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The vedas
The vedas
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The Vedas

  1. 1. THE VEDAS Baltazar, Shane Marie M. Basa, Kirsty
  2. 2. VEDA Wisdom Knowledge Vision
  3. 3. The Vedas are a collection of hymns and other religious texts composed in India between about 1500 and 1000 BCE. It includes elements such as liturgical material as well as mythological accounts, poems, prayers, and formulas considered to be sacred by the Vedic religion.
  4. 4. VEDIC RELIGION? Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious activity in India for which there exist written materials. It was one of the major traditions that shaped Hinduism
  5. 5. The basic Vedic texts are the Samhita “Collections” of the four Vedas: 1. Rig-Veda “Knowledge of the Hymns of Praise” 2. Sama-Veda “Knowledge of the Melodies” 3. Yajur-Veda “Knowledge of the Sacrificial formulas” 4. Atharva-Veda “Knowledge of the Magic formulas”
  6. 6. The RIG-VEDA “Wisdom of the Verses” Rig Veda consists of 10,552 verses (collected into 10 books) of hymns and mantras used by the hotri priests. The hymns of the Rig Veda focus on pleasing the principal gods Indra (war, wind and rain), Agni (the sacrificial fire), Surga (the sun) and Varuna (the cosmic order) through ritual sacrifices. the Vedic gods also forgive wrongdoing and mete out justice in the afterlife.
  7. 7. The SAMA-VEDA "Wisdom of the Chants” liturgical works consisting primarily of selections from the Rig Veda. Sama Veda was chanted in fixed melodies by the adhvaryu priests. Each contain about 2,000 verses.
  8. 8. The YAJUR-VEDA “Wisdom of the Sacrifical Formulas" liturgical works consisting primarily of selections from the Rig Veda. The Yajur Veda was used by udgatri priests and contains brief prose to accompany ritual acts, many of which are addressed to the ritual instruments and offerings.
  9. 9. The ATHARVA-VEDA “Wisdom of the Sacrifical Formulas" Was added significantly later than the first three Samhitas, perhaps as late as 500 BC. It consists of 20 books of hymns and prose, many of which reflect the religious concerns of everyday life. This sets the Arharva Veda apart from the other Vedas, which focus on adoring the gods and performing the liturgy of sacrifice, and makes it an important source of information on the practical religion and magic of the time.
  10. 10. UPANISHADS
  11. 11. The term Upanishad means literally "those who sit near". Upa- near, ni- down, sad- to sit: Sitting near the teacher
  12. 12. • Collected by several seers and elders between 800-500 BCE, the Upanishads are a conclusion and accomplishment of an previous form of Hindu sacred texts called the Vedas. • Upanishads are Vedanta: End of the Vedas
  13. 13. Most Important Upanishads • Isa • Kena • Katha • Prasna • Mundaka • Mandukya • Taittiriya • Aitareya • Chandogya • Brhadaranyaka • Svetasvatara • Kausitaki • Mahanarayana • Maitri
  14. 14. • Human intellect is not an adequate tool to understand the immense complexity of reality. • The Upanishads do not claim that our brain is entirely useless; it certainly has its use. • The highest understanding, according to this view, comes from direct perception and intuition.
  15. 15. SAMSARA The concept of Samsara is reincarnation, the idea that after we die our soul will be reborn again in another body.
  16. 16. Karma • Karma, which literally means “action”, the idea that all actions have consequences, good or bad. • Karma determines the conditions of the next life, just like our life is conditioned by our previous karma. • There is no judgment or forgiveness, simply an impersonal, natural and eternal law operating in the universe.
  17. 17. Dharma •Dharma means “right behavior” or “duty”, the idea that we all have a social obligation. •Each member of a specific caste has a particular set of responsibilities, a dharma. •For example, among the Kshatriyas (the warrior caste), it was considered a sin to die in bed; dying in the battlefield was the highest honor they could aim for.
  18. 18. Moksha •Moksha means “liberation” or release. •The eternal cycle of deaths and resurrection can be seen as a pointless repetition with no ultimate goal attached to it. •Seeking permanent peace or freedom from suffering seems impossible, for sooner or later we will be reborn in worse circumstances.
  19. 19. The Upanishads tell us that the core of our own self is not the body, or the mind, but atman or “Self”.
  20. 20. Brahman is the one underlying substance of the universe, the unchanging “Absolute Being”, the intangible essence of the entire existence.
  21. 21. References Beck, S. (1998-2004). India and Southeast Asia to 1800. Vedas and Upanishads. Retrieved from Das, S. and Sadasivan, M. (2014). The Vedas: An Introduction. What are Vedas? Retrieved from El Despertar Sai (2010, March 8). Vedas, Sastras, Poojas and Homas. Retrieved from Violatti, C. (2014, May 4). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Upanishads. Retrieved from Violatti, C. (2014, May 4). Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Vedas. Retrieved from

Editor's Notes

  • and implies listening closely to the secret doctrines of a spiritual teacher
  • Although there are over 200 surviving Upanishads, only 14 are considered to be the most important. 
  • The purpose is not so much instruction as inspiration: they are meant to be expounded by an illuminated teacher from the basis of personal experience. In fact, one of the first lessons that we learn in the Upanishads is the inadequacy of the intellect.
  • Even though the Upanishads do not offer a single comprehensive system of thought, they do develop some basic general principles. Some of these principles are Samsara, Karma, Dharma and Moksha. 

    Perhaps in an animal, perhaps as a human, perhaps as a god, but always in a regular cycle of deaths and resurrections.
  • Those who do good will be reborn in better conditions while those who are evil will be reborn in worse conditions.
  • In other words, dharma encouraged people of different social groups to perform their duties the best they could.
  • Moksha is the liberation from this never ending cycle of reincarnation, a way to escape this repetition.
  • Atman is the core of all creatures, their innermost essence. It can only be perceived by direct experience through meditation. It is when we are at the deepest level of our existence.