Acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills.Immediate response to a change in its environmentChildren modeling after pro wrestlersBobDaemmrich/TheImageWorksGlassman/TheImageWorksLearning & OrientingResponse
Operant ConditioningAssociate a response and its consequence
Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior isstrengthened if followed by reinforcement ordiminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followedby favorable consequences become morelikely, and behaviors followed by unfavorableconsequences become less likely
Operant Chamber Skinner Box chamber with abar or key that ananimalmanipulates toobtain a food orwater reinforcer contains devicesto recordresponses
Types of ReinforcersReinforcement: Any event that strengthens thebehavior it follows. A heat lamp positivelyreinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold.Reuters/Corbis
Punishment Punishment aversive event that decreases thebehavior that it follows powerful controller of unwantedbehavior
ShapingGuide behavior towards the desired targetbehavior through successive approximations.A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminateobjects of different shapes, colors and sizes.KhamisRamadhan/Panapress/GettyImagesFredBavendam/PeterArnold,Inc.
Schedules ofReinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after aspecified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards youget different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay
Schedules ofReinforcement Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after anunpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because ofunpredictability
Schedules ofReinforcement Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after aspecified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently asthe anticipated time for rewarddraws near Mail delivery, waiting for cake tobake
Schedules ofReinforcement Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictabletime intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz, waiting for a busy phoneline to clear.
Stimulus GeneralizationTendency to respond tostimuli similar to the CS iscalled generalization.Pavlov conditioned thedog’s salivation (CR) byusing miniature vibrators(CS) on the thigh. When hesubsequently stimulatedother parts of the dog’sbody, salivation dropped.
Stimulus DiscriminationDiscrimination is the learned ability to distinguishbetween a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli thatdo not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Stimulus DiscriminationPrimary Reinforcersleep, food, air, waterPrimary Punisherpainful stimulation which would serve asa punisher in many casesCondition Reinforcersound from a clicker, as used in clickeras clicker training.