Welfare Work for Unorganized Labor
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Welfare Work for Unorganized Labor
Kim Rnﬂezaal (25)
Sliobilash _7anmal (29)
- Unorganized Labor
- Child Labor
- Women Labor
- Contract Labor
- Inter State Migrant Labor
- Disabled and
Apart of the workforce which Handicapped Labor
has not been able to organize in
pursuit of a common objective
because of constraints such as
casual nature of employment,
ignorance and illiteracy. small Major Characteristics of unorganized sector:
Size °f °5“"b"5""“°"‘5 with '°"" - The unorganized labor are omnipresent
capital investment. per person
employed. scattered nature of throughout India-
establishments. superior - As the unorganized sector suffers from
‘"°"3”‘ °f the °"‘P’°V°' etc‘ cycles of excessive seasonality of
employment majority of the unorganized
workers do not have stable durable
avenues of employment . The workplace
is scattered and fragmented.
- There is no formal employer — employee
- The labor in India consists of about 487 million workers of which
over 94 percent work in unincorporated, unorganized
- However, as far as the agricultural sector is concerned,
irrespective of economic class, the share of the unorganized
workforce remains flat.
- More than 30% of National Income comes from the
Key Issues @
- Lack of quality employment - Migration
or under employment - Unequal distribution of
- Large in Number money & unjustified wage
- Seasonality of work rate
- Working Environment - Gender discrimination in
- Caste and Class Difference: wage
- Poor Skill and Technology - Indebtedness
- inadequacy of laws and - Bonded labor (Dadan)
legislation - Social security and measures
- The study aimed at examining the present status of 'Naka'
Workers’ in construction industry in Navi Mumbai.
- The ‘Naka market’ Workers do not get regular wages because
they do not get regular work. Most of them earn less than the
minimum wage. .
- Most of the workers possess a single skill. Resultantly they do not
get regular work. They desire to obtain multiple skills but they do
not have any access to such training institutions/ organizations
from where they can obtain multiple skills training.
- Lack of unionization among the ‘Naka Market' workers.
Act for Unorganized Sector
- The Unorganized Workers‘ Social Security Act. 2008
- An Act to provide for social security and welfare of unorganized
workers . This Act provides for welfare schemes of unorganized
workers, notably domestic workers on matters relating to health and
life cover benefits, old age protection and other benefits.
- The respective state government will constitute a welfare board for
the unorganized workers for suitable welfare which includes housing,
pension benefits, education schemes for children. skill up gradation
- As per Census 2011, the total number of female workers in
India is 149.8 million
- Female workers in rural and urban areas are 121.8 and 28.0
- Out of total 149.8 million female workers, 35.9 million
females are working as cultivators and another 61.5 million
are agricultural laborers. Of the remaining female workers,
8.5 million are in household Industry and 43.7 million are
classified as other workers.
- The survey conducted in the fishing industries showed the extent of
exploitation and harassment suffered by women workers. A survey and
interview reports from the Fisheries in Digha, in West Bengal showed women
workers here are exploited and are suffering from various mental and physical
- A women worker named Lokkhi Mandal who works in the 'Deepak Fisheries
ltd. ’ as a grader mentioned during interview that most of the workers here are
women and all of them are suffering from mental and physical torture by
their male supervisors.
Protective Provisions €c? Acts for Women Labor
Safety/ Health Measures
- Section 22(2) of the Factories Act, 1948 provides that no woman shall be allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust
any part of a prime mover or of any transmission machinery while the prime mover or transmission
machinery is in motion, or to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of any machine if the cleaning, lubrication or
adjustment thereof would expose the woman to risk of injury from any moving part either of that machine or
of any adjacent machinery.
- Section 27 of the Factories Act, 1948 prohibits employment of women in any part of a factory for pressing
cotton in which a cotton opener is at work.
Prohibition of Night Work
- Section 66(1)(b) of the Factories Act. 1948 states that no woman shall be required or allowed to work in any factow
except between the hours of 6 a. m. and 7 pm.
- Section 25 of the Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act. 1966 stipulates that no woman shall be
required or allowed to work in any industrial premise except between 6 am. and 7 pm.
- Section 46(1)(b) of the Mines Act. 1952 prohibits employment of women in any mine above ground except between the
hours of 6 a. m. and 7 pm.
Prohibition of Sub-terrain Work
- Section 46(1)(b) of the Mines Act, 1952 prohibits employment of women in
any part of a mine which is below ground.
- The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 regulates the employment of women in
certain establishments for certain periods before and after child-birth and
provides maternity benefits. The Building and Other Constructions
(Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 provides for
maternity benefit to female beneficiaries of the Welfare Fun
Provisions for Separate Latrines and Urinals
Provision for separate latrines and urinals for female workers exist under the
- Rule 53 of the Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970.
- Section 19 of the Factories Act, 1948.
- Rule 42 of the Inter State Migrant Workmen (RECS) Central Rules. 1980.
- Section 20 of the Mines Act. 1952.
- Section 9 of the Plantations Labor Act, 1951.
Provisions for Separate Washing Facilities
Provision for separate washing facilities for female workers exists under the
- Section 57 of the Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970.
- Section 42 of the Factories Act.
- Section 43 of the | nter—State Migrant Workmen (RECS) Act, 1979.
- DGE&T is the nodal agency for providing vocational training in
traditional and contemporary courses and certification to women to
meet the trained skill workforce to the industry and service sector etc. in
the country. .
- The Institutional framework comprising 11 Institutes in the Central sector
offer training courses to women to develop professional skills required
to find suitable jobs/ self employment and trained faculty position in
| T|s etc. The institutes set up to impart training:
- National Vocational Training Institute (NVTI) for Women, NOIDA,
Regional Vocational Training Institutes (RVTIS) for Women at Mumbai,
Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Panipat, l(olkata, Tura, Allahabad,
Indore, Vadodara and Jaipur
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- According to the Census 2001 figures there are 1.26 crore working
children in the age group of 5-14 as compared to the total child
population of 252 crore.
- There are approximately 12 lakhs children working in the hazardous
occupations/ processes which are covered under the Child Labor
(Prohibition 81 Regulation) Act ie. 18 occupations and 65 processes
- However, as per survey conducted by National Sample Survey
Organization (NSSO) in 2004-05, the number of working children is
estimated at 90.75 lakh. It shows that the efforts of the Government have
borne the desired fruits.
A Comprehensive survey of child labor in the district of | (oraput was made
in the year 1997 following the direction of Hon'ble Supreme Court of
India. The survey revealed that the district bears 13,558 child laborers both
in hazardous (234) and non-hazardous (13,324) occupations, out of which
6,440 are girls. Another survey of child laborers in the district was made
towards the end of the years 2002, i. e. after five years of implementation
of NCLP, which recorded as less as 2.693 child laborers in the district in
hazardous (540) and nonhazardous(2,143) occupations, out of which
1,079 are girls.
Acts for Child Labor Welfare
Based on the recommendations of Gurupadaswamy Committee, the
Child Labor (Prohibition 8: Regulation) Act was enacted in 1986. The Act
prohibits employment of children in certain specified hazardous
occupations and processes and regulates the working conditions in others.
The list of hazardous occupations and processes is progressively being
expanded on the recommendation of Child Labor Technical Advisory
Committee constituted under the Act.
In consonance with the above approach, a National Policy on Child Labor was
formulated in 1987. The Policy seeks to adopt a gradual & sequential approach
with a focus on rehabilitation.
In 1988, the National Child Labor Project (NCLP) Scheme was launched in 9
districts of high child labor endemicity in the country. The Scheme envisages
running of special schools for child labor withdrawn from work.
An individual in India is
considered a contracted
employee of an institution when
they have been hired through a
contractor (this process can still
take place legally without the
knowledge or consent of the
individual ultimately in charge of
- A total of 384 million persons are employed at various levels and out of
the total employed 51% are self—employed, while 33.5% are engaged
as casual labour and 15.6% are employed as regular wage or salaried
- The W Geri National Labour Institute in a study on contract labour has
estimated that there are a total of 36 crore contract labour in the
country and out of them 60 lacs are covered under the Contract
Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 in both Central and State
In the case of Steel Authority of India Ltd. v. National Union Water Front
Workers again the same issue was raised. Here the Court acted solely on the
basis of what was written in the Act. The Court said that Section 10 of the Act
or any other provision there does not imply for automatic absorption of
Contract Labor Act, 1970
- The primary objective of the Act is to stop exploitation of contract
labourers by contractors and establishments. The Act does not provide
for a total abolition of contract labour system but it provides for abolition
of contract labour in appropriate cases.
- It is the responsibility of the Central Government or as the case may be,
the State Government with concern to ensure effective implementation
of the Act.
- The Act applies to every establishment in which 20 or more workmen are
employed or were employed on any day on the preceding 12 months as
contract labour and to every contractor who employs or who employed
on any day of the preceding 12 months 20 or more workmen.
Globalization has created a situation which generated a worldwide
phenomenon of migration of millions of workers to other
countries. The finance capital's thrust for cheap labour to bring
down the cost of production in an environment of cut throat
competition has given a powerful impetus to the phenomenon of
migration of labour both within as well as outside the country.
Males Fcnmk-5 Pcrso Males Fcnmlcs
14 .445.224 12.373333 2.072.891 14-7 3
1.136.372 950.245 186.127
2.915.189 2.038.675 876.514
43.100911 679.852 42.421.o59
6.577.330 3.423.573 3.143.707
20,608,105 8,262,143 12,345,962
9.517.161 5.164.065 4.353.096
Inter State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979
- This act deals with the employment of inter-State migrant workmen
and to provide for their conditions of service and for matters connected
therewith. It includes all the necessary provisions to monitor the
- There are two important reasons for rural labour migration: (1) migration
for survival and (2) migration for subsistence
.1" 3 1.
- The Constitution of India ensures equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all individuals and
implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including Person with Disabilities.
- Disabled persons include the blind. the deaf, the orthopedically handicapped, the negative
lepers and the mild mentally retarded persons.
Welfare Schemes for Physically Disabled
- DEENDAYAL Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme
- Assistance to disabled persons for buying their aids and appliances
- National Institutions for manpower development
- EPF & ESI for disabled employees in the private sector with monthly salary upto 25,000
- Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act,
1995, which provides for education, employment, creation of barrier free environment. social
National Social Assistance Scheme?