Learning Objectives (Taxonomy)

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Learning Objectives (Taxonomy)

  1. 1. This presentation was developed for the exclusive use of students enrolled in: Educational Testing & Grading, Professor Gregory E. Stone. © 2004 Gregory E. Stone. All rights reserved. This presentation may not be reproduced in any form, in part or as a whole, without the express written permission of the author.
  2. 2. Taxonomies in Learning Objectives Taxonomies help to organize our thought process. Ensures higher level skillsets.
  3. 3. Taxonomies in Learning Objectives Content Action + Intent = Objective
  4. 4. Taxonomies in Learning Objectives Action + Intent = Objective Skill Level
  5. 5. Same Content Different Skills Language Arts  Read Dick and Jane  Summarize Dick and Jane  Compose a unique Dick and Jane story
  6. 6. Three Principle Skill Facets Cognitive What we commonly refer to as “intelligence” or scholastic abilities.
  7. 7. Three Principle Skill Facets Affective Process of developing and internalizing a set of societal traits and values.
  8. 8. Three Principle Skill Facets Psychomotor Basic and advanced motor expressions of affect and cognition.
  9. 9. Taxonomic Pioneers Bloom Bloom’s Taxonomy Masia Affective Taxonomy Gagné Alternative Taxonomy
  10. 10. Benjamin Bloom’s COGNITIVE TAXONOMY Taxonomies are Hierarchical Lower Levels  Higher Levels Most common  Least common
  11. 11. Using Taxonomies in Learning Objectives Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  12. 12. Knowledge Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 1 Requires student to recall memorized information Define ♦ List ♦ Recall Identify ♦ Know
  13. 13. Knowledge Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 1 Define the meaning of a concept. Identify simple shapes. List the parts of a cell. Know mathematical operation signs. Match flags to appropriate country.
  14. 14. Comprehension Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 2 Use the information in familiar situations without intimate understanding Explain ♦ Infer ♦ Summarize Paraphrase ♦ Distinguish
  15. 15. Comprehension Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 2 Summarize the main events of a story. Discriminate between styles of painting. Distinguish living from inanimate objects. Determine greatest from least. Describe differences in math operations.
  16. 16. Application Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 3 Use previous knowledge in a new and different setting Solve ♦ Produce ♦ Compute (New Situation) Organize
  17. 17. Application Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 3 Compute the sum of fractions (in a qualitatively different way than in class). Create a simple short story. Organize a logical progression.
  18. 18. Analysis Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 4 Dissect (break down) a concept into its component parts Diagram ♦ Outline ♦ Deduce High level Discriminate ♦ Illustrate
  19. 19. Analysis Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 4 Distinguishes fact from opinion. Deduces valid conclusions from data. Identifies assumptions underlying concept.
  20. 20. Synthesis Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 5 Produce unique or original thoughts by piecing together existing elements in new whole Compose ♦ Create ♦ Design Formulate ♦ Categorize
  21. 21. Synthesis Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 5 Compose a unique ending to an unfinished story. Design a new scientific experiment
  22. 22. Evaluation Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 6 Formulate judgements about the value of a concept/thing using a set of specified criteria Compare ♦ Contrast ♦ Support Interpret ♦ Conclude
  23. 23. Evaluation Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 6 Judge a sample writing based upon given criteria. Compare and contrast political systems. Compare and contrast simple opposites. Support the argument than DaVinci was a “master painter”.
  24. 24. Gagné’s COGNITIVE TAXONOMY While Bloom focused on developmental “Mastery”, Gagné concentrated on developmental “Logic”
  25. 25. Gagné’s COGNITIVE TAXONOMY Higher Order Rules Rules Defined Concepts Concrete Concepts Discrimination Verbal Information
  26. 26. Verbal Information Gagné’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 1 Akin to Bloom’s Knowledge (Recall) level. Memorize ♦ Remember
  27. 27. Discrimination Gagné’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 2 Relating to stimuli - determining similarities and differences. Have I seen it before? ♦
  28. 28. Concrete Concepts Gagné’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 3 Identifying physical objects that have a specified characteristics. This is an apple because it has apple qualities ♦
  29. 29. Defined Concepts Gagné’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 4 Understanding abstract levels of classification. Can distinguish a noun from a verb ♦
  30. 30. Rules Gagné’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 5 Applying principles that regulate the relationship between objects. Compose simple sentences ♦ Solve standard math problems
  31. 31. Higher Order Rules Gagné’s Cognitive Taxonomy Level 6 Combining a series of rules into a single, more complex rule / to solve a new problem. Write a unique story ♦ Solve a novel science problem
  32. 32. Bloom & Masia’s AFFECTIVE TAXONOMY Provides theoretical framework within which the ideas, beliefs, attitudes, etc. of others/society are internalized by a person.
  33. 33. Bloom & Masia’s AFFECTIVE TAXONOMY Characterizing by aValue Organizing Valuing Responding Receiving (Attending)
  34. 34. Receiving (Attending) Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Level 1 An awareness of the object and a willingness to listen, watch. At the top of the range, the student can distinguish what is and is not related to the object..
  35. 35. Responding Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Level 2 Student actively participates. At first, just “acceptance”. Later we hope students will approach with “willingness” & “satisfaction”.
  36. 36. Valuing Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Level 3 Judges activity on it’s “worthiness” - according to a consistent pattern. Minimally “accepts the idea”. Then “prefers the idea”. Finally, “conviction for the idea”.
  37. 37. Organization Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Level 4 The many ideas become interrelated. An “organization” suggests the start of the conceptualization of a value system.
  38. 38. Characterizing by a Value Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Level 5 Students behave in a way consistent with their value system - avoiding hypocritical behavior (behaving with almost perfect consistency).
  39. 39. Example Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Johnny finds biology totally boring. Ms. Jones assigns a paper about the importance of biology as a science. How could Affect help us?
  40. 40. Example Bloom & Masia’s Affective Taxonomy Johnny finds biology totally boring. Receiving Ms. Jones assigns a paper about the importance of biology as a science. Responding or Valuing
  41. 41. Psychomotor TAXONOMY (Harrow) From involuntary reactions to complex movements - the psychomotor taxonomy examines the relationship between body and intent.
  42. 42. Psychomotor TAXONOMY (Harrow) Nondiscursive Communication Skilled Movements Physical Abilities Perceptual Abilities Basic Fundamental Movements Reflex Movements
  43. 43. Low Levels Psychomotor Taxonomy Reflex Movements Involuntary movements (autonomic) Basic Fundamental Movements Simple, but inherent to more complex movements
  44. 44. Middle Levels Psychomotor Taxonomy Perceptual Abilities Perceptions sent to the brain that affects motor movements Physical Abilities The physical self that enables smooth and efficient movements
  45. 45. Highest Levels Psychomotor Taxonomy Skilled Movements Learned complex tasks Nondiscursive Communication Communication through movement (facial expressions, dance moves, etc.)
  46. 46. Plan your Actions Using the Taxonomies It is important to consider the taxonomic structure - otherwise we run the real risk of addressing one, usually low, level of activity.
  47. 47. Group Exercise! Meet with your group for the next 20 minutes.

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