be
accepted. A proposal when accepted
becomes a promise. "

39
40
LAPSE OF AN OFFER

41
INTENTION TO CREATE LEGAL
RELATIONSHIP:






There must be an intention among the parties to create
a legal relationship, If an agreement is not capable of
creating a legal obligation it is not a contract.
In case of social or domestic agreements, generally
there is no intention to create legal relationship.
For example,
In an invitation to dinner there is no intention to
create legal relationship and therefore, is not a contract.
Similarly, certain agreements between husband and wife
do not become contracts because there is no intention
to create legal relationship.
42
CASE:


This point can well be illustrated by the famous
case of Balfour v. Balfour. Mr. Balfour had
promised to pay f 30 per month to his wife living in
England when she could not accompany him to
Caulon where he was employed. Mr. Balfour failed
to pay the promised amount. Mrs. Balfour filed a
suit against her husband for breach of this
agreement, It was held that she could not recover
the amount as it was a social agreement and the
parties never intended to create any legal relations.
43
FREE CONSENT:
For a contract to be valid, it is essential that there
must be free and genuine consent of the parties to
the contract. They must have made the contract of
their own free will and not under any fear or
pressure.
 According to Section 14, consent is said to be
free when it is not caused by ( i ) coercion,‘
(ii) undue influence, (iii) fraud, (iv)
misrepresentation, or ( v ) mistake.
 But if the agreement is induced by mutual mistake
which is material to the agreement, it would be void.


44
CONSENT:


Section 13 of the Indian Contract Act defines the
term 'Consent' as Two or more persons are
said to consent when they agree upon the
same thing in the same sense.

45
COERCION


. Section 15 of the Contract Act defines 'coercion'
as Coercion is
( i ) the committing or threatening to
commit, any act forbidden by the Indian
Penal Code; or
(ii) the unlawful detaining or
threatening to detain, any property, to the
prejudice of any person whatever, with the
intention of causing any person to enter
into an agreement
46
UNDUE INFLUENCE:


Section 16 (i) of the Contract Act defines undue
influence as 'A contract is said to be induced
by undue influence' where the relations
subsisting between the parties are such
that one of the parties is in a position to
dominate the will of the other and uses that
position to obtain an unfair advantage over
the other

47
FRAUD


The term 'fraud' is defined by Section 17 of the Indian
Contract Act as follows:
Fraud means and includes any of the following acts
committed by a party to a contract or by any one with his
connivance or by his agent, .with intent to deceive
another party thereto or his agent, or to induce him to
enter into the contract:
i) the suggestion, as to a fact, of that which is not true,
by one who does not believe it to be true;
ii) the active concealment of a .fact by one having
knowledge or belief of the fact;
iii) a promise made without an,y intention of performing
it;
iv) any other act fitted to deceive; v) an9 such act or
omission as the law specially declares to be fraudulent."

48
MISREPRESENTATION


A representation, when wrongly made,
either innocently or intentionally, is called
'misrepresentation'.

49
MISTAKE

50
CAPACITY OF PARTIES:
The parties to an agreement must be competent to
contract i.e., they must be capable of entering into a
contract. If any party to the contract is not
competent to contract, the contract is not valid.
 Section 11 of the Act which says that every
person is competent to contract who is of
the age of majority according to the law to
which he is subject and who is of sound
mind, and is not disqualified from
contracting by any law to which he is
subject.


51
THUS, A PERSON TO BE
COMPETENT TO CONTRACT
SHOULD NOT BE

52
A MINOR:


According to Section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, a
person is deemed to have attained Majority
(i) when he completes 18 years or
(ii) where a guardian of person or property or
both. has been appointed by a Court of Law (or
where his property has passed under the
superintendence of the Court of Wards), he attains
Majority on completion of 21 years.
53
POSITIONS OF MINOR:









Contract with a minor is void ab initio
Fraudulent representation by a minor is void
Ratification of a contract by a minor on attaining
the age of majority is void
Minor as a partner
A minor cannot be a partner in a partnership firm.
However, a minor may, with the consent of all the
partners for the time being, be admitted to the benefits
of partnership
Minor can be an agent
Minor as a shareholder
A minor cannot be declared insolvent because he
is incapable of contracting debts.

54
EXCEPTIONS
 Contract

for the benefit of a minor
 Contract by Guardian
 Contract for Supply of Necessaries

55
WHO IS A PERSON OF SOUND
MIND?





Section 12 of the Indian Contract Act which reads a
person is said to be of sound mind for the
purpose of making a . contract, if at the time
when he makes it, he is capable of
understanding it and of forming a rational
judgement as to its effect upon his interests.
Thus soundness of mind of a person depends on two
facts:
i) his capacity to understand the terms of the contract,
and
ii) his ability to form a rational judgement as to its effect
upon his interests. If a person is incapable of both, he
suffers from unsoundness of mind. Idiots, lunatics and
drunken persons are examples of those having an
unsound mind

56


Lunatics: A lunatic is a person who is mentally
deranged due to some mental strain or
other.persona1 experience.



Idiots: An idiot is a person who is permanently of
unsound mind. Idiocy is a congenital defect. Such a
person has no lucid intervals. He cannot make a
valid contract.



Drunken Persons: Section 12 of the Indian
Contract Act reads: A same man is delirious
from fever or who is so drunk that he
cannot understand the terms of a contract
or form a rational judgement as to its
effects on his interest cannot contract while
such delirium or drunkenness lasts.

57
PERSONS DISQUALIFIED BY LAW

58
HOME STUDY:
MAKE A REPORT ON MOHIRIBIBI VS
DHARMODAS GHOSH CASE

59
LAWFUL CONSIDERATION:
An agreement must be supported by consideration,
Consideration means something in return. It is also
defined as the price paid by one party to buy the
promise of the other.
 However, this price need not always be in terms of
money.
 For' example,
A agrees to sell his book to B for Rs. 20. Here
the consideration for A is Rs. 20, and for B it is the
book.


60


Section 2(d) of the Indian Contract Act defines
consideration as
when at the desire of the promisor, the
promisee or any other person has done or
abstained from doing, or does or abstains
from doing, or promises to do or to abstain
from doing something, such act or
abstinence or promise is called a
consideration for the promise.

61
LEGAL RULES FOR VALID
CONSIDERATION

62
LAWFUL OBJECT:
The object of an agreement must be lawful.
 An agreement made for any act which is prohibited
by law will not be valid.
 For example,
if A rents out a house for use as a gambling
den, the agreement is void because the object of
the agreement is unlawful. If the object is unlawful
for any of the reasons mentioned in Section 23, the
agreement shall be void.
Thus, the consideration as well as the
object ,of the agreement should be lawful.


63
AGREEMENT NOT EXPRESSLY
DECLARED VOID:






The agreement must not have been expressly
declared void under Contract Act. Sections 24 to 30
specify certain types of agreements which have been
expressly declared void. They are .
agreement in restraint of marriage,
agreement in restraint of legal proceedings,
agreement in restraint of trade and
agreement by way of wager.
For example,
A agreed to pay Rs. 1,000 to B if he (B) does not
marry throughout his life. B promised not to marry at all.
This agreement shall not be valid because it is in
restraint of marriage which has been expressly declared
void under Section 26.

64
CERTAINTY OF MEANING:
Section 29 of the Contract Act provides that
Agreements, the meaning of which is not
certain or capable of being made certain,
are void. Thus to make a valid contract it is
absolutely essential that its terms must be clear and
not vague or uncertain.
 For a example,
A agreed to sell 100 tonnes of oil to B. Here it
is not clear what kind of oil is intended to be sold.
Therefore, this agreement is not valid on the ground
of uncertainty.


65
POSSIBILITY OF PERFORMANCE:






The terms of the agreement must also be such as are
capable of performance. An agreement to do an act
impossible in itself is void (Section 56.)
If the act is impossible of performance, physically or
legally, the agreement cannot be enforced by law.
For example,
A promises to B that he will enclose some area
between two parallel lines or that he will run at a speed
of 200 kms. per hour or that he will bring gold from the
sun. All these acts are such which are impossible of
performance and therefore the agreement is not treated
as valid.

66
LEGAL FORMALITIES:




The Contract Act does not require that a contract must
be in writing to be valid. But, in some cases the Act has
specified that the agreement must be made in writing.
For example,
a promise to pay a time barred debt must be in
writing and an agreement for a sale of immovable
property must be in writing and registered under the
Transfer of Property Act, 1882. In such a situation, the
agreement must comply with the necessary formalities
as to writing, registration, etc.
If these legal formalities are not carried out, then
the contract is not enforceable by law.
67
UNIT 2
68
CONTINGENT CONTRACTS
69
CONTINGENT CONTRACTS


A Contingent contract is a contract to do or not to
do something, if some event, collateral to such
contract, does or does not happen. [Sec 31]



Performance depends on happening of some
uncertain event.



Performance depends on some uncertain event.



The event must be collateral.

70
RULES REGARDING
CONTINGENT CONTRACT
Cannot be enforced until the event has happened.
If the event becomes impossible such contract
becomes void. (Sec 32)
 Where the contract is to be performed if a particular
event does not happen, performance can be
enforced on the event becoming impossible. (Sec
33)
 Contract contingent upon how a person will act at
an unspecified time, the event shall be considered
to become impossible when the person does
anything rendering it impossible. (Sec 34)


71


Contract to do or not to do anything if a specified
uncertain event happens within a fixed time,
becomes void if the event does not happen or its
happening becomes impossible before the expiry of
that time, and vice versa. (Sec 35)



Contingent agreement to do or not to do anything, if
an impossible event happens are void whether or
not the fact is known to the parties. (Sec 36)
72
DISCHARGE OF CONTRACT
(REFER BOOK)
A contract is said to be discharged when it ceases to
operate.
 The rights and obligations created by it comes to an
end.
 A contract may be discharged BY PERFORMANCE
 Actual performance – doing what the parties
intended to do when they entered in to the contract.
 Attempted performance or tender – It is the
legitimate attempt on the part of the promisor to perform
his obligations


73
BY MUTUAL AGREEMENT OR
CONSENT
Novation: it occurs when a new contract is
substituted for an existing contract, either b/w the
same parties or b/w different parties, the
consideration mutually being the discharge of the
old contract.
 Eg.- A is indebted to Band B to C. by mutual
agreement B’s debt to C and B’s loan to A are
cancelled and C accepts A as his debtor.


74


Rescission: a contract may be discharged, before
the date of performance by agreement b/w the
parties to the effect that it shall no longer bind them.
Such an agreement amounts to cancellation.
Eg.- A promises to deliver goods to B, and if A and
B mutually agrees to not to continue with the
contract.



Alteration: it means change in one or more of the
material terms of a contract. If a material alteration
in a written contract is done by mutual consent, the
original contract is discharged by alteration and a
new contract in its altered form takes place.
75


Remission: it may be defined as “the acceptance of
a lesser sum than what was contracted for a lesser
fulfillment of the promise made”.



Waiver: it means the deliberate abandonment or
giving up of a right which a party is entitled to under
a contract, where upon the other party to the
contract is released from his obligation.

76
BY OPERATION OF LAW


By death.



By merger.



By insolvency.



By unauthorized alteration of terms of a written
contract.



By rights and liabilities becoming vested in the
same person.
77
BY IMPOSSIBILITY OF
PERFORMANCE


Impossibility existing at the time of agreement –



Known to the parties – the agreement is void ab

initio.


Unknown to the parties – the agreement is void on

the ground of mutual mistake.


Impossibility arising subsequent to the formation of
the contract.
78
BY SUPERVENING IMPOSSIBILITY


Destruction of subject matter of contract



Non-existence or non-occurrence of a particular
state or things



Death or incapacity for personal services



Change of law or stepping in of a person with
statutory authority



Out break of war
79


Impossibility of performance is, as a rule, not an
excuse for non-performance.



In the following cases a contract is not discharged
on the ground of supervening impossibility:



Difficulty of performance,



Commercial impossibility,



Impossibility due to failure of a third person,



Strikes, lock-outs and civil disturbances, and



Partial Impossibility.

80
BREACH OF
CONTRACT
81
BY BREACH OF CONTRACT
Breach of contract means violation of a
contract.
It is of two kinds:


Anticipatory Breach ( breach occurring before
the time fixed)



a)



b) Making the performance of promise become
impossible by doing some act.

By express renunciation.

82
Actual Breach (when a party fails to perform his
obligations upon the fixed date of performance)


a)

On the due date of performance.



b) During the course of performance of
contract.



i)

Express Repudiation.



ii)

Implied Repudiation

83
REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF
CONTRACT


When the contract is broken, the injured party has
one or more of the following remedies:

I.

Rescission of the contract.

II.

Suit for damages.

III. Suit

upon quantum meruit.

IV. Suit

for specific performance.

V.

Suit for injunction.
84
RESCISSION OF THE CONTRACT


Rescission means a right not to perform an
obligation.



In case of breach of contract the promisee need not
perform his obligation,



he is not only discharged from his liabilities but also
he is entitled to claim compensation for damages



which he might have sustained due to non
performance of the contract. [Section 39]
85
SUIT FOR DAMAGES


Damages are monetary compensation allowed to
the injured party for the loss suffered.



The object of awarding damages is not to punish
the party at fault



but to make good the financial loss suffered by the
injured party due to breach of contract.

86
RULES RELATING TO DAMAGES


Ordinary damages – arising in the usual course
of things.



special damages – such damages which the
parties knew to be likely to result from the breach.



Compensation is not given for any remote or
indirect loss or damages, and



Such compensation for damages arising from
breach of quasi contract shall be same as in any
other contract.
87


Exemplary or Vindictive damages –
essentially in the nature of punishment for wrong
inflicted.



Nominal Damages – the injured party has not in
fact suffered any loss due to the breach of contract.



Damages for loss of reputation – the smaller
the amount of cheque dishonoured, higher the
amount of damages.



Damages for inconvenience and discomfort
–generally not recoverable.
88
Liquidated damages – represent a sum, fixed or
ascertained by the parties in the contract,
 which is a fair and genuine pre-estimate of the
probable loss that might ensue as a result of the
breach if it takes place.
 Penalty – is a sum named in the contract which is
disproportionate to the damages likely to accrue as
a result of the breach.
 In India no such distinction is made and the court
allow only “reasonable compensation”.


89
QUANTUM MERUIT
When an agreement is discovered to be void. [Sec
65]
 When something is done without any intention to do
gratuitously. [Sec 70]
 When there is an express or implied contract to
render service but no agreement as to
remuneration.
 When the completion of the contract has been
prevented by the act of the other party to the
contract.
 When a contract is divisible.
 When an indivisible contract is completely
performed but badly.


90
SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE
The remedy of Specific Performance is in the
nature of equitable remedies based on the
principles of equities.
 Among the remedies are specific performance,
injunction, rectification and cancellation of
instruments and rescission of contract.
 In the discretion of the court, specific performance
may be enforced:
 where there is no standard for ascertaining the
actual damage caused by the non-performance; or
 where compensation in money for the nonperformance would not afford adequate relief.


91
SUIT FOR INJUNCTION
It is a judicial process whereby a party to the
contract is ordered to refrain from doing a particular
act or thing, or
 to do a particular act or thing.
 It a discretionary remedy and it acts only in
personam.
 Injunction means a prohibitory order of the court to
a person to
 not to do a particular act he has promised not to do
under a contract, or
 to do an act which he has promised, under a
contract, to do.


92
QUASI
CONTRACTS
93
QUASI CONTRACTS
Sometime a person may receive a benefit which the
law regards another person as better entitled, or for
which the law considers he should pay to the other
person, even though there is no contract between
the parties.
 Such relationships are called quasi contracts
because although there is no contract or agreement
between the parties, they are put on the same
pedestal as though there was a contract between
them.
 This is based on the principles of equity.


94
KINDS OF QUASI CONTRACTS


Right to recover the price of necessities supplied.
[Sec 68]



Payment by an interested person. [Sec 69]



Right to recover for non-gratuitous Act. [Sec 70]



Responsibility of the finder of Goods. [Sec 71]



When money is paid or things are delivered by
mistake or under coercion. [Sec 72]
95
CONTRACTS OF
INDEMNITY AND
GUARANTEE
96
CONTRACTS OF INDEMNITY
 In

a contract of indemnity one party promises to
compensate the other party against loss suffered by
the latter.

 Section

125 confines itself to losses occasioned due
to an act of promisor or due to act of any other
persons.

A

contract by which one party promises to save the
other from loss caused to him by the conduct of the
promisor himself or by the conduct of any other
person is called a contract of indemnity. [Sec 124]
97
 If

a person who is interested in the payment of
money which another is bound to pay and pays it,
he is entitled to be indemnified. [Sec 69]

 The

surety has a rights to claim indemnity from the
principal debtor for sums he has rightfully paid
towards the guarantee. [Sec 145]

 The

principal is liable to indemnify the agent for all
amount paid by him during the exercise of his
authority. [Sec 222]
98
RIGHTS OF INDEMNITY HOLDER
[SEC 125]
 All

damages that he may be compelled to pay in

a suit in respect of any matter to which the
promise to indemnify applies.
 All

cost that he may be compelled to pay in

bringing or defending such suit.
 All

sums which he may have paid under the

terms of any compromise of any such suit.
99
CONTRACT OF GUARANTEE
A

contract of guarantee is essentially a contract

 to

perform the promise or

 discharge
 in

the liability of a third person

case of his default.

 The

basic function of a contract of guarantee is

 to

enable a person to get a loan, or goods, or an
employment. [Sec 126]

100
ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF
GUARANTEE
 Surety.
 Principal

Debtor.

 Creditor.
 Not

be vitiated by incapacity, flaw in consent, and
unlawful character of the agreement.
 May be oral and it may either be expressed or
implied.
 Concurrence of parties.
 Existence of Principal debt.
 Essential of a valid contract like Consideration and
Free consent.
101
EXTENT OF SURETY'S
LIABILITY
 The

liability of surety is coextensive with that of the
principal debtor. [Sec 128]
 The Surety may limit his liability by an express
agreement.
 The liability of the surety arises immediately when a
default is made by the principal debtor.
 The creditor can sue the surety without suing the
principal debtor.
 If the guarantee is conditional upon another person
joining it as co-surety, the guarantee is not valid if
that person does not join. [Sec 144]
102
KINDS OF GUARANTEES
 Specific

guarantee – extends to a specific transaction
or a single debt.
 The liability of surety comes to an end when the
guaranteed debt is duly discharged.
 Continuing guarantee –extends to a series of
transaction.
 This kind of guarantee is intended to cover a number
of transactions over a period of time.
 Whether the guarantee is continuing guarantee or not
is a question of intention, subject matter &
circumstance.
103
REVOCATION OF CONTINUING
GUARANTEE
By Notice
 By Death of Surety
 By Novation. (Sec 62)
 By variance in the terms of contract. (Sec 133)
 By release or discharge of principal debtor.
 By compounding with the principal debtor. (Sec 135)
 By creditor's act or omission imparting surety's eventual
remedy. (Sec 139)
 By loss of security. (Sec 142)


104
RIGHTS OF SURETY
Against Creditor –
 Right of Security
 Right of set-off.
 Right of subrogation.
Against principal debtor –
 Right to be relieved of liability.
 Right to indemnity.
Against co-sureties –
 Right of contribution –
 Co-sureties liable to contribute equally.
 Liability of co-sureties bound in different sums.
 Release of co-surety.
105
DISCHARGE OF SURETY
 By

Revocation of Guarantee

 Discharge
 Variance
 Release

by conduct of creditor

in the terms of the contract
or discharge of principal debtor

 Compounding

by creditor with principal debtor

 Creditor

compounding with principal debtor

 Creditor

promising to give time to the principal

 Creditor

agreeing not to sue the debtor.

debtor

106
 By

impairing surety's remedy
 Loss of security by the creditor
 Discharge of surety by invalidation of contract
 Guarantee obtained by misrepresentation
 Guarantee obtained by concealment
 Guarantee on contract that creditor shall not act
on it until a co-surety joins
 Failure of consideration
107
BAILMENT &
PLEDGE
108
BAILMENT
 “A

bailment is the delivery of goods by one
person to another for some purpose, upon a
contract that they shall, when the purpose is
accomplished, be returned or otherwise
disposed of according to the direction of the
person delivering them”.
 The person delivering the goods is called the
bailor and;
 The person to whom the goods are delivered is
called the bailee."
109
ESSENTIAL REQUISITE OF
BAILMENT
 There

must be a contract.

 There

must be a delivery of possession.

 The

delivery be of goods.

 Delivery

to be made by the owner, called bailor.

 Delivery

be to another person, called bailee.

 Delivery

for specific purpose.

 Delivery

on the condition that they be returned.

110
KINDS OF BAILMENT
On the basis of reward
 Gratuitous

Bailment

 Non-Gratuitous

Bailment

On the basis of Benefit
 For

the exclusive benefit of bailor.

 For

the exclusive benefit of bailee.

 For

mutual benefit.
111
DUTIES OF A BAILOR
 To

disclose known faults [Sec 150]

 To

bear extraordinary expenses [Sec 158]

 To

indemnify bailee for loss in case of premature

termination of gratuitous bailment. [Sec 159]
 To

receive back the goods

 To

indemnify the bailee against the defective title

of the bailor [Sec 164]
112
DUTIES OF A BAILEE
 To

take reasonable care of the goods bailed.

 Not

to mix goods bailed with his own goods.

 Not

to make unauthorized use of goods.

 Not

to set up an adverse title.

 To

return the accretion to the goods.

 To

return the goods.

113
RIGHTS OF BAILOR
 Right

to claim damages in case of negligence.
 Right to terminate the contract in case of
unauthorised use.
 Right to claim compensation in case of
unauthorised use.
 Right to claim separation of goods in case of
unauthorised mixture.
 Right to claim separation of goods in case of
unauthorised mixture of goods which cannot be
separated.
 Right to demand return of the goods.
 Right to claim compensation in case of
unauthorised retention of goods.
 Right to demand accretion to the goods.
114
RIGHTS OF BAILEE
 Delivery

of goods to one of the several joint

bailors of goods.
 Delivery

of goods without title.

 Right

to apply to court to stop delivery.

 Right

of action against trespassers.

 Bailee's

Lien.
115
TERMINATION OF BAILMENT
 On

the expiry of the period.

 On

the achievement of the object.

 Inconsistent
 Destruction
 Gratuitous
 Death

use of goods.

of subject matter.

bailment.

of bailor or bailee.
116
FINDER OF GOODS
A

person who finds goods belonging to another and
takes them into his custody, is subject to the same
responsibilities as a bailee. [Sec 71]

 He

must take reasonable care.

 He

must not use the goods for his own purpose.

 He

must not mix goods with his own.

 He

must try to find out the owner of the goods.

117
RIGHTS OF FINDER OF
GOODS
 Right

of lien.

 Right

to sue for rewards.

 Right

of sale.

118
PLEDGE
119
PLEDGE
 The

bailment of goods as security for payment of a
debt or performance of a promise. [Sec 172]
 A pledge can be created only in respect of a chattel
(movable possession) capable of delivery.
 The general property in the goods remains in the
owner,
 but a special property in them passes to the pawnee
who may sell the goods.
 The person delivering goods is Pledgor or Pawnor.
 The person to whom goods are delivered is Pledgee
or Pawnee.

120
RIGHTS OF PAWNEE / PLEDGEE
 Right

to retain goods pledged [Section 173 and 174]
 Right to extraordinary expenses
 Right against true owner, when the Pawnor's title is
defective
 Pawnee's right where Pawnor makes default
 Under Section 176 the Pawnee has the following
three rights:
 may file a suit against the Pawnor; or
 he may sell the goods after giving reasonable notice;
or
 can recover any deficiency arising on the sale.
121
RIGHTS OF PAWNOR /
PLEDGOR
 Right

to get back goods.
 Right to redeem debt.
 Preservation and maintenance of goods.
 Rights of an ordinary debtor.

122
PLEDGE BY NON-OWNERS
 Pledge

by Mercantile Agent.

 Pledge

by a person in possession under a

voidable contract.
 Pledge

where pawnor has limited interest.

 Pledge

by seller in possession after sale.

 Pledge

by buyer in possession before sale.
123
CONTRACT OF AGENCY
124
CONTRACT OF AGENCY
 An

agent is a person employed to do any act for
another, or
 to represent another, in dealings with third persons.
 The person for whom such act is done or who is so
represented, is called the principal."
 Whatever the principal can do himself, he may get
the same done through an agent,; and
 What the principal does by another, he does it
himself.
 The acts of the agents are the acts of the principal.
125
CREATION OF AGENCY
 By

Agreement –
 - Express Agreement.
 - Implied Agreement.
 Implied agency includes the following –
 Agency by Estoppel.
 Agency by holding out.
 Agency by necessity –
 Agent acceding his authority in an emergency.
 A person entrusted with another's property.
 Husband and Wife.
 Agency by ratification.
126
ESSENTIALS OF A VALID
RATIFICATION
 The

agent must act for an identifiable principal.
 The principal must be in existence.
 The principal must have contractual capacity.
 Ratification must be with full knowledge of facts.
 Ratification must be done within a reasonable time.
 The act to be ratified must not be void, illegal or ultra
vires.
 The whole transaction must be ratified.
 Ratification can be of the acts the principal had
power to do.
 Ratification should not put a third party to damages.
 Ratification relates back to the date of the act.

127
DUTIES OF AGENTS
 To

carry out the work according to the directions
of principal.

 To

carry out the work with reasonable care, skill
and diligence.

 To

render proper accounts.

 To

communicate with the principal in case of
difficulty.

 Not
 To

to deal on his own account.

pay sums received for the principal.
128
 To

protect the interest of the principal in case of
his death or insolvency.

 Not

to use information obtained in the course of
agency against the principal.

 Not

to make secret profit.

 Not

to set up an adverse title.

 Not

to put himself in a position where his
interest and duty conflict.

 Not

to delegate authority.
129
RIGHTS OF AGENTS
 Right

of retainer.

 Right

to receive remuneration.

 Right

of lien.

 Right

of indemnification.

 Right

of compensation.

 Right

of stoppage in transit.
130
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY

 Delegatus

non potest delegar
 A Sub-agent is a person employed by and
 acting under the control of the original agent and the
business of the agency. [Section 191]
 A agent may appoint a sub-agent if  There is a custom of trade.
 The nature of work is such that sub-agent is
necessary.
 Where the principal is aware of the intention of the
agent to appoint a sub-agent.
 Where unforeseen emergencies arise rendering.
 Where the act to be done is purely ministerial.
 Where the principal permits appointment of sub-agent.
131
EFFECT OF APPOINTMENT OF
SUB-AGENT [SECTION 192 AND
193]
 Where

a sub-agent is properly appointed, the
following effect follows :

 the

principal is bound by the acts of the subagent;

 the

agent is responsible to the principal for the
acts of the sub-agent;

 the

sub-agent is responsible for his acts to the
agent, but not to the principal, except in case of
fraud or willful wrong.
132
 Where

the sub-agent is not properly appointed,
the effect will be :

 the

principal is not bound by the acts of subagent;

 the

original agent is responsible for the acts of
the sub-agent both to the principal and to he
third party;

 the

sub-agent is responsible for his acts to the
original agent but not to the principal even in
case of fraud or willful wrong.
133
POSITION OF PRINCIPAL AND AGENT
IN RELATION TO THIRD PARTIES
Named principal –
 Acts of the agent are the acts of the principal.
 When the agent exceed his authority
 Notice given to agent as notice to principal.
 Principal inducing belief that agent's
unauthorised acts were authorised.
 Misrepresentation or fraud of agent.
Unnamed principal
134
Undisclosed principal –
 The

position of Principal – contracting party may
sue either the principal or the agent or both.

 The

principal may also require the performance
of contract.

 The

position of agent – as between the principal
and agent, the agent has all the rights of an agent
as against the principal;

 but

as regards the third party, he is personally
liable on the contract.
135
 The

position of third parties –

 the

third party may elect to sue either the
principal or the agent or both.

 If

the principal discloses himself before the
contract is completed, the other party may refuse
to fulfill the contract on the ground of mistake of
identity of party.

 The

third party can also claim a right of set-off
against the agent.
136
PERSONAL LIABILITY OF AN AGENT EXCEPTIONS [SEC 230]
 When

the contract expressly provides.
 When the agent acts for a foreign principal.
 When he acts for an undisclosed principal.
 When he acts for a principal who cannot be sued.
 Where he signs a contract in his own name.
 Where he acts for a principal not in existence.
 Where he is liable for breach of warranty of authority.
 Where he receives or pays money by mistake or
fraud.
 Where his authority is coupled with interest.
 Where trade usage or customs makes him
personally liable.
137
TERMINATION OF AGENCY [SEC
201]
Termination of agency by act of parties
 a) Agreement.
 b) Revocation by the principal.
 c) Revocation by agent.
Termination of agency by operation of law
 a) Performance of contract.
 b) Expiry of time.
 c) Death or Insanity.
 d) Insolvency.
 e) Destruction of subject matter.
 f)
Principal becoming an alien enemy.
 g) Dissolution of a company.
138
IRREVOCABLE AGENCY
 a)

Where the agency is coupled with interest.

[Sec 202]


b) Where the agent has exercised part of his
authority. [Sec 204]

 c)

Where the Agent has incurred personal

liability.
139
END
OF
DECK
140

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Indian contract act 1872

  • 3. INTRODUCTION The law of contract is the most important branch of Mercantile Law.  Without such a law it would be difficult, if not impossible, to carry on any trade or business in a smooth manner.  The law of contract is applicable not only to business but also to all day-to-day personal dealings.  3
  • 4. WHAT IS LAW?      Before learning the meaning of the term 'Law' you must know as to why we need law. No civilized society can exist without law. It is required for the preservation of peace and orderliness in every society. Without law, no person will care for others and their dealings may not materialize. With the growth of society and the concept of welfare state, it became necessary to regulate the conduct of people and protect their property and contractual rights. Hence, each country enacted laws suited to its various needs and the value system it cherished. 4
  • 5. DEFINE LAW…  "Law is a rule of civil conduct, prescribed by the supreme power of stale, commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong." ------- Blackstone.  'Law is the body of principles recognised and applied by the state in the administrator of justice." - Salmond. 5
  • 6. MEANING OF MERCANTILE LAW  Mercantile law or commercial law is not a separate branch of law.  It is a part of civil law which deals with the rights and obligations of mercantile persons arising out of mercantile transactions in respect of mercantile property 6
  • 8. ENGLISH MERCANTILE LAW: Our laws are based primarily on the English laws which developed through customs and usages of Merchants or traders in England, These customs and usages governed these merchants in their dealings with each other. This law is also known as 'Common Law'.  As a matter of fact, it is an unwritten law based on customs, usages and precedents. The most important part of mercantile law, namely, the Law of Contracts, is still a part of Common Law in England.  8
  • 9. INDIAN STATUTE LAW: The Acts passed by the Indian Legislature are the main source of 1ndian mercantile law.  The important Acts passed by the Indian Legislature are the Indian Contract Act 1872, The Negotiable Instruments Act Essentials of a Contract 1881, The Sale of Goods Act 1930, The Indian Partnership Act 1932, The Companies Act 1956, and so on  9
  • 10. JUDICIAL DECISIONS:     The past judicial decisions of courts are another important source of law. They are generally followed by the courts while deciding similar cases before them. The past decisions have persuasive and guiding value. Wherever the law is silent on a point, the judge has to decide the case according to the principle of equity, justice and good conscience. The decisions of English courts are also frequently referred to as precedents in deciding various cases and for interpreting the Indian Statutes. 10
  • 11. CUSTOMS AND USAGES: The customs and usages of particular trade are yet another important source of Indian mercantile law.  They play an important role in regulating the dealings between the merchants of that trade. But it is necessary that such customs or usages must be widely known, reasonable, constant and must not be inconsistent with the law, The Indian Contract Act recognises this fact by providing that "nothing contained therein shall affect any usage or custom of trade.”  11
  • 13. WHAT IS A CONTRACT?     Broadly speaking, a contract is an agreement made between two or more persons to do or to abstain from doing a particular act. A contract invariably creates a legal obligation between the parties by which certain rights are given to one party and a corresponding duty is imposed on the other party. A contract has been defined by different authorities in various ways. Some of the important definitionsare as follows: A contract is an agreement, creating and defining the obligations between parties. - Salmond A contract is an agreement enforceable at law made between two or more persons by which rights are acquired by one or more to acts or forbearance on the part of others. - Sir William Anson Every agreement and promise enforceable at law is a contract. - Sir Fredrick Pollock 13
  • 14. A CONTRACT ESSENTIALLY CONSISTS OF TWO ELEMENTS: 14
  • 15. AGREEMENT Section 2(e) of the Contract Act defines agreement as “every promise and every set of promises forming the consideration for each other.  In this context a promise refer to a proposal (offer) which has been accepted.  For example, Ramesh offers to sell his ,scooter for Rs. 8,000 to Shyam. Shyam accepts this offer. It becomes a promise and treated as an agreement between Ramesh and Shyam.  In other words, an agreement consists of an offer by one party and its acceptance by the other.  15
  • 16. 16
  • 19. ON THE BASIS OF CREATION  A contract may be (i) made in writing or by word of mouth or (ii) inferred from the conduct of the parties or circumstances of the case. The first category of contract is termed as 'express contract ' and the second as 'implied contract' 19
  • 20. EXPRESS CONTRACT  An express contract is one where the terms are clearly stated in words, spoken or written.  For example, A wrote a letter to B stating “ offer to sell my car for Rs. 30,000 to you", B accepts the offer by letter sent to A. This is an express contract. Similarly, when A asks a scooter mechanic to repair his scooter and the mechanic agrees, it is an express contract made orally by spoken words. 20
  • 21. IMPLIED CONTRACT   A contract may be created by the conduct or acts of parties (and not by their words spoken or written). It may result from a continuing course of conduct of the parties. For example, where a coolie in uniform carries the luggage of A to be carried out of railway station without being asked by A to do so and A allows it, the law implies that A has agreed to pay for the services of the coolie. This is a case of an implied contract between A and the coolie. Similarly, when A boards a BMTC bus, an implied contract comes into being. A is bound to pay the prescribed fare. 21
  • 22. ON THE BASIS OF EXECUTION  On the basis of the extent to which the contracts have been performed, we may classify them as (i) executed contracts, and (ii) executory contracts. 22
  • 23. EXECUTED CONTRACTS:  It is a contract where both the parties have fulfilled their respective obligations under the contract.  For example, A agrees to sell his book to B for Rs. 30. A delivers the book to B and B pays Rs. 30 to A. It is an executed contract. 23
  • 24. EXECUTORY CONTRACTS:    It is a contract where both the parties to the contract have still to perform their respective obligations. For example, A agrees to sell a book to B for Rs. 30. If the book has not been delivered by A and B has not paid the price. the contract is executory. A contract may sometimes be partly executed and partly executory. It happens where only one of the parties has performed his obligation. In the example given above, if A has delivered the book to B but B has not paid the price. the contract is executed as to A and executory as to B. 24
  • 25.  On the basis of execution, a contract can also be classified as unilateral or bilateral. A unilateral contract is one in which only one party has to perform his obligation, the other party had fulfilled his part of the obligation at the time of the contract itself. For example, A buys a ticket from the conductor and is waiting in the queue for the bus. A contract is created as soon as the ticket is purchased. The other party is now to provide a bus wherein he could travel. A bilateral contract is one in which the obligations on the part of both the parties are outstanding at the time of the formation of the contract. 25
  • 26. ON THE BASIS OF ENFORCEABILITY 26
  • 27. VALID CONTRACT:  A contract which satisfies all the conditions prescribed by law is a valid contract. If one or more of these elements is/are missing, the contract is either void, voidable, illegal or unenforceable. 27
  • 28. VOID CONTRACT:      According to Section 2 (0) A contract which ceases to be enforceable by law becomes void when it ceases to be enforceable. It is a contract without any legal effects and is a nullity. A contract may become void due to impossibility of performance, change of law or some other reasons. Section 2(g) says that an agreement nor enforceable by law is said to be void. In the case of void agreement no contract comes into existence. Such an agreement confers no rights on any person and creates no obligations. It is void ab-intio i.e., from the very beginning. A void agreement never matures into a contract, it is void from the very beginning. 28
  • 29. VOIDABLE CONTRACT: According to Section 2(i) of the Contract Act, An agreement which is enforceable by law at the option of one or more of the parties thereon, but not at the option of the other or others, is a voidable contract.  Thus, a voidable contract is one which can be set aside or repudiated at the option of the aggrieved party. Until it is set aside or avoided by the party entitled to do so, it remains a valid contract.  29
  • 31. ILLEGAL OR UNLAWFUL CONTRACT:    The word illegal' means contrary to law. You know that contract is an agreement enforceable by law and therefore, it cannot be illegal. It is only the agreement which can be termed as illegal or unlawful. Hence, it is more appropriate to use the term 'illegal agreement' in place of 'illegal contract'. An 'illegal agreement' is one which has been specifically declared to be unlawful under the provisions of the Contract Act or which goes against the provisions of any other law of the land. Such agreement cannot be enforced by law. For example, A agrees to pay Rs.50,000 to B if B kills C. This is an illegal agreement because its object is unlawful. Even if B kills C, he cannot claim the agreed amount from A. 31
  • 32. UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACT:     It is a contract which is actually valid but cannot be enforced because of some technical defect. This may be due to non-registration of the agreement, non-payment of the requisite stamp fee, etc. Sometimes, the law requires a particular agreement to be in writing. If such agreement has not been put in writing, it becomes unenforceable. For example, an oral agreement, for arbitration are unenforceable because the law requires that an arbitration agreement must be in writing. It is important to note that in most cases, such , contracts can be enforced if the technical defect involved is removed. 32
  • 33. ESSENTIALS OF A VALID CONTRACT 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. PROPER OFFER AND PROPER ACCEPTANCE: In order to create a valid contract it is necessary that there must be at least two parties, one making the offer and the other accepting it.  For example, the offer must be definite and duly communicated to the other party. Similarly, the acceptance must be unconditional and communicated to the offeror in the prescribe mode, and so on. Unless such conditions with regard to the offer and the acceptance are satisfied the agreement does not become enforceable.  36
  • 37. OFFER OR PROPOSAL  Section 2(a) defines the term 'proposal' as follows: When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. ACCEPTANCE  Section 2(b) of the Indian Contract Act defines the term 'acceptance' as "when the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted. A proposal when accepted becomes a promise. " 39
  • 40. 40
  • 41. LAPSE OF AN OFFER 41
  • 42. INTENTION TO CREATE LEGAL RELATIONSHIP:    There must be an intention among the parties to create a legal relationship, If an agreement is not capable of creating a legal obligation it is not a contract. In case of social or domestic agreements, generally there is no intention to create legal relationship. For example, In an invitation to dinner there is no intention to create legal relationship and therefore, is not a contract. Similarly, certain agreements between husband and wife do not become contracts because there is no intention to create legal relationship. 42
  • 43. CASE:  This point can well be illustrated by the famous case of Balfour v. Balfour. Mr. Balfour had promised to pay f 30 per month to his wife living in England when she could not accompany him to Caulon where he was employed. Mr. Balfour failed to pay the promised amount. Mrs. Balfour filed a suit against her husband for breach of this agreement, It was held that she could not recover the amount as it was a social agreement and the parties never intended to create any legal relations. 43
  • 44. FREE CONSENT: For a contract to be valid, it is essential that there must be free and genuine consent of the parties to the contract. They must have made the contract of their own free will and not under any fear or pressure.  According to Section 14, consent is said to be free when it is not caused by ( i ) coercion,‘ (ii) undue influence, (iii) fraud, (iv) misrepresentation, or ( v ) mistake.  But if the agreement is induced by mutual mistake which is material to the agreement, it would be void.  44
  • 45. CONSENT:  Section 13 of the Indian Contract Act defines the term 'Consent' as Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. 45
  • 46. COERCION  . Section 15 of the Contract Act defines 'coercion' as Coercion is ( i ) the committing or threatening to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code; or (ii) the unlawful detaining or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement 46
  • 47. UNDUE INFLUENCE:  Section 16 (i) of the Contract Act defines undue influence as 'A contract is said to be induced by undue influence' where the relations subsisting between the parties are such that one of the parties is in a position to dominate the will of the other and uses that position to obtain an unfair advantage over the other 47
  • 48. FRAUD  The term 'fraud' is defined by Section 17 of the Indian Contract Act as follows: Fraud means and includes any of the following acts committed by a party to a contract or by any one with his connivance or by his agent, .with intent to deceive another party thereto or his agent, or to induce him to enter into the contract: i) the suggestion, as to a fact, of that which is not true, by one who does not believe it to be true; ii) the active concealment of a .fact by one having knowledge or belief of the fact; iii) a promise made without an,y intention of performing it; iv) any other act fitted to deceive; v) an9 such act or omission as the law specially declares to be fraudulent." 48
  • 49. MISREPRESENTATION  A representation, when wrongly made, either innocently or intentionally, is called 'misrepresentation'. 49
  • 51. CAPACITY OF PARTIES: The parties to an agreement must be competent to contract i.e., they must be capable of entering into a contract. If any party to the contract is not competent to contract, the contract is not valid.  Section 11 of the Act which says that every person is competent to contract who is of the age of majority according to the law to which he is subject and who is of sound mind, and is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject.  51
  • 52. THUS, A PERSON TO BE COMPETENT TO CONTRACT SHOULD NOT BE 52
  • 53. A MINOR:  According to Section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, a person is deemed to have attained Majority (i) when he completes 18 years or (ii) where a guardian of person or property or both. has been appointed by a Court of Law (or where his property has passed under the superintendence of the Court of Wards), he attains Majority on completion of 21 years. 53
  • 54. POSITIONS OF MINOR:        Contract with a minor is void ab initio Fraudulent representation by a minor is void Ratification of a contract by a minor on attaining the age of majority is void Minor as a partner A minor cannot be a partner in a partnership firm. However, a minor may, with the consent of all the partners for the time being, be admitted to the benefits of partnership Minor can be an agent Minor as a shareholder A minor cannot be declared insolvent because he is incapable of contracting debts. 54
  • 55. EXCEPTIONS  Contract for the benefit of a minor  Contract by Guardian  Contract for Supply of Necessaries 55
  • 56. WHO IS A PERSON OF SOUND MIND?    Section 12 of the Indian Contract Act which reads a person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a . contract, if at the time when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgement as to its effect upon his interests. Thus soundness of mind of a person depends on two facts: i) his capacity to understand the terms of the contract, and ii) his ability to form a rational judgement as to its effect upon his interests. If a person is incapable of both, he suffers from unsoundness of mind. Idiots, lunatics and drunken persons are examples of those having an unsound mind 56
  • 57.  Lunatics: A lunatic is a person who is mentally deranged due to some mental strain or other.persona1 experience.  Idiots: An idiot is a person who is permanently of unsound mind. Idiocy is a congenital defect. Such a person has no lucid intervals. He cannot make a valid contract.  Drunken Persons: Section 12 of the Indian Contract Act reads: A same man is delirious from fever or who is so drunk that he cannot understand the terms of a contract or form a rational judgement as to its effects on his interest cannot contract while such delirium or drunkenness lasts. 57
  • 59. HOME STUDY: MAKE A REPORT ON MOHIRIBIBI VS DHARMODAS GHOSH CASE 59
  • 60. LAWFUL CONSIDERATION: An agreement must be supported by consideration, Consideration means something in return. It is also defined as the price paid by one party to buy the promise of the other.  However, this price need not always be in terms of money.  For' example, A agrees to sell his book to B for Rs. 20. Here the consideration for A is Rs. 20, and for B it is the book.  60
  • 61.  Section 2(d) of the Indian Contract Act defines consideration as when at the desire of the promisor, the promisee or any other person has done or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or to abstain from doing something, such act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise. 61
  • 62. LEGAL RULES FOR VALID CONSIDERATION 62
  • 63. LAWFUL OBJECT: The object of an agreement must be lawful.  An agreement made for any act which is prohibited by law will not be valid.  For example, if A rents out a house for use as a gambling den, the agreement is void because the object of the agreement is unlawful. If the object is unlawful for any of the reasons mentioned in Section 23, the agreement shall be void. Thus, the consideration as well as the object ,of the agreement should be lawful.  63
  • 64. AGREEMENT NOT EXPRESSLY DECLARED VOID:     The agreement must not have been expressly declared void under Contract Act. Sections 24 to 30 specify certain types of agreements which have been expressly declared void. They are . agreement in restraint of marriage, agreement in restraint of legal proceedings, agreement in restraint of trade and agreement by way of wager. For example, A agreed to pay Rs. 1,000 to B if he (B) does not marry throughout his life. B promised not to marry at all. This agreement shall not be valid because it is in restraint of marriage which has been expressly declared void under Section 26. 64
  • 65. CERTAINTY OF MEANING: Section 29 of the Contract Act provides that Agreements, the meaning of which is not certain or capable of being made certain, are void. Thus to make a valid contract it is absolutely essential that its terms must be clear and not vague or uncertain.  For a example, A agreed to sell 100 tonnes of oil to B. Here it is not clear what kind of oil is intended to be sold. Therefore, this agreement is not valid on the ground of uncertainty.  65
  • 66. POSSIBILITY OF PERFORMANCE:    The terms of the agreement must also be such as are capable of performance. An agreement to do an act impossible in itself is void (Section 56.) If the act is impossible of performance, physically or legally, the agreement cannot be enforced by law. For example, A promises to B that he will enclose some area between two parallel lines or that he will run at a speed of 200 kms. per hour or that he will bring gold from the sun. All these acts are such which are impossible of performance and therefore the agreement is not treated as valid. 66
  • 67. LEGAL FORMALITIES:   The Contract Act does not require that a contract must be in writing to be valid. But, in some cases the Act has specified that the agreement must be made in writing. For example, a promise to pay a time barred debt must be in writing and an agreement for a sale of immovable property must be in writing and registered under the Transfer of Property Act, 1882. In such a situation, the agreement must comply with the necessary formalities as to writing, registration, etc. If these legal formalities are not carried out, then the contract is not enforceable by law. 67
  • 70. CONTINGENT CONTRACTS  A Contingent contract is a contract to do or not to do something, if some event, collateral to such contract, does or does not happen. [Sec 31]  Performance depends on happening of some uncertain event.  Performance depends on some uncertain event.  The event must be collateral. 70
  • 71. RULES REGARDING CONTINGENT CONTRACT Cannot be enforced until the event has happened. If the event becomes impossible such contract becomes void. (Sec 32)  Where the contract is to be performed if a particular event does not happen, performance can be enforced on the event becoming impossible. (Sec 33)  Contract contingent upon how a person will act at an unspecified time, the event shall be considered to become impossible when the person does anything rendering it impossible. (Sec 34)  71
  • 72.  Contract to do or not to do anything if a specified uncertain event happens within a fixed time, becomes void if the event does not happen or its happening becomes impossible before the expiry of that time, and vice versa. (Sec 35)  Contingent agreement to do or not to do anything, if an impossible event happens are void whether or not the fact is known to the parties. (Sec 36) 72
  • 73. DISCHARGE OF CONTRACT (REFER BOOK) A contract is said to be discharged when it ceases to operate.  The rights and obligations created by it comes to an end.  A contract may be discharged BY PERFORMANCE  Actual performance – doing what the parties intended to do when they entered in to the contract.  Attempted performance or tender – It is the legitimate attempt on the part of the promisor to perform his obligations  73
  • 74. BY MUTUAL AGREEMENT OR CONSENT Novation: it occurs when a new contract is substituted for an existing contract, either b/w the same parties or b/w different parties, the consideration mutually being the discharge of the old contract.  Eg.- A is indebted to Band B to C. by mutual agreement B’s debt to C and B’s loan to A are cancelled and C accepts A as his debtor.  74
  • 75.  Rescission: a contract may be discharged, before the date of performance by agreement b/w the parties to the effect that it shall no longer bind them. Such an agreement amounts to cancellation. Eg.- A promises to deliver goods to B, and if A and B mutually agrees to not to continue with the contract.  Alteration: it means change in one or more of the material terms of a contract. If a material alteration in a written contract is done by mutual consent, the original contract is discharged by alteration and a new contract in its altered form takes place. 75
  • 76.  Remission: it may be defined as “the acceptance of a lesser sum than what was contracted for a lesser fulfillment of the promise made”.  Waiver: it means the deliberate abandonment or giving up of a right which a party is entitled to under a contract, where upon the other party to the contract is released from his obligation. 76
  • 77. BY OPERATION OF LAW  By death.  By merger.  By insolvency.  By unauthorized alteration of terms of a written contract.  By rights and liabilities becoming vested in the same person. 77
  • 78. BY IMPOSSIBILITY OF PERFORMANCE  Impossibility existing at the time of agreement –  Known to the parties – the agreement is void ab initio.  Unknown to the parties – the agreement is void on the ground of mutual mistake.  Impossibility arising subsequent to the formation of the contract. 78
  • 79. BY SUPERVENING IMPOSSIBILITY  Destruction of subject matter of contract  Non-existence or non-occurrence of a particular state or things  Death or incapacity for personal services  Change of law or stepping in of a person with statutory authority  Out break of war 79
  • 80.  Impossibility of performance is, as a rule, not an excuse for non-performance.  In the following cases a contract is not discharged on the ground of supervening impossibility:  Difficulty of performance,  Commercial impossibility,  Impossibility due to failure of a third person,  Strikes, lock-outs and civil disturbances, and  Partial Impossibility. 80
  • 82. BY BREACH OF CONTRACT Breach of contract means violation of a contract. It is of two kinds:  Anticipatory Breach ( breach occurring before the time fixed)  a)  b) Making the performance of promise become impossible by doing some act. By express renunciation. 82
  • 83. Actual Breach (when a party fails to perform his obligations upon the fixed date of performance)  a) On the due date of performance.  b) During the course of performance of contract.  i) Express Repudiation.  ii) Implied Repudiation 83
  • 84. REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT  When the contract is broken, the injured party has one or more of the following remedies: I. Rescission of the contract. II. Suit for damages. III. Suit upon quantum meruit. IV. Suit for specific performance. V. Suit for injunction. 84
  • 85. RESCISSION OF THE CONTRACT  Rescission means a right not to perform an obligation.  In case of breach of contract the promisee need not perform his obligation,  he is not only discharged from his liabilities but also he is entitled to claim compensation for damages  which he might have sustained due to non performance of the contract. [Section 39] 85
  • 86. SUIT FOR DAMAGES  Damages are monetary compensation allowed to the injured party for the loss suffered.  The object of awarding damages is not to punish the party at fault  but to make good the financial loss suffered by the injured party due to breach of contract. 86
  • 87. RULES RELATING TO DAMAGES  Ordinary damages – arising in the usual course of things.  special damages – such damages which the parties knew to be likely to result from the breach.  Compensation is not given for any remote or indirect loss or damages, and  Such compensation for damages arising from breach of quasi contract shall be same as in any other contract. 87
  • 88.  Exemplary or Vindictive damages – essentially in the nature of punishment for wrong inflicted.  Nominal Damages – the injured party has not in fact suffered any loss due to the breach of contract.  Damages for loss of reputation – the smaller the amount of cheque dishonoured, higher the amount of damages.  Damages for inconvenience and discomfort –generally not recoverable. 88
  • 89. Liquidated damages – represent a sum, fixed or ascertained by the parties in the contract,  which is a fair and genuine pre-estimate of the probable loss that might ensue as a result of the breach if it takes place.  Penalty – is a sum named in the contract which is disproportionate to the damages likely to accrue as a result of the breach.  In India no such distinction is made and the court allow only “reasonable compensation”.  89
  • 90. QUANTUM MERUIT When an agreement is discovered to be void. [Sec 65]  When something is done without any intention to do gratuitously. [Sec 70]  When there is an express or implied contract to render service but no agreement as to remuneration.  When the completion of the contract has been prevented by the act of the other party to the contract.  When a contract is divisible.  When an indivisible contract is completely performed but badly.  90
  • 91. SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE The remedy of Specific Performance is in the nature of equitable remedies based on the principles of equities.  Among the remedies are specific performance, injunction, rectification and cancellation of instruments and rescission of contract.  In the discretion of the court, specific performance may be enforced:  where there is no standard for ascertaining the actual damage caused by the non-performance; or  where compensation in money for the nonperformance would not afford adequate relief.  91
  • 92. SUIT FOR INJUNCTION It is a judicial process whereby a party to the contract is ordered to refrain from doing a particular act or thing, or  to do a particular act or thing.  It a discretionary remedy and it acts only in personam.  Injunction means a prohibitory order of the court to a person to  not to do a particular act he has promised not to do under a contract, or  to do an act which he has promised, under a contract, to do.  92
  • 94. QUASI CONTRACTS Sometime a person may receive a benefit which the law regards another person as better entitled, or for which the law considers he should pay to the other person, even though there is no contract between the parties.  Such relationships are called quasi contracts because although there is no contract or agreement between the parties, they are put on the same pedestal as though there was a contract between them.  This is based on the principles of equity.  94
  • 95. KINDS OF QUASI CONTRACTS  Right to recover the price of necessities supplied. [Sec 68]  Payment by an interested person. [Sec 69]  Right to recover for non-gratuitous Act. [Sec 70]  Responsibility of the finder of Goods. [Sec 71]  When money is paid or things are delivered by mistake or under coercion. [Sec 72] 95
  • 97. CONTRACTS OF INDEMNITY  In a contract of indemnity one party promises to compensate the other party against loss suffered by the latter.  Section 125 confines itself to losses occasioned due to an act of promisor or due to act of any other persons. A contract by which one party promises to save the other from loss caused to him by the conduct of the promisor himself or by the conduct of any other person is called a contract of indemnity. [Sec 124] 97
  • 98.  If a person who is interested in the payment of money which another is bound to pay and pays it, he is entitled to be indemnified. [Sec 69]  The surety has a rights to claim indemnity from the principal debtor for sums he has rightfully paid towards the guarantee. [Sec 145]  The principal is liable to indemnify the agent for all amount paid by him during the exercise of his authority. [Sec 222] 98
  • 99. RIGHTS OF INDEMNITY HOLDER [SEC 125]  All damages that he may be compelled to pay in a suit in respect of any matter to which the promise to indemnify applies.  All cost that he may be compelled to pay in bringing or defending such suit.  All sums which he may have paid under the terms of any compromise of any such suit. 99
  • 100. CONTRACT OF GUARANTEE A contract of guarantee is essentially a contract  to perform the promise or  discharge  in the liability of a third person case of his default.  The basic function of a contract of guarantee is  to enable a person to get a loan, or goods, or an employment. [Sec 126] 100
  • 101. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF GUARANTEE  Surety.  Principal Debtor.  Creditor.  Not be vitiated by incapacity, flaw in consent, and unlawful character of the agreement.  May be oral and it may either be expressed or implied.  Concurrence of parties.  Existence of Principal debt.  Essential of a valid contract like Consideration and Free consent. 101
  • 102. EXTENT OF SURETY'S LIABILITY  The liability of surety is coextensive with that of the principal debtor. [Sec 128]  The Surety may limit his liability by an express agreement.  The liability of the surety arises immediately when a default is made by the principal debtor.  The creditor can sue the surety without suing the principal debtor.  If the guarantee is conditional upon another person joining it as co-surety, the guarantee is not valid if that person does not join. [Sec 144] 102
  • 103. KINDS OF GUARANTEES  Specific guarantee – extends to a specific transaction or a single debt.  The liability of surety comes to an end when the guaranteed debt is duly discharged.  Continuing guarantee –extends to a series of transaction.  This kind of guarantee is intended to cover a number of transactions over a period of time.  Whether the guarantee is continuing guarantee or not is a question of intention, subject matter & circumstance. 103
  • 104. REVOCATION OF CONTINUING GUARANTEE By Notice  By Death of Surety  By Novation. (Sec 62)  By variance in the terms of contract. (Sec 133)  By release or discharge of principal debtor.  By compounding with the principal debtor. (Sec 135)  By creditor's act or omission imparting surety's eventual remedy. (Sec 139)  By loss of security. (Sec 142)  104
  • 105. RIGHTS OF SURETY Against Creditor –  Right of Security  Right of set-off.  Right of subrogation. Against principal debtor –  Right to be relieved of liability.  Right to indemnity. Against co-sureties –  Right of contribution –  Co-sureties liable to contribute equally.  Liability of co-sureties bound in different sums.  Release of co-surety. 105
  • 106. DISCHARGE OF SURETY  By Revocation of Guarantee  Discharge  Variance  Release by conduct of creditor in the terms of the contract or discharge of principal debtor  Compounding by creditor with principal debtor  Creditor compounding with principal debtor  Creditor promising to give time to the principal  Creditor agreeing not to sue the debtor. debtor 106
  • 107.  By impairing surety's remedy  Loss of security by the creditor  Discharge of surety by invalidation of contract  Guarantee obtained by misrepresentation  Guarantee obtained by concealment  Guarantee on contract that creditor shall not act on it until a co-surety joins  Failure of consideration 107
  • 109. BAILMENT  “A bailment is the delivery of goods by one person to another for some purpose, upon a contract that they shall, when the purpose is accomplished, be returned or otherwise disposed of according to the direction of the person delivering them”.  The person delivering the goods is called the bailor and;  The person to whom the goods are delivered is called the bailee." 109
  • 110. ESSENTIAL REQUISITE OF BAILMENT  There must be a contract.  There must be a delivery of possession.  The delivery be of goods.  Delivery to be made by the owner, called bailor.  Delivery be to another person, called bailee.  Delivery for specific purpose.  Delivery on the condition that they be returned. 110
  • 111. KINDS OF BAILMENT On the basis of reward  Gratuitous Bailment  Non-Gratuitous Bailment On the basis of Benefit  For the exclusive benefit of bailor.  For the exclusive benefit of bailee.  For mutual benefit. 111
  • 112. DUTIES OF A BAILOR  To disclose known faults [Sec 150]  To bear extraordinary expenses [Sec 158]  To indemnify bailee for loss in case of premature termination of gratuitous bailment. [Sec 159]  To receive back the goods  To indemnify the bailee against the defective title of the bailor [Sec 164] 112
  • 113. DUTIES OF A BAILEE  To take reasonable care of the goods bailed.  Not to mix goods bailed with his own goods.  Not to make unauthorized use of goods.  Not to set up an adverse title.  To return the accretion to the goods.  To return the goods. 113
  • 114. RIGHTS OF BAILOR  Right to claim damages in case of negligence.  Right to terminate the contract in case of unauthorised use.  Right to claim compensation in case of unauthorised use.  Right to claim separation of goods in case of unauthorised mixture.  Right to claim separation of goods in case of unauthorised mixture of goods which cannot be separated.  Right to demand return of the goods.  Right to claim compensation in case of unauthorised retention of goods.  Right to demand accretion to the goods. 114
  • 115. RIGHTS OF BAILEE  Delivery of goods to one of the several joint bailors of goods.  Delivery of goods without title.  Right to apply to court to stop delivery.  Right of action against trespassers.  Bailee's Lien. 115
  • 116. TERMINATION OF BAILMENT  On the expiry of the period.  On the achievement of the object.  Inconsistent  Destruction  Gratuitous  Death use of goods. of subject matter. bailment. of bailor or bailee. 116
  • 117. FINDER OF GOODS A person who finds goods belonging to another and takes them into his custody, is subject to the same responsibilities as a bailee. [Sec 71]  He must take reasonable care.  He must not use the goods for his own purpose.  He must not mix goods with his own.  He must try to find out the owner of the goods. 117
  • 118. RIGHTS OF FINDER OF GOODS  Right of lien.  Right to sue for rewards.  Right of sale. 118
  • 120. PLEDGE  The bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise. [Sec 172]  A pledge can be created only in respect of a chattel (movable possession) capable of delivery.  The general property in the goods remains in the owner,  but a special property in them passes to the pawnee who may sell the goods.  The person delivering goods is Pledgor or Pawnor.  The person to whom goods are delivered is Pledgee or Pawnee. 120
  • 121. RIGHTS OF PAWNEE / PLEDGEE  Right to retain goods pledged [Section 173 and 174]  Right to extraordinary expenses  Right against true owner, when the Pawnor's title is defective  Pawnee's right where Pawnor makes default  Under Section 176 the Pawnee has the following three rights:  may file a suit against the Pawnor; or  he may sell the goods after giving reasonable notice; or  can recover any deficiency arising on the sale. 121
  • 122. RIGHTS OF PAWNOR / PLEDGOR  Right to get back goods.  Right to redeem debt.  Preservation and maintenance of goods.  Rights of an ordinary debtor. 122
  • 123. PLEDGE BY NON-OWNERS  Pledge by Mercantile Agent.  Pledge by a person in possession under a voidable contract.  Pledge where pawnor has limited interest.  Pledge by seller in possession after sale.  Pledge by buyer in possession before sale. 123
  • 125. CONTRACT OF AGENCY  An agent is a person employed to do any act for another, or  to represent another, in dealings with third persons.  The person for whom such act is done or who is so represented, is called the principal."  Whatever the principal can do himself, he may get the same done through an agent,; and  What the principal does by another, he does it himself.  The acts of the agents are the acts of the principal. 125
  • 126. CREATION OF AGENCY  By Agreement –  - Express Agreement.  - Implied Agreement.  Implied agency includes the following –  Agency by Estoppel.  Agency by holding out.  Agency by necessity –  Agent acceding his authority in an emergency.  A person entrusted with another's property.  Husband and Wife.  Agency by ratification. 126
  • 127. ESSENTIALS OF A VALID RATIFICATION  The agent must act for an identifiable principal.  The principal must be in existence.  The principal must have contractual capacity.  Ratification must be with full knowledge of facts.  Ratification must be done within a reasonable time.  The act to be ratified must not be void, illegal or ultra vires.  The whole transaction must be ratified.  Ratification can be of the acts the principal had power to do.  Ratification should not put a third party to damages.  Ratification relates back to the date of the act. 127
  • 128. DUTIES OF AGENTS  To carry out the work according to the directions of principal.  To carry out the work with reasonable care, skill and diligence.  To render proper accounts.  To communicate with the principal in case of difficulty.  Not  To to deal on his own account. pay sums received for the principal. 128
  • 129.  To protect the interest of the principal in case of his death or insolvency.  Not to use information obtained in the course of agency against the principal.  Not to make secret profit.  Not to set up an adverse title.  Not to put himself in a position where his interest and duty conflict.  Not to delegate authority. 129
  • 130. RIGHTS OF AGENTS  Right of retainer.  Right to receive remuneration.  Right of lien.  Right of indemnification.  Right of compensation.  Right of stoppage in transit. 130
  • 131. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY  Delegatus non potest delegar  A Sub-agent is a person employed by and  acting under the control of the original agent and the business of the agency. [Section 191]  A agent may appoint a sub-agent if  There is a custom of trade.  The nature of work is such that sub-agent is necessary.  Where the principal is aware of the intention of the agent to appoint a sub-agent.  Where unforeseen emergencies arise rendering.  Where the act to be done is purely ministerial.  Where the principal permits appointment of sub-agent. 131
  • 132. EFFECT OF APPOINTMENT OF SUB-AGENT [SECTION 192 AND 193]  Where a sub-agent is properly appointed, the following effect follows :  the principal is bound by the acts of the subagent;  the agent is responsible to the principal for the acts of the sub-agent;  the sub-agent is responsible for his acts to the agent, but not to the principal, except in case of fraud or willful wrong. 132
  • 133.  Where the sub-agent is not properly appointed, the effect will be :  the principal is not bound by the acts of subagent;  the original agent is responsible for the acts of the sub-agent both to the principal and to he third party;  the sub-agent is responsible for his acts to the original agent but not to the principal even in case of fraud or willful wrong. 133
  • 134. POSITION OF PRINCIPAL AND AGENT IN RELATION TO THIRD PARTIES Named principal –  Acts of the agent are the acts of the principal.  When the agent exceed his authority  Notice given to agent as notice to principal.  Principal inducing belief that agent's unauthorised acts were authorised.  Misrepresentation or fraud of agent. Unnamed principal 134
  • 135. Undisclosed principal –  The position of Principal – contracting party may sue either the principal or the agent or both.  The principal may also require the performance of contract.  The position of agent – as between the principal and agent, the agent has all the rights of an agent as against the principal;  but as regards the third party, he is personally liable on the contract. 135
  • 136.  The position of third parties –  the third party may elect to sue either the principal or the agent or both.  If the principal discloses himself before the contract is completed, the other party may refuse to fulfill the contract on the ground of mistake of identity of party.  The third party can also claim a right of set-off against the agent. 136
  • 137. PERSONAL LIABILITY OF AN AGENT EXCEPTIONS [SEC 230]  When the contract expressly provides.  When the agent acts for a foreign principal.  When he acts for an undisclosed principal.  When he acts for a principal who cannot be sued.  Where he signs a contract in his own name.  Where he acts for a principal not in existence.  Where he is liable for breach of warranty of authority.  Where he receives or pays money by mistake or fraud.  Where his authority is coupled with interest.  Where trade usage or customs makes him personally liable. 137
  • 138. TERMINATION OF AGENCY [SEC 201] Termination of agency by act of parties  a) Agreement.  b) Revocation by the principal.  c) Revocation by agent. Termination of agency by operation of law  a) Performance of contract.  b) Expiry of time.  c) Death or Insanity.  d) Insolvency.  e) Destruction of subject matter.  f) Principal becoming an alien enemy.  g) Dissolution of a company. 138
  • 139. IRREVOCABLE AGENCY  a) Where the agency is coupled with interest. [Sec 202]  b) Where the agent has exercised part of his authority. [Sec 204]  c) Where the Agent has incurred personal liability. 139