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Colonial Canada and Louisiana

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  1. 1. The French in Nort h America By: Patrick Spohr For: History of the Americas 140
  2. 2. American Colonies 5 – Canada and I roquoia ● Unlike the English and Spanish, who destroyed early French attempts to colonize the St. Lawrence river, France did not attempt to permanently settle in North America until the 17th century, which put the French at a disadvantage.
  3. 3. American Colonies 5 – Canada and I roquoia ● Due to low French interest in colonizing North America, the only French presence from 1500-1600 were fishing and fur trading posts. French traders also ran temporary trading posts during the summer seasons.
  4. 4. American Colonies 5 – Canada and I roquoia ● With a lack of government presence or backing in North America, French traders were forced to work more closely, and bow to Indian demands more readily, than there European rivals. Allying with the Montagnais, Algonkin, and Huron meant that the traders also needed to go to war with the Five Nation Iroquois.
  5. 5. American Colonies 5 – Canada and I roquoia • The rising trade between the French and the various Northern tribes also assisted the Jesuits. • Earlier attempts by the Recollet order failed partially because the Indians had more leverage in their trade relationship. • The Jesuits, unlike other European religious orders, were more willing to learn Indian languages and cultures, and the Jesuit desire for martyrdom made them more respectable in the eyes of the Native tribes. • Native tribes, like the Huron, became more reliant on European goods as time went on, meaning the Jesuits were able to become more aggressive in their tactics and requests of their Native converts.
  6. 6. American Colonies 16 – French America ● In 1627, the outpost of Quebec , belonging to the Company of New France, was destroyed by three English privateers. The destruction and the eventual peace treaty taught the French monarchy a valuable lesson: colonization was necessary to slow the Westward progression of the English colonists.
  7. 7. American Colonies 16 – French America ● Opportunities in Canada far exceeded those of France; 80% of colonists were habitants with at least 100 acres of land. ● Canadians experienced better living conditions during the winter than their French counterparts, with more firewood and warmer homes. ● Colonists diets had greater amounts of meat and white bread. Also, more colonists were able to obtain horses, a rarity for peasants France.
  8. 8. American Colonies 16 – French America Unlike the English colonists, the French were able to transplant European aristocracy to North America. By eliminating assemblies and replacing them with councils run by seigneurs, nobles were awarded power and continued the monarchical history of France, instead of replacing it with republicanism.
  9. 9. American Colonies 16 – French America Working their way down from French Canada via the Mississippi River, the Sieur de La Salle and company explored what would become Louisiana. Like French Canada, Louisiana was yet another attempt by the French to contain the English colonies. Instead of utilizing the mission structure of the Spanish, the French opted to use forts to connect the Gulf of Mexico to the major towns around the Great Lakes. The French settlers, like those a century earlier, developed a trade partnership with nearby tribes, particularly the Chickasaw. The Company of the Indies exported thousands of European immigrants and African slaves, most of whom died due to disease and famine. The Louisiana environment, much like the one experienced by English settlers to the Chesapeake, was humid and swampy; a much more dangerous environ than the far healthier French Canada.
  10. 10. American Colonies 16 – French America With a larger, more secure population, the Louisiana colonists changed their approach to Native tribes, bringing them into line with the Spanish and English. Besides enslaving rebellious Natives, the French also used class and racial distinctions to pit poor French, Natives, and African slaves against one another.