Conventional vs DNA computer
Why Bio Computing ??
Moore’s Law states that silicon microprocessor
complexity will double in every 18 months.
One day this will no longer hold true when
miniaturization limits are reached.
Solving complex problems which today's
supercomputers are unable to perform in
stipulated period of time.
Require a Successor to Silicon
What is Biological Computing?
Biological Computing means such a
computing process which use synthesized
biological components to store and
manipulate data analogous to processes in
the human body.
The result is small ; faster computing process
that operates with great accuracy.
Main biological component used in
Biological Computing is : DNA
What is DNA?
DNA Stands for DeOxyRiboNucleicAcid.
A hereditary material found in almost all living
Located inside the nucleus of a cell.
Helps in long term storage of information.
DNA is stored as a
code made of four chemical bases(A,T,G ,C).
Structure of DNA
The two strands of DNA
molecule are anti parallel
where each strand runs
in opposite direction.
Graphical Representation of Inherent
bonding properties of DNA
What is a DNA Computer?
INVENTOR :Dr. Leonard Adleman
DNA computer is a molecular
computer that works biochemically
to solve complex problems and
different possible solutions are
created all at once.
It computes using enzymes that
react with DNA strands and cause
Evolution of the DNA Computer(2)
DNA computer moved from test
tubes on to gold plates
Evolution of the DNA Computer(3)
First Practical DNA computer
unveiled in 2002 , used in gene
Evolution of the DNA Computer(4)
Self powered DNA computer
unveiled in 2003.
o First programmable autonomous computing
machine in which the input,output,software
and hardware are all made of DNA
o Can perform a billion operations per second
with 99.8% accuracy
Properties of a DNA computer
Dense data storage.
Massively parallel computation.
Extraordinary energy efficiency.
How Dense is the Data Storage?
1 gram of DNA =2.2
1 PB =
= 1015bytes = 1000
Photo: European Molecular Biology
How Dense is the Data
The number of CDs required to hold this
amount of information, lined up edge to
edge, would circle the Earth 375 times, and
would take1630 centuries to listen to.
How Enormous is the Parallelism?
A test tube of DNA can contain trillions of
strands. Each operation on a test tube of DNA
is carried out on all strands in the tube in
How Extraordinary is the Energy
Modern supercomputers = 109
DNA computer = 2*10^19
Conventional vs. Biological Computers
Processing scheme Sequential and
Energy efficient ? No Yes
Quantum effects a
Toxic components? Yes No
Advantages of DNA computers
Cheap resource & plentiful supply.
DNA biochips can be made
cleanly so no toxic materials are
Many times smaller in size than
Taiwan introduces world's 1st
They are planning to use this Chip on ID card
to crack down frauds using fake ID cards.
Not completely accurate at this
moment in time.
During an operation, 95% chance a particular
DNA molecule will “Compute” correctly.
DNA has a Half life
Solutions could dissolve away before the end
result is found
Applications of DNA computing
DNA computers showing enormous
potential, especially for medical
purposes as well as data processing
Still a lot of work and resources
required to develop it into a fully