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# Computer Programming- Lecture 11

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Functions and Pointers

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### Computer Programming- Lecture 11

1. 1. Lecture 11 Functions and PointersTCP1231 Computer Programming I 1
2. 2. Objectives To learn more about functions Explore how to declare and manipulate pointers with arrays, structure, and functions. To become familiar with pointers. To illustrate the applications of pointer variables and pointer operators. To understand what is pointer arithmetic TCP1231 Computer Programming I 2
3. 3. The Need for Pointers• How can we return more than one values from a function?• How can we write a function that modifies the values pass to it as parameters?• We also know that when we pass an arrays to a function, the function may change the values stored in the array, but how does it work actually? TCP1231 Computer Programming I 3
4. 4. Introduction to Pointers Value Addr 00000000 00000001 int a; a [ int ] 00000010 00000011 00000100 If I want to store the address of a, what do I do? 00000101 00000111 p [ int* ] 00001000 int* p; 00001001 00001010 To store an integer, we can store it in an integer 00001011 00001110 data type (int). 00001111 To store an address, then we must have some kind 00000101 00000111 of data type specially for storing address. 00001111 00010000 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 4
5. 5. How to Declare Pointers Value Addr 00000000 00000001 int a=2; a [ int ] 2 00000010 00000011 int * p; 00000100 00000101 00000111 p= &a; p [ int* ] 00000010 00001000 00001001This symbol is called The address of a is stored here 00001010ampersand, it is an operator 00001011which returns the address 00001110 00001111The value of variable p is the address of variable 00000101a. 00000111 00001111Note: 00010000Since p is a variable, it has its own address too. TCP1231 Computer Programming I 5
6. 6. How to Declare Pointers Value Addr 00000000 00000001 int a=2; a 2 00000010 00000011 int * p; 00000100 p= &a; 00000101 00000111p is called a pointer, just as an address points p 00000010 00001000to a physical location 00001001 00001010p actually points to the value of variable a. 00001011 00001110p is pointing to the value of variable a, to 00001111access (retrieve or to modify the value) the 00000101value of variable a indirectly using the pointer, 00000111we can use a special operator called 00001111indirection operator (or dereference operator) 00010000 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 6
7. 7. Value Addr 00000000 int a=2; 00000001 int * p; a [ int ] 2 5 00000010 00000011 p= &a; 00000100 00000101 cout << a << *p; 00000111 p [ int* ] 00000010 00001000 a= 5; 2 2 00001001 cout << a << *p; 5 5 00001010 00001011 00001110Here we are accessing the value of “a” indirectly 00001111through the pointer, thus the * operator is called: 00000101(indirection operator or dereferencing operator) as 00000111 00001111we are accessing the value by referencing another 00010000variable (pointer). TCP1231 Computer Programming I 7
8. 8. Value Addr 00000000int a=2; 00000001int * p; a [ int ] 2 5 27 & 00000010 00000011p= &a; 00000100 00000101cout << a << *p; 00000111 p [ int* ] 00000010 00001000a= 5; 2 2 00001001cout << a << *p; 5 5 00001010 00001011*p= 7; 7 7 00001110 00001111cout << a << *p; 00000101 00000111 00001111 00010000 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 8
9. 9. Note: Value Addr 00000000 int main() p [ int* ] ??? 00000001 00000010 { 00000011 00000100 int *p; ? 00000101 *p = 10; 00000111 00001000 } 00001001 00001010Where does the value 10 end up? Since we did not initialize p to 00001011point to anything, the value in p is undetermined andunpredictable, the above code may end up corrupting some 00001110crucial part of the operating system and it may hang your 00001111system. Therefore always save your programs regularly when 00000101programming with pointers, if you make some mistake, it may 00000111very well hang your whole system. 00001111 00010000 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 9
10. 10. int* p1, p2; int *p1; is equivalent to int p2; int *p1;int *p1, *p2, m, n, *q; int *p2; is equivalent to int m,n; int *q; int n; int n; int *p = &n; is equivalent to int *p; p = &n; The C++ compiler will give you a int n; syntax error saying this is invalid int *p = n; conversion. In C, the compiler will most likely give you a warning onlyTCP1231 Computer Programming I 10
11. 11. #include <iostream> a b c *p1 *p2 *p3using namespace std; 2 3 4 2 3 2int main() { 6 12 6 6 12 6 int a= 2;; int b= 3; int c= 4; 6 12 1 6 6 6 int *p1= &a; int *p2= &b; int *p3= &a; 1 12 1 1 1 1 cout << a << b << c << *p1 << *p2 << *p3 << endl; a= a * 3; c= *p1; *p2= *p1 + a; cout << a << b << c << *p1 << *p2 << *p3 << endl; p2= p1; c= 1; cout << a << b << c << *p1 << *p2 << *p3 << endl; p3=p1; *p2= c; cout << a << b << c << *p1 << *p2 << *p3 << endl; return 0;} TCP1231 Computer Programming I 11
12. 12. Call by value Call by Pointer Call by Reference#include <iostream> #include <iostream> #include <iostream>using namespace std; using namespace std; using namespace std;void swap( int A, int B ) void swap( int *A, int *B ) void swap( int &A, int &B ) { { { int temp; int temp; int temp; temp = A; temp = *A; temp = A; A = B; *A = *B; A = B; B = temp; *B = temp; B = temp;} } }int main() { int main() { int main() { int a=2, b=7; int a=2, b=7; int a=2, b=7; cout << a << b << endl; cout << a << b << endl; cout << a << b << endl; swap( a, b ); swap( &a, &b ); swap( a, b ); cout << a << b << endl; cout << a << b << endl; cout << a << b << endl; return 0; a b return 0; a b return 0; a b} 2 7 } 2 7 } 2 7 2 7 7 2 7 2 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 12
13. 13. Delete #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int a=2, b=7; int * p1= &a; *p1= a * b; cout << a << t << b << t‘ << *p1 << endl; delete p1; system(“pause”); return 0; } TCP1231 Computer Programming I 13
14. 14. #include <iostream>Pointers using namespace std;and Array int main() { int i, b[] = {10,20,30,40}; int *bPtr = b; //pointing to the first elements of array cout << "The first element : " << *bPtr <<endl; cout << "The 3rd element : " << *(bPtr + 2)<< endl; //accessing array elements using pointer cout << "Accessing array elements using pointer : " << endl; for(i=0; i < 4; i++){ cout << bPtr[i] <<" "; } cout << endl; system("PAUSE"); return 0; } TCP1231 Computer Programming I 14
15. 15. b[] 10 20 30 40 bPtr = b; bPtr points to the first element in array b[] bPtr *(bPtr + 2)b[] 10 20 30 40 bPtr moves two to the 3rd element in array b[] bPtr + 2 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 15
16. 16. for(i=0; i < 4; i++){b[] 10 20 30 40 cout << bPtr[i] <<" "; } i = 0, bPtr[0] i = 1, bPtr[1] bPtr[i] bPtr i = 2, bPtr[2] i = 3, bPtr[3] Output 10 20 30 40 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 16
17. 17. Dynamic arraysint main() { int *a; int size; cout<<"Enter the size of the dynamic array==>>"; cin >> size; a = new int[size]; cout<<" Enter "<<size<<" value"<<endl; for(int i=0; i<size; i++) cin>>a[i]; cout<<"The values you have entered are :"<<endl; for(int i=0; i<size; i++) cout<<a[i]<<" "; delete [] a; system(“pause”); return 0;} TCP1231 Computer Programming I 17
18. 18. More on FunctionsTCP1231 Computer Programming I 18
19. 19. Inline Functions• The use of macros(#) in C allows short “functions” to be called without the normal overhead associated with function calls• There are several characteristics of macros that makes their use unsuitable for C++• Thus, C++ introduced the notion of inline functions to allow users to avoid the overhead of function calls• With inline functions, the compiler controls the process (as opposed to the preprocessor, as was the case in C)• How function calls work – Recall that the result of compiling a computer program is a set of machine instructions (an executable program) – When the program is run, the OS loads the instructions into memory (associating each instruction with a memory address) and then executes the instructions in order – When a function call is encountered, the program “jumps” to the address of the function and then “jumps” back when the function has completed TCP1231 Computer Programming I 19
20. 20. • How functions work – Each time the program “jumps” to execute a function, there is associated overhead: • “Loading” the function: – The instruction immediately following the function call is stored – The function arguments are copied to a reserved region of the stack – Load the instruction referenced by the function call • Terminating the function call: – (Possibly) store a return value in a register – Load the return instruction stored when the function was first calledWith inline functions, the compiler replaces each instanceof the function call with the corresponding code TCP1231 Computer Programming I 20
21. 21. #include <iostream> #include <iostream>using namespace std; using namespace std;inline int add( int A, int B ) int add( int A, int B ){ { return A+B; 9 return A+B;} 9 } 9int main() 9 int main(){ 9 { int a=2, b=7; int a=2, b=7; for (int i=1; i<=5; i++) for (int i=1; i<=5; i++) cout << add(a,b) << endl; cout << add(a,b) << endl; system ("pause"); system ("pause"); return 0; return 0;} } TCP1231 Computer Programming I 21
22. 22. Function Overloading• Function overloading (aka function polymorphism) allows functions in C++ to share the same name• For example, imagine that we have a sorting algorithm that we wish to use to implement functions for several types, such as int and char• Traditionally, we would have to use different names for these functions void sortint(int a[]) {…} void sortchar(char a[]) {…}• Overloaded functions are distinguished by their argument list void sort(int a[]) {…} void sort(char a[]) {…} TCP1231 Computer Programming I 22
23. 23. #include <iostream>using namespace std; int main()int add( int A, int B ) {{ int i1=2, i2=7; return A+B; float f1=3, f2=5;}int add( int A ) cout << add(i1, i2) << endl;{ cout << add(i1) << endl; return A; cout << add(f1, f2) << endl;}int add( float A, float B ) system ("pause");{ return 0; return A+B; }} 9 2 8 TCP1231 Computer Programming I 23
24. 24. #include <iostream> Recursionusing namespace std; A function definition may contain a callint f( int a) to the function being defined.{ if (a<1) return 1; else return a * f(a-1);}int main(){ int k=5; cout << f(k); return 0;} TCP1231 Computer Programming I 24
25. 25. #include <iostream> #include <iostream>using namespace std; Function Headers using namespace std; int sum(int , int );int sum(int x, int y) { void print(int ); int s; s=x+y; int main () { return s; int v;} v=sum (3, 5);void print(int x) { print(v); cout << x; return 0;} }int main () { int v; int sum(int x, int y) { v=sum (3, 5); int s; print(v); s=x+y; return s; return 0; }} void print(int x) { cout << x; } TCP1231 Computer Programming I 25
26. 26. The EndTCP1231 Computer Programming I 26