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  • Preview Question 7: What are the basic types of reinforcers?
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    1. 1. Learning’from ObservationsPsychologyQambrani Shoaib AnwerDBA – BBA (Finance)ESL Certified
    2. 2. Acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills.Immediate response to a change in its environmentChildren modeling after pro wrestlersBobDaemmrich/TheImageWorksGlassman/TheImageWorksLearning & OrientingResponse
    3. 3. Classical or PavlovianConditioning
    4. 4. Pavlov’s ClassicExperimentBefore ConditioningDuring Conditioning After ConditioningUCS (foodin mouth)Neutralstimulus(tone)NosalivationUCR(salivation)Neutralstimulus(tone)UCS (foodin mouth)UCR(salivation)CS(tone)CR (salivation)
    5. 5. ClassicalConditioning Basic Principles Acquisition Extension Spontaneous Recovery Generalization Discrimination Phobia
    6. 6. Operant ConditioningAssociate a response and its consequence
    7. 7. Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior isstrengthened if followed by reinforcement ordiminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followedby favorable consequences become morelikely, and behaviors followed by unfavorableconsequences become less likely
    8. 8. Operant Chamber Skinner Box chamber with abar or key that ananimalmanipulates toobtain a food orwater reinforcer contains devicesto recordresponses
    9. 9. Types of ReinforcersReinforcement: Any event that strengthens thebehavior it follows. A heat lamp positivelyreinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold.Reuters/Corbis
    10. 10. Punishment Punishment aversive event that decreases thebehavior that it follows powerful controller of unwantedbehavior
    11. 11. ShapingGuide behavior towards the desired targetbehavior through successive approximations.A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminateobjects of different shapes, colors and sizes.KhamisRamadhan/Panapress/GettyImagesFredBavendam/PeterArnold,Inc.
    12. 12. Schedules ofReinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after aspecified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards youget different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay
    13. 13. Schedules ofReinforcement Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after anunpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because ofunpredictability
    14. 14. Schedules ofReinforcement Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after aspecified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently asthe anticipated time for rewarddraws near Mail delivery, waiting for cake tobake
    15. 15. Schedules ofReinforcement Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictabletime intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz, waiting for a busy phoneline to clear.
    16. 16. Stimulus GeneralizationTendency to respond tostimuli similar to the CS iscalled generalization.Pavlov conditioned thedog’s salivation (CR) byusing miniature vibrators(CS) on the thigh. When hesubsequently stimulatedother parts of the dog’sbody, salivation dropped.
    17. 17. Stimulus DiscriminationDiscrimination is the learned ability to distinguishbetween a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli thatdo not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
    18. 18. Stimulus DiscriminationPrimary Reinforcersleep, food, air, waterPrimary Punisherpainful stimulation which would serve asa punisher in many casesCondition Reinforcersound from a clicker, as used in clickeras clicker training.
    19. 19. ThanksAsk Your Queries.